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Immune complex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454269/bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-under-influence-of-experimental-breast-cancer-and-physical-activity
#1
Douglas R Abdalla, Bruno B M Gomes, Eddie F C Murta, Márcia A Michelin
Immune cells are required in the immune response against tumours, although sometimes without success. The present study aimed to investigate dendritic cell (DC) maturation in animals with induced immunosuppression that were subjected to physical activity (PA). Immunosuppression was induced using 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA). A total of 56 Balb/c mice were divided into four groups, including the control group, non-DMBA administered/PA group (GII), DMBA administered/non-PA group (GIII) and the DMBA administered/PA group (GIV)...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453927/tir-domain-containing-adapter-inducing-interferon-%C3%AE-trif-forms-filamentous-structures-whose-pro-apoptotic-signalling-is-terminated-by-autophagy
#2
I E Gentle, K T McHenry, A Weber, A Metz, O Kretz, D Porter, G Häcker
The formation of amyloid-like protein structures has recently emerged as a feature in signal transduction, particularly in innate immunity. These structures appear to depend on defined domains for their formation but likely also require dedicated ways to terminate signalling. We here define the innate immunity protein/Toll-like receptor adaptor TRIF as a novel platform of fibril formation and probe signal initiation through TRIF as well as its termination in toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-stimulated melanoma cells...
April 28, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453846/no-interactive-effects-of-sex-and-persistent-cytomegalovirus-on-immune-phenotypes-in-young-children-the-generation-r-study
#3
Michelle A E Jansen, Diana van den Heuvel, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Henriette A Moll, Menno C van Zelm
Persistent infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) differentially affect the host immune phenotype in middle-aged males and females. Because CMV already impacts on T-cell memory at a young age, we studied whether these effects were modified by sex in 1,079 children with an average age of 6 years. Sex and CMV independently impacted on multiple B-cell and T-cell subsets. However, there was no significant effect of their interaction. Importantly, the effects of sex and CMV were in part explained by age and infection with other herpesviruses...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453652/mhc-b-variability-within-the-finnish-landrace-chicken-conservation-program
#4
J E Fulton, M E Berres, J Kantanen, M Honkatukia
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cluster of genes involved with immune responses. The chicken MHC has been shown to influence resistance to viruses, bacteria, and infections from both internal and external parasites. The highly variable chicken MHC haplotypes were initially identified by the use of haplotype-specific serological reagents. A novel SNP-based panel encompassing 210,000 bp of the MHC-B locus was developed to allow fine scale genetic analyses including rapid identification of novel haplotypes for which serological reagents are not available...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453304/mold-allergy-is-it-real-and-what-do-we-do-about-it
#5
Amanda Rudert, Jay Portnoy
Fungi produce substances that contain pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which bind to pattern recognition receptors, stimulating innate immune responses in humans. They also produce allergens that induce production of specific IgE. Areas Covered: In this review we cover both innate and adaptive immune responses to fungi. Some fungal products can activate both innate and adaptive responses and in doing so, cause an intense and complex health effects...
April 28, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449211/operational-tolerance-in-kidney-transplantation-and-associated-biomarkers
#6
REVIEW
Annick Massart, Lidia Ghisdal, Marc Abramowicz, Daniel Abramowicz
In the 1960s, our predecessors won a historical battle against acute rejection and ensured that transplantation became a common life-saving treatment. In parallel to this success, or perhaps because of it, we lost the battle for long-lived transplants, being overwhelmed with chronic immune insults and the toxicities of immunosuppression. It is likely that current powerful treatments block acute rejection, but at the same time condemn the few circulating donor cells that would have been able to elicit immunoregulatory host responses towards the allograft...
April 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449072/functions-of-galectins-as-self-non-self-recognition-and-effector-factors
#7
Gerardo R Vasta, Chiguang Feng, Nuria González-Montalbán, Justin Mancini, Lishi Yang, Kelsey Abernathy, Graeme Frost, Cheyenne Palm
Carbohydrate structures on the cell surface encode complex information that through specific recognition by carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins), modulates interactions between cells, cells and the extracellular matrix, or mediates recognition of potential microbial pathogens. Galectins are a family of ß-galactoside-binding lectins, which are evolutionary conserved and have been identified in most organisms, from fungi to invertebrates and vertebrates, including mammals. Since their discovery in the 1970s, their biological roles, initially understood as limited to recognition of endogenous carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis and development, have expanded in recent years by the discovery of their roles in tissue repair and regulation of immune homeostasis...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448952/sepsis-and-septic-shock-pathogenesis-and-treatment-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Hayk Minasyan
The majority of bacteremias do not develop to sepsis: bacteria are cleared from the bloodstream. Oxygen released from erythrocytes and humoral immunity kill bacteria in the bloodstream. Sepsis develops if bacteria are resistant to oxidation and proliferate in erythrocytes. Bacteria provoke oxygen release from erythrocytes to arterial blood. Abundant release of oxygen to the plasma triggers a cascade of events that cause: 1. oxygen delivery failure to cells; 2. oxidation of plasma components that impairs humoral regulation and inactivates immune complexes; 3...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448849/regulation-of-the-human-papillomavirus-type-16-late-promoter-by-transcriptional-elongation
#9
William K Songock, Matthew L Scott, Jason M Bodily
Transcripts from the late promoter of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are upregulated upon host cell differentiation. Differentiation-dependent transcript regulation is thought to sequester viral antigens in the uppermost epithelial layers, facilitating immune evasion. The mechanisms regulating late promoter upregulation during differentiation are poorly characterized. We show that the late promoter is upregulated at the transcriptional level and that the viral enhancer stimulates promoter activity. Using kinase inhibition and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we show evidence for differentiation-dependent enhancement of transcript elongation...
April 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448627/engineering-chimeric-human-and-mouse-major-histocompatibility-complex-mhc-class-i-tetramers-for-the-production-of-t-cell-receptor-tcr-mimic-antibodies
#10
Demin Li, Carol Bentley, Jenna Yates, Maryam Salimi, Jenny Greig, Sarah Wiblin, Tasneem Hassanali, Alison H Banham
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting cell surface or secreted antigens are among the most effective classes of novel immunotherapies. However, the majority of human proteins and established cancer biomarkers are intracellular. Peptides derived from these intracellular proteins are presented on the cell surface by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and can be targeted by a novel class of T-cell receptor mimic (TCRm) antibodies that recognise similar epitopes to T-cell receptors. Humoural immune responses to MHC-I tetramers rarely generate TCRm antibodies and many antibodies recognise the α3 domain of MHC-I and β2 microglobulin (β2m) that are not directly involved in presenting the target peptide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448494/integrin-%C3%AE-1-activation-induces-an-anti-melanoma-host-response
#11
Laila Ritsma, Ipsita Dey-Guha, Nilesh Talele, Xavier Sole, Salony, Joeeta Chowdhury, Kenneth N Ross, Sridhar Ramaswamy
TGF-β is a cytokine thought to function as a tumor promoter in advanced malignancies. In this setting, TGF-β increases cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration, and orchestrates complex, pro-tumorigenic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we find that in melanoma, integrin β1-mediated TGF-β activation may also produce tumor suppression via an altered host response. In the A375 human melanoma cell nu/nu xenograft model, we demonstrate that cell surface integrin β1-activation increases TGF-β activity, resulting in stromal activation, neo-angiogenesis and, unexpectedly for this nude mouse model, increase in the number of intra-tumoral CD8+ T lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448066/structural-basis-of-crispr-spycas9-inhibition-by-an-anti-crispr-protein
#12
De Dong, Minghui Guo, Sihan Wang, Yuwei Zhu, Shuo Wang, Zhi Xiong, Jianzheng Yang, Zengliang Xu, Zhiwei Huang
The CRISPR-Cas9 systems are bacterial encoded adaptive immune systems to defend against phages infection, through RNA-guided endonuclease activity of Cas9 to degrade double-stranded DNA bearing a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and complementary sequences to the guide RNA1,2,3,4,5. Recently, two anti-CRISPR proteins AcrIIA2 and AcrIIA4 from Listeria monocytogenes (Lmo) prophages have been identified, both of which potently inhibit Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) and LmoCas9 activity in bacteria and human cells6...
April 27, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448013/precision-cut-mouse-lung-slices-to-visualize-live-pulmonary-dendritic-cells
#13
Miranda R Lyons-Cohen, Seddon Y Thomas, Donald N Cook, Hideki Nakano
Inhalation of allergens and pathogens elicits multiple changes in a variety of immune cell types in the lung. Flow cytometry is a powerful technique for quantitative analysis of cell surface proteins on immune cells, but it provides no information on the localization and migration patterns of these cells within the lung. Similarly, chemotaxis assays can be performed to study the potential of cells to respond to chemotactic factors in vitro, but these assays do not reproduce the complex environment of the intact lung...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447981/isolation-characterization-and-purification-of-macrophages-from-tissues-affected-by-obesity-related-inflammation
#14
Joselyn N Allen, Adwitia Dey, Ruth Nissly, James Fraser, Shan Yu, Gayathri Balandaram, Jeffrey M Peters, Pamela A Hankey-Giblin
Obesity promotes a chronic inflammatory state that is largely mediated by tissue-resident macrophages as well as monocyte-derived macrophages. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a valuable model in studying the role of macrophage heterogeneity; however, adequate macrophage isolations are difficult to acquire from inflamed tissues. In this protocol, we outline the isolation steps and necessary troubleshooting guidelines derived from our studies for obtaining a suitable population of tissue-resident macrophages from mice following 18 weeks of high-fat (HFD) or high-fat/high-cholesterol (HFHCD) diet intervention...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446810/pathogenesis-of-ankylosing-spondylitis-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Vidya Ranganathan, Eric Gracey, Matthew A Brown, Robert D Inman, Nigil Haroon
Over the past 5 years, advances in high-throughput techniques and studies involving large cohorts of patients have led to considerable advances in the identification of novel genetic associations and immune pathways involved in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). These discoveries include genes encoding cytokine receptors, transcription factors, signalling molecules and transport proteins. Although progress has been made in understanding the functions and potential pathogenic roles of some of these molecules, much work remains to be done to comprehend their complex interactions and therapeutic potential in AS...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446692/linking-species-habitat-and-past-palaeoclimatic-events-to-evolution-of-the-teleost-innate-immune-system
#16
Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Kjetil Lysne Voje, Kjetill Sigurd Jakobsen, Sissel Jentoft
Host-intrinsic factors as well as environmental changes are known to be strong evolutionary drivers defining the genetic foundation of immunity. Using a novel set of teleost genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny, we here investigate the family of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes and address the underlying evolutionary processes shaping the diversity of the first-line defence. Our findings reveal remarkable flexibility within the evolutionary design of teleost innate immunity characterized by prominent TLR gene losses and expansions...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446680/non-structural-protein-l-species-specificity-supports-a-mouse-origin-for-vilyuisk-human-encephalitis-virus
#17
Melissa Drappier, Fred R Opperdoes, Thomas Michiels
Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV) is a picornavirus related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). VHEV was isolated from human material passaged in mice. Whether this VHEV is from human or mouse origin is therefore unclear. We took advantage of the species-specific activity of the non-structural L* protein of theiloviruses to track the origin of TMEV isolates. TMEV L* inhibits RNase L, the effector enzyme of the interferon pathway. Using co-immunoprecipitation and functional RNase L assays, the species-specificity of RNase L antagonism was tested for L* from a mouse (DA) and a rat (RTV-1) TMEV strain as well as for VHEV...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446226/xenotransplantation-of-interferon-gamma-pretreated-clumps-of-a-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-extracellular-matrix-complex-induces-mouse-calvarial-bone-regeneration
#18
Kei Takeshita, Souta Motoike, Mikihito Kajiya, Nao Komatsu, Manabu Takewaki, Kazuhisa Ouhara, Tomoyuki Iwata, Katsuhiro Takeda, Noriyoshi Mizuno, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Hidemi Kurihara
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional cultured clumps of a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)/extracellular matrix (ECM) complex (C-MSC) consists of cells and self-produced ECM. C-MSC can regulate the cellular function in vitro and induce successful bone regeneration using ECM as a cell scaffold. Potentiating the immunomodulatory capacity of C-MSCs, which can ameliorate the allo-specific immune response, may be helpful in developing beneficial "off-the-shelf" cell therapy for tissue regeneration. It is well reported that interferon (IFN)-γ stimulates the immunosuppressive properties of MSC via upregulation of the immunomodulatory enzyme IDO...
April 26, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446202/analyzing-the-genes-related-to-alzheimer-s-disease-via-a-network-and-pathway-based-approach
#19
Yan-Shi Hu, Juncai Xin, Ying Hu, Lei Zhang, Ju Wang
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains incomplete. Previous studies have revealed that genetic factors provide a significant contribution to the pathogenesis and development of AD. In the past years, numerous genes implicated in this disease have been identified via genetic association studies on candidate genes or at the genome-wide level. However, in many cases, the roles of these genes and their interactions in AD are still unclear...
April 27, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445962/psma-homing-dsrna-chimeric-protein-vector-kills-prostate-cancer-cells-and-activates-anti-tumor-bystander-responses
#20
Yael Langut, Nufar Edinger, Efrat Flashner-Abramson, Naomi Melamed-Book, Mario Lebendiker, Yael Levi-Kalisman, Shoshana Klein, Alexander Levitzki
The treatment of metastatic androgen-resistant prostate cancer remains a challenge. We describe a protein vector that selectively delivers synthetic dsRNA, polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid (polyIC), to prostate tumors by targeting prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is overexpressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells.The chimeric protein is built from the double stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domain of PKR tethered to a single chain anti-PSMA antibody. When complexed with polyIC, the chimera demonstrates selective and efficient killing of prostate cancer cells...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
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