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Immune complex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214992/data-mining-in-hiv-aids-surveillance-system-application-to-portuguese-data
#1
Alexandra Oliveira, Brígida Mónica Faria, A Rita Gaio, Luís Paulo Reis
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an infectious agent that attacks the immune system cells. Without a strong immune system, the body becomes very susceptible to serious life threatening opportunistic diseases. In spite of the great progresses on medication and prevention over the last years, HIV infection continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 36 million lives over the last 35 years since the recognition of the disease. Monitoring, through registries, of HIV-AIDS cases is vital to assess general health care needs and to support long-term health-policy control planning...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214974/interaction-of-scots-pine-defensin-with-model-membrane-by-coarse-grained-molecular-dynamics
#2
Elena Ermakova, Yuriy Zuev
Plant defensins are a part of the innate immune system of plants that acts against a broad range of pathogens. Many plant defensins, including pine defensins, show strong antifungal activity that is associated with their ability to penetrate into the fungal cell membrane. However, the exact molecular mechanism of their action remains poorly defined. To obtain insight into the mechanism of protein-membrane interaction, we applied a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation to study the interaction of pine defensin with two model membranes: the first consisted of zwitterion-neutral POPC molecules and the second was composed of combined anionic POPG and POPC...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214886/adenovirus-vector-harboring-the-hbcag-and-tripeptidyl-peptidase-ii-genes-induces-potent-cellular-immune-responses-in-vivo
#3
Quanhui Tan, Siyuan Ma, Jianjun Hu, Xiaohua Chen, Yongsheng Yu, Zhenghao Tang, Guoqin Zang
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with a weak but specific cellular immune response of the host to HBV. Tripeptidyl peptidaseⅡ (TPPⅡ), an intracellular macromolecule and proteolytic enzyme, plays an important complementary and compensatory role for the proteasome during viral protein degradation and major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation by inducing a specific cellular immune response in vivo. Based on a previous study, we aimed to explore the role of MHC class I antigen presentation in vivo and the mechanisms that may be involved...
January 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214857/epigenetic-alterations-in-cellular-immunity-new-insights-into-autoimmune-diseases
#4
Zijun Wang, Qianjin Lu, Zhihui Wang
Epigenetic modification is an additional regulator in immune responses as the genome-wide profiling somehow fails to explain the sophisticated mechanisms in autoimmune diseases. The effect of epigenetic modifications on adaptive immunity derives from their regulations to induce a permissive or negative gene expression. Epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) are often found in T cell activation, differentiation and commitment which are the major parts in cellular immunity...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214833/nogo-b-facilitates-lps-mediated-immune-responses-by-up-regulation-of-tlr4-signaling-in-macrophage-raw264-7
#5
Ying Zhu, Qiang Tong, Jia Ye, Yunye Ning, Ye Xiong, Meng Yang, Hua Xiao, Jian Lu, Wujian Xu, Jiandong Li, Qiang Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nogo-B, a member of the reticulon family of proteins, is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we investigate the function and mechanism of Nogo-B in the regulation of TLR4-associated immune responses in the macrophage cell line of RAW264.7. METHODS: Nogo-B was up- and down-regulated through the use of appropriate adenoviral vectors or siRNA, and the effects of Nogo-B on macrophages under liposaccharide (LPS) stimulation were evaluated via western blotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometric analysis, and transwell assay...
January 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214650/2-methoxyestradiol-protects-against-igg-immune-complex-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-blocking-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-activities
#6
Chunguang Yan, Yanfei Shen, Qiqing Sun, Dong Yuan, Huifang Tang, Hongwei Gao
Increasing evidences indicate that 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) plays an essential role in protecting against inflammatory responses. However, its effect on IgG immune complex (IC)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains enigmatic. In the study, by using i.p. administration of 2ME2, we evaluated its influence on IgG IC-induced pulmonary injury in mice. We found that during IgG IC-induced ALI, mice treated by 2ME2 displayed a substantial decrease in vascular permeability and neutrophil influx (represented by myeloperoxidase activity) when compared with their counterparts receiving vehicle treatment...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214467/paxillin-a-crossroad-in-pathological-cell-migration
#7
REVIEW
Ana María López-Colomé, Irene Lee-Rivera, Regina Benavides-Hidalgo, Edith López
Paxilllin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adapter protein which serves an important scaffolding role at focal adhesions by recruiting structural and signaling molecules involved in cell movement and migration, when phosphorylated on specific Tyr and Ser residues. Upon integrin engagement with extracellular matrix, paxillin is phosphorylated at Tyr31, Tyr118, Ser188, and Ser190, activating numerous signaling cascades which promote cell migration, indicating that the regulation of adhesion dynamics is under the control of a complex display of signaling mechanisms...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214377/reciprocal-translocation-of-small-numbers-of-inbred-individuals-rescues-immunogenetic-diversity
#8
Catherine E Grueber, Jolene T Sutton, Sol Heber, James V Briskie, Ian G Jamieson, Bruce C Robertson
Genetic rescue can reduce inbreeding depression and increase fitness of small populations, even when the donor populations are highly inbred. In a recent experiment involving two inbred island populations of the South Island robin, Petroica australis, reciprocal translocations improved microsatellite diversity and individual fitness. While microsatellite loci may reflect patterns of genome-wide diversity, they generally do not indicate the specific genetic regions responsible for increased fitness. We tested the effectiveness of this reciprocal translocation for rescuing diversity of two immunogenetic regions: toll-like receptor (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214358/the-n-terminus-of-cgas-de-oligomerizes-the-cgas-dna-complex-and-lifts-the-dna-size-restriction-of-core-cgas-activity
#9
Arum Lee, Eun-Byeol Park, Janghyun Lee, Byong-Seok Choi, Suk-Jo Kang
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a DNA-sensing enzyme in the innate immune system. Recent studies using core-cGAS lacking the N-terminus investigated the mechanism for binding of double-stranded (ds) DNA and synthesis of 2',3'-cGAMP, a secondary messenger that ultimately induces type I interferons. However, the function of the N-terminus of cGAS remains largely unknown. Here, we found that the N-terminus enhanced the activity of core-cGAS in vivo. Importantly, the catalytic activity of core-cGAS decreased as the length of dsDNA increased, but the diminished activity was restored by addition of the N-terminus...
February 18, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214177/dendritic-cells-in-host-response-to-biologic-scaffolds
#10
REVIEW
Cynthia A Leifer
Tissue regeneration and repair require a highly complex and orchestrated series of events that require inflammation, but can be compromised when inflammation is excessive or becomes chronic. Macrophages are one of the first cells to contact and respond to implanted materials, and mediate the inflammatory response. The series of events following macrophage association with biomaterials has been well-studied. Dendritic cells (DCs) also directly interact with biomaterials, are critical for specific immune responses, and can be activated in response to interactions with biomaterials...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213784/microglia-in-the-primate-macula-specializations-in-microglial-distribution-and-morphology-with-retinal-position-and-with-aging
#11
Janani Singaravelu, Lian Zhao, Robert N Fariss, T Michael Nork, Wai T Wong
Microglia, the principal resident immune cell in the retina, play constitutive roles in immune surveillance and synapse maintenance, and are also associated with retinal disease, including those occurring in the macula. Perspectives on retinal microglia function have derived largely from rodent models and how these relate to the macula-bearing primate retina is unclear. In this study, we examined microglial distribution and cellular morphology in the adult rhesus macaque retina, and performed comparative characterizations in three retinal locations along the center-to-periphery axis (parafoveal, macular, and the peripheral retina)...
February 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212890/annexin-a1-influences-in-breast-cancer-controversies-on-contributions-to-tumour-host-and-immunoediting-processes
#12
REVIEW
Yan Tu, Cameron N Johnstone, Alastair G Stewart
Annexin A1 is a multifunctional protein characterised by its actions in modulating the innate and adaptive immune response. Accumulating evidence of altered annexin A1 expression in many human tumours raises interest in its functional role in cancer biology. In breast cancer, altered annexin A1 expression levels suggest a potential influence on tumorigenic and metastatic processes. However, reports of conflicting results reveal a relationship that is much more complex than first conceptualised. In this review, we explore the diverse actions of annexin A1 on breast tumour cells and various host cell types, including stromal immune and structural cells, particularly in the context of cancer immunoediting...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212788/immunology-of-alveolar-and%C3%A2-cystic-echinococcosis-ae-and-ce
#13
B Gottstein, P Soboslay, E Ortona, J Wang, A Siracusano, D Α Vuitton
Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are severe chronic helminthic diseases caused by the cystic growth or the intrahepatic tumour-like growth of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively. Both parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape host immune responses, mainly by manipulating and directing this immune response towards anergy and/or tolerance. Recent research studies have revealed a number of respective immunoregulatory mechanisms related to macrophages and dendritic cell as well as T cell activities (regulatory T cells, Tregs)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212332/type-1-diabetes-candidate-genes-linked-to-pancreatic-islet-cell-inflammation-and-beta-cell-apoptosis
#14
REVIEW
Joachim Størling, Flemming Pociot
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic immune-mediated disease resulting from the selective destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells. Susceptibility to the disease is the result of complex interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 50 genetic regions that affect the risk of developing T1D. Most of these susceptibility loci, however, harbor several genes, and the causal variant(s) and gene(s) for most of the loci remain to be established...
February 16, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212305/epigenetic-landscape-during-coronavirus-infection
#15
Alexandra Schäfer, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus-host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212158/an-integrated-understanding-of-the-immunology-of-allograft-inflammation
#16
Brenna Houlihan, Priscilla Cha, Michael Zasloff, Thomas M Fishbein, Alexander Kroemer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the complex immunology of intestinal transplantation and allograft rejection. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings highlight the importance of the intestinal microbiome for intestinal homeostasis and the role of newly discovered innate lymphoid cells in intestinal transplantation. In addition, the role of host antimicrobial Th17 responses in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal allograft rejection has been further elucidated...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211965/first-synthesis-of-an-oridonin-conjugated-iridium-iii-complex-for-the-intracellular-tracking-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-living-cells
#17
Wanhe Wang, Chao Yang, Sheng Lin, Kasipandi Vellaisamy, Guodong Li, Weihong Tan, Chung-Hang Leung, Dik-Lung Ma
NF-κB is a critical transcription factor that plays an important role in mediating inflammation, the immune response, and cell proliferation. The activation of NF-κB leads to an enhancement of proinflammatory mediator expression, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Therefore, methods that allow the intracellular tracking of NF-κB are particularly attractive as they can provide information regarding the pathways or stimulation responses that are involved in the activation of NF-κB...
February 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211812/recent-progress-in-alzheimer-s-disease-research-part-2-genetics-and-epidemiology
#18
Morgan Robinson, Brenda Y Lee, Francis T Hane
This is the second part of a three-part review series reviewing the most important advances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research since 2010. This review covers the latest research on genetics and epidemiology. Epidemiological and genetic studies are revealing important insights into the etiology of, and factors that contribute to AD, as well as areas of priority for research into mechanisms and interventions. The widespread adoption of genome wide association studies has provided compelling evidence of the genetic complexity of AD with genes associated with such diverse physiological function as immunity and lipid metabolism being implicated in AD pathogenesis...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211542/identification-of-the-core-regulators-of-the-hla-i-peptide-binding-process
#19
Yu-Hang Zhang, Zhihao Xing, Chenglin Liu, ShaoPeng Wang, Tao Huang, Yu-Dong Cai, Xiangyin Kong
During the display of peptide/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -I complex for further immune recognition, the cleaved and transported antigenic peptides have to bind to HLA-I protein and the binding affinity between peptide epitopes and HLA proteins directly influences the immune recognition ability in human beings. Key factors affecting the binding affinity during the generation, selection and presentation processes of HLA-I complex have not yet been fully discovered. In this study, a new method describing the HLA class I-peptide interactions was proposed...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211522/structure-and-polymorphisms-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-in-the-oriental-stork-ciconia-boyciana
#20
Hiroki Tsuji, Yukio Taniguchi, Shintaro Ishizuka, Hirokazu Matsuda, Takahisa Yamada, Kazuaki Naito, Hiroaki Iwaisaki
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is highly polymorphic and plays a central role in the vertebrate immune system. Despite its functional consistency, the MHC genomic structure differs substantially among organisms. In birds, the MHCs of Galliformes and the Japanese crested ibis (Pelecaniformes) are well-characterized, but information about other avian MHCs remains scarce. The Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana, order Ciconiiformes) is a large endangered migrant. The current Japanese population of this bird originates from a few founders; thus, understanding the genetic diversity among them is critical for effective population management...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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