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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719602/prehospital-immune-responses-and-development-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-following-traumatic-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Jon Hazeldine, David N Naumann, Emma Toman, David Davies, Jonathan R B Bishop, Zhangjie Su, Peter Hampson, Robert J Dinsdale, Nicholas Crombie, Niharika Arora Duggal, Paul Harrison, Antonio Belli, Janet M Lord
BACKGROUND: Almost all studies that have investigated the immune response to trauma have analysed blood samples acquired post-hospital admission. Thus, we know little of the immune status of patients in the immediate postinjury phase and how this might influence patient outcomes. The objective of this study was therefore to comprehensively assess the ultra-early, within 1-hour, immune response to trauma and perform an exploratory analysis of its relationship with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719573/crystalline-metamaterials-for-topological-properties-at-subwavelength-scales
#2
Simon Yves, Romain Fleury, Thomas Berthelot, Mathias Fink, Fabrice Lemoult, Geoffroy Lerosey
The exciting discovery of topological condensed matter systems has lately triggered a search for their photonic analogues, motivated by the possibility of robust backscattering-immune light transport. However, topological photonic phases have so far only been observed in photonic crystals and waveguide arrays, which are inherently physically wavelength scaled, hindering their application in compact subwavelength systems. In this letter, we tackle this problem by patterning the deep subwavelength resonant elements of metamaterials onto specific lattices, and create crystalline metamaterials that can develop complex nonlocal properties due to multiple scattering, despite their very subwavelength spatial scale that usually implies to disregard their structure...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719435/leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-and-dermal-perivascular-hemophagocytosis-associated-with-adalimumab-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Jun Muto, Jun Usami, Daisuke Watanabe
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors target TNF-α to effectively treat autoimmune inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, many cases of cutaneous and systemic vasculitis related to TNF-α inhibitors have been reported in the literature. Here, the authors report the first case of a 61-year-old Japanese woman who developed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with cutaneous perivascular hemophagocytosis, which was related to elevated cytokines and immune complexes after initiating adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis without evidence of hemophagocytic syndrome and rarely encountered in the skin...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719181/differential-ligand-binding-specificities-of-the-pulmonary-collectins-are-determined-by-the-conformational-freedom-of-a-surface-loop
#4
Michael J Rynkiewicz, Huixing Wu, Tanya R Cafarella, Nikolaos M Nikolaidis, James Frederick Head, Barbara A Seaton, Francis X McCormack
Lung surfactant proteins (SP) play critical roles in surfactant function and innate immunity. SP-A and SP-D, members of the collectin family of C-type lectins, exhibit distinct ligand specificities, effects on surfactant structure, and host defense functions despite extensive structural homology. SP-A binds to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major surfactant lipid component, but not phosphatidylinositol (PI), whereas SP-D shows the opposite preference. Additionally, SP-A and SP-D recognize widely divergent pathogen-associated molecular patterns...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#5
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718965/long-term-effects-galectin-1-and-specific-immunotherapy-for-allergic-responses-in-the-intestine
#6
Li-Tao Yang, Qing Shu, Xiang-Qian Luo, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Shu-Qi Qiu, Jiang-Qi Liu, Hai-Jian Guo, Lin-Jing Li, Mao-Gang Li, Da-Bo Liu, Li-Xin Xia, Zhi-Gang Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mast cell activation interferes with the effects of allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is capable of regulating immune cells' functions. This study tests the hypothesis that administration of Gal-1 promotes and prolongs the efficacy of SIT via suppressing mast cell activation. METHODS: An intestinal allergy mouse model was developed. The co-administration of SIT and Gal-1 on suppression of the allergic responses, prevention of mast cell activation, and generation of antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Treg) in the intestine were observed in sensitized mice...
July 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718816/complex-dna-damage-a-route-to-radiation-induced-genomic-instability-and-carcinogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Ifigeneia V Mavragani, Zacharenia Nikitaki, Maria P Souli, Asef Aziz, Somaira Nowsheen, Khaled Aziz, Emmy Rogakou, Alexandros G Georgakilas
Cellular effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are of great variety and level, but they are mainly damaging since radiation can perturb all important components of the cell, from the membrane to the nucleus, due to alteration of different biological molecules ranging from lipids to proteins or DNA. Regarding DNA damage, which is the main focus of this review, as well as its repair, all current knowledge indicates that IR-induced DNA damage is always more complex than the corresponding endogenous damage resulting from endogenous oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718444/tumor-host-cell-interactions-in-ovarian-cancer-pathways-to-therapy-failure
#8
REVIEW
Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Silke Reinartz, Uwe Wager, Rolf Müller
Although most ovarian cancer patients are highly responsive to chemotherapy, they frequently present with recurrent metastatic lesions that result in poor overall survival, a situation that has not changed in the last 20 years. This review discusses new insights into the regulation of ovarian cancer chemoresistance with a focus on the emerging role of immune and other host cells. Here, we summarize the complex molecular pathways that regulate the interaction between tumor and host cells, discuss the limitations of current in vitro and in vivo models for translational studies, and present perspectives for the development of innovative therapies...
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718424/targeted-therapy-and-immunosuppression-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#9
REVIEW
Michael J Allegrezza, Jose R Conejo-Garcia
Small-molecule inhibitors offer great promise for targeting pathways that are specifically deregulated in different tumors. However, such 'targeted' therapies also elicit poorly understood effects on protective antitumor immunity. Given the emerging relevance of immunotherapies that boost pre-existing T cell responses, understanding how different immune cells are affected by small-molecule inhibitors could lead to more-effective interventions, alone or combined with immunotherapy. This review discusses the growing array of activities elicited by multiple 'targeted' inhibitors on antitumor immunity, underscoring the complex effects resulting from diverse activities on different immune cell types in vivo, and the need to conduct mechanistic research that identifies drugs performing well not only in immunocompromised mice but also in the presence of spontaneous or therapeutic antitumor immunity...
January 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718065/structure-function-relationships-of-protein-lipopeptide-complexes-and-influence-on-immunogenicity
#10
Acep R Wijayadikusumah, Lucy C Sullivan, David C Jackson, Brendon Y Chua
The lipopeptide, R4Pam2Cys, associates electrostatically with soluble protein antigens and significantly enhances their ability to induce protective humoral and cell-mediated responses. We demonstrate that antibody titers elicited by the antigen ovalbumin (OVA) associated with R4Pam2Cys are higher than those elicited by OVA in the presence of alum and comparable to those elicited by OVA formulated with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The hierarchy of anti-OVA antibody avidities was CFA > R4Pam2Cys = alum...
July 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718063/new-insights-on-platelets-and-platelet-derived-microparticles-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#11
REVIEW
Marc Scherlinger, Vanja Sisirak, Christophe Richez, Estibaliz Lazaro, Pierre Duffau, Patrick Blanco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current knowledge on the role of platelets and platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) on the immune system has been fast-growing. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic auto-immune disorder characterized by a loss of tolerance toward nuclear auto-antigens. Although recent studies allowed a better understanding of SLE pathogenesis, there is an urgent need for the development of new treatments and the identification of new biomarkers to assess the disease activity...
August 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718060/innate-immune-responses-and-osteoarthritis
#12
REVIEW
Evangelia Kalaitzoglou, Timothy M Griffin, Mary Beth Humphrey
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful joint disease that affects approximately 40% of adults over 70 year. Age is the strongest predictor of OA, while obesity is considered the primary preventable risk factor for OA. Both conditions are associated with abnormal innate immune inflammatory responses that contribute to OA progression and are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified risk factors for OA progression including increased innate immune responses secondary to aging-associated myeloid skewing, obesity-related myeloid activation, and synovial tissue hyperplasia with activated macrophage infiltration...
August 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717940/alopecia-areata-a-comprehensive-review-of-pathogenesis-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Ralph M Trüeb, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni Dias
Alopecia areata is a common hair loss condition that is characterized by acute onset of non-scarring hair loss in usually sharply defined areas ranging from small patches to extensive or less frequently diffuse involvement. Depending on its acuity and extent, hair loss is an important cause of anxiety and disability. The current understanding is that the condition represents an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the hair follicle with a genetic background. Genome-wide association studies provide evidence for the involvement of both innate and acquired immunity in the pathogenesis, and mechanistic studies in mouse models of alopecia areata have specifically implicated an IFN-γ-driven immune response, including IFNγ, IFNγ-induced chemokines and cytotoxic CD8 T cells as the main drivers of disease pathogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717398/preclinical-evaluation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-triggered-dendritic-cells-expressing-the-viral-oncogenic-driver-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-for-therapeutic-vaccination
#14
Kerstin F Gerer, Michael Erdmann, Sine R Hadrup, Rikke Lyngaa, Lena-Marie Martin, Reinhard E Voll, Beatrice Schuler-Thurner, Gerold Schuler, Niels Schaft, Stefanie Hoyer, Jan Dörrie
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but very aggressive skin tumor that develops after integration of a truncated form of the large T-antigen (truncLT) of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) into the host's genome. Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor antigens is an active form of immunotherapy, which intends to direct the immune system towards tumors which express the respective vaccination antigens. METHODS: Cytokine-matured monocyte-derived DCs of healthy donors and MCC patients were electroporated with mRNA encoding the truncLT...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717359/the-c-terminal-effector-domain-of-non-structural-protein-1-of-influenza-a-virus-blocks-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-targeting-tnf-receptor-associated-factor-3
#15
Wei Qian, Xiaoqin Wei, Kelei Guo, Yongtao Li, Xian Lin, Zhong Zou, Hongbo Zhou, Meilin Jin
Influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antagonizes interferon response through diverse strategies, particularly by inhibiting the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and IFN-β transcription. However, the underlying mechanisms used by the NS1 C-terminal effector domain (ED) to inhibit the activation of IFN-β pathway are not well understood. In this study, we used influenza virus subtype of H5N1 to demonstrate that the NS1 C-terminal ED but not the N-terminal RNA-binding domain, binds TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717211/epithelial-cell-specific-raptor-is-required-for-initiation-of-type-2-mucosal-immunity-in-small-intestine
#16
Bola Aladegbami, Lauren Barron, James Bao, Jason Colasanti, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner, Jun Guo
Intestinal tuft cells are one of 4 secretory cell linages in the small intestine and the source of IL-25, a critical initiator of the type 2 immune response to parasite infection. When Raptor, a critical scaffold protein for mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), was acutely deleted in intestinal epithelium via Tamoxifen injection in Tritrichomonas muris (Tm) infected mice, tuft cells, IL-25 in epithelium and IL-13 in the mesenchyme were significantly reduced, but Tm burden was not affected. When Tm infected mice were treated with rapamycin, DCLK1 and IL-25 expression in enterocytes and IL-13 expression in mesenchyme were diminished...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717200/genome-wide-rna-sequencing-analysis-identifies-a-distinct-fibrosis-gene-signature-in-the-conjunctiva-after-glaucoma-surgery
#17
Cynthia Yu-Wai-Man, Nicholas Owen, Jonathan Lees, Aristides D Tagalakis, Stephen L Hart, Andrew R Webster, Christine A Orengo, Peng T Khaw
Fibrosis-related events play a part in most blinding diseases worldwide. However, little is known about the mechanisms driving this complex multifactorial disease. Here we have carried out the first genome-wide RNA-Sequencing study in human conjunctival fibrosis. We isolated 10 primary fibrotic and 7 non-fibrotic conjunctival fibroblast cell lines from patients with and without previous glaucoma surgery, respectively. The patients were matched for ethnicity and age. We identified 246 genes that were differentially expressed by over two-fold and p < 0...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717061/apobec-mediated-genomic-alterations-link-immunity-and-viral-infection-during-human-papillomavirus-driven-cervical-carcinogenesis
#18
Lanting Chen, Xuemin Qiu, Na Zhang, Yan Wang, Mingyan Wang, Dajin Li, Ling Wang, Yan Du
Cervical cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers and is a major cause of death from gynecologic cancers worldwide; the cancer burden from cervical cancer is especially heavy in less developed countries. Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18. Non-resolving inflammation caused by HPV infection provides a microenvironment that facilitates cancer development. Molecular alterations during the process of HPV-induced carcinogenesis are characterized by DNA methylation within the HPV genome, promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in the host genome, as well as genomic instability caused by viral DNA integrating into the host genome...
July 17, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716885/cytokines-and-long-noncoding-rnas
#19
Susan Carpenter, Katherine A Fitzgerald
Cytokines and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are intertwined in the regulatory circuit controlling immunity. lncRNA expression levels are altered following cytokine stimulation in a cell-type-specific fashion. lncRNAs, in turn, regulate the inducible expression of cytokines following immune activation. These studies position lncRNAs as important regulators of gene expression within the complex pathways of the immune system. Our understanding of the functions of lncRNAs is just beginning. Current methodologies for functionally understanding how these transcripts mediate their effects are unable to keep up with the speed of genomic outputs cataloging thousands of these novel genes...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716882/protein-kinase-d-at-the-golgi-controls-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#20
Zhirong Zhang, Gergö Meszaros, Wan-Ting He, Yanfang Xu, Helena de Fatima Magliarelli, Laurent Mailly, Michael Mihlan, Yansheng Liu, Marta Puig Gámez, Alexander Goginashvili, Adrien Pasquier, Olga Bielska, Bénédicte Neven, Pierre Quartier, Rudolf Aebersold, Thomas F Baumert, Philippe Georgel, Jiahuai Han, Romeo Ricci
The inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes sensing tissue damage and infectious agents to initiate innate immune responses. Different inflammasomes containing distinct sensor molecules exist. The NLRP3 inflammasome is unique as it detects a variety of danger signals. It has been reported that NLRP3 is recruited to mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) and is activated by MAM-derived effectors. Here, we show that in response to inflammasome activators, MAMs localize adjacent to Golgi membranes...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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