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Cardiac arrhythmia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649481/cardio-oncology-cancer-therapy-related-cardiovascular-complications-in-a-molecular-targeted-era-new-concepts-and-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
David Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Arturo Loaiza-Bonilla, Paula A Bonilla-Reyes, Gabriel Tinoco, Rodrigo Alcorta
Cardio-oncology is a medical discipline that identifies, prevents, and treats the cardiovascular complications related to cancer therapy. Due to the remarkable proliferation of new cancer therapies causing cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, heart failure, vascular complications, and cardiac arrhythmia, we provide an extensive, comprehensive revision of the most up-to-date scientific information available on the cardiovascular complications associated with the use of newer, novel chemotherapeutic agents, including their reported incidence, suggested pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, potential treatment, and prevention...
May 18, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649227/fish-oil-supplementation-reduces-heart-levels-of-interleukin-6-in-rats-with-chronic-inflammation-due-to-epilepsy
#2
Mariana Bocca Nejm, André Abou Haidar, Aparecida Emiko Hirata, Lila Missae Oyama, Antonio-Carlos Guimarães de Almeida, Roberta Monterazzo Cysneiros, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro, Carla Alessandra Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of premature death related to epilepsy. The causes of SUDEP remain unknown, but cardiac arrhythmias and asphyxia have been suggested as a major mechanism of this event. Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both epilepsy and ventricular arrhythmia, with interleukin-6 (IL-6) being recognized as a crucial orchestrator of inflammatory states. Our group previously reported that levels of IL-6 were increased in the hearts of epileptic rats...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648667/simultaneous-recordings-of-intrinsic-cardiac-nerve-activities-and-skin-sympathetic-nerve-activities-from-human-patients-during-the-postoperative-period
#3
Mark J Shen, Arthur C Coffey, Susan Straka, David E Adams, David B Wagner, Richard J Kovacs, Michael Clark, Changyu Shen, Lan S Chen, Thomas H Everett, Shien-Fong Lin, Peng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Intrinsic cardiac nerve activities (ICNA) and the skin nerve activities (SKNA) are both associated with cardiac arrhythmias in dogs. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ICNA and SKNA correlate with postoperative cardiac arrhythmias in humans. METHODS: Eleven patients (60±13 years old; 4 female) were enrolled in this study. Electrical signals were simultaneously recorded from electrocardiogram (ECG) patch electrodes on the chest wall and from two temporary pacing wires placed during open heart surgery on the left atrial epicardial fat pad...
June 22, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648627/myofilament-protein-dynamics-modulate-ead-formation-in-human-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#4
REVIEW
Melanie A Zile, Natalia A Trayanova
Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a disease associated with sarcomeric protein mutations, often suffer from sudden cardiac death (SCD) resulting from arrhythmia. In order to advance SCD prevention strategies, our understanding of how sarcomeric mutations in HCM patients contribute to enhanced arrhythmogenesis needs to be improved. Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are an important mechanism underlying arrhythmias associated with HCM-SCD. Although the ionic mechanisms underlying EADs have been studied in general, whether myofilament protein dynamics mechanisms also underlie EADs remains unknown...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648626/mechanosensitivity-of-microdomain-calcium-signalling-in-the-heart
#5
REVIEW
Patrick Schönleitner, Uli Schotten, Gudrun Antoons
In cardiac myocytes, calcium (Ca(2+)) signalling is tightly controlled in dedicated microdomains. At the dyad, i.e. the narrow cleft between t-tubules and junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), many signalling pathways combine to control Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release during contraction. Local Ca(2+) gradients also exist in regions where SR and mitochondria are in close contact to regulate energetic demands. Loss of microdomain structures, or dysregulation of local Ca(2+) fluxes in cardiac disease, is often associated with oxidative stress, contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648394/prevalence-correlates-and-prognostic-relevance-of-myocardial-mechanical-dispersion-as-assessed-by-feature-tracking-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-after-a-first-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#6
Daniele Muser, Chiara Tioni, Ranjit Shah, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Gaetano Nucifora
Postinfarction mechanical dispersion (MD), that is, the regional heterogeneity of myocardial contraction throughout the cardiac cycle, has detrimental effects on left ventricular (LV) function and is related to the occurrence of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias. However, its prevalence, pathophysiological determinants, and clinical utility are still unknown. The aim of the present study is to clarify these issues. In total, 130 consecutive patients (mean age 60 ± 12 years, 75% male) with a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646979/inhibition-of-rapid-delayed-rectifier-potassium-current-ikr-by-ischemia-reperfusion-and-its-recovery-by-vitamin-e-in-ventricular-myocytes
#7
Yaoxu Chen, Chunxia Yin, Yingying Yang, Zhuo Fan, Jinling Shang, Wen Tan
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces prolongation of QT interval and action potential duration (APD), which is a major cardiac electrical disorder in patients with arrhythmias. However, the mechanism of QT interval prolongation induced by I/R remains unclear. In the present study, we hypothesized that the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium (IKr) channel plays an important role in I/R-induced QT interval prolongation. We observed a marked attenuation of IKr and a significant prolongation of action potential duration (APD) in a simulated I/R system with sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) in ventricular myocytes of guinea pigs...
July 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646025/remodeling-of-repolarization-and-arrhythmia-susceptibility-in-a-myosin-binding-protein-c-knockout-mouse-model
#8
Amir Toib, Chen Zhang, Giulia Borghetti, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Markus Wallner, Yijun Yang, Constantine Troupes, Hajime Kubo, Thomas Sharp, Eric Feldsott, Remus M Berretta, Neil Zalavadia, Danielle Trappanese, Shavonn Harper, Polina Gross, Xiongwen Chen, Sadia Mohsin, Steven Houser
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common genetic cardiac diseases and amongst the leading causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young. The cellular mechanisms leading to SCD in HCM are not well known. Prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) is a common feature predisposing hypertrophied hearts to SCD. Previous studies have explored the roles of inward Na(+) and Ca(2+) in the development of HCM, but the role of repolarizing K(+) currents have not been defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the arrhythmogenic phenotype and cellular electrophysiological properties of mice with HCM, induced by Myosin Binding Protein C (MyBPC) Knockout (KO) and to test the hypothesis that remodeling of repolarizing K(+) currents cause APD prolongation in MyBPC KO myocytes...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645806/brugada-syndrome-a-general-cardiologist-s-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Marija M Polovina, Milica Vukicevic, Bojan Banko, Gregory Y H Lip, Tatjana S Potpara
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is one of the commonest inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes typically presenting with arrhythmic syncope or sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation precipitated by vagotonia or fever in apparently healthy adults, less frequently in children. The prevalence of the syndrome (0.01%-0.3%) varies among regions and ethnicities, being the highest in Southeast Asia. BrS is diagnosed by the "coved type" ST-segment elevation≥2mm followed by a negative T-wave in ≥1 of the right precordial leads V1-V2...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644868/electrophysiological-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-chronic-coxsackievirus-b3-myocarditis
#10
Sven Kaese, Robert Larbig, Matthias Rohrbeck, Gerrit Frommeyer, Dirk Dechering, Jan Olligs, Sabine Schönhofer-Merl, Rainer Wessely, Karin Klingel, Guiscard Seebohm, Lars Eckardt
INTRODUCTION: Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is known to induce acute and chronic myocarditis. Most infections are clinically unapparent but some patients suffer from ventricular arrhythmias (VA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Studies showed that acute CVB3 infection may cause impaired function of cardiac ion channels, creating a proarrhythmic substrate. However, it is unknown whether low level CVB3+ expression in myocytes may cause altered cardiac electrophysiology leading to VA. METHODS: Cellular electrophysiology was used to analyze cellular action potentials (APs) and occurrence of afterdepolarizations from isolated cardiomyocytes of wildtype (WT) and transgenic CVB3ΔVP0 (CVB3+) mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644155/transvenous-before-surgical-hybrid-procedure
#11
Joseph J Tiano, Robert Drennan, John Novella, Rafael Squiteri, Malcolm Robinson, Albert DiMeo, Lindsey Scierka, Paul LeLorier
BACKGROUND: Historically, persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF) and long standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPeAF) have demonstrated limited clinical success despite hybrid approaches. OBJECTIVE: We describe our experience with the endocardial-before-epicardial approach defined by a comprehensive endovascular approach preceding and guiding the epicardial approach which includes an extensive posterior wall ablation. METHODS: 40 patients were followed over a 12 month period...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644151/ecg-based-4d-dose-reconstruction-of-cardiac-arrhythmia-ablation-with-carbon-ion-beams-application-in-a-porcine-model
#12
Daniel Richter, H Immo Lehmann, Anna Eichhorn, Anna M Constantinescu, Robert Kaderka, Matthias Prall, Patrick Lugenbiel, Mitsuru Takami, Dierk Thomas, Christoph Bert, Marco Durante, Douglas L Packer, Christian Graeff
Noninvasive ablation of cardiac arrhythmia by scanned particle radiotherapy is highly promising, but especially challenging due to cardiac and respiratory motion. Irradiations for catheter-free ablation in intact pigs were carried out at the GSI Helmholtz Center in Darmstadt using scanned carbon ions. Here, we present real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) data to estimate time-resolved (4D) delivered dose. For 11 animals, surface ECGs and temporal structure of beam delivery were acquired during irradiation. R waves were automatically detected from surface ECGs...
June 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643175/-clinical-aspects-of-treatment-with-amiodarone
#13
REVIEW
W Haverkamp, C Israel, A Parwani
Amiodarone has multiple and complex electrophysiological effects that render it a very effective antiarrhythmic drug for the treatment of both, supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Proarrhythmic effects of amiodarone in patients with structural heart disease are rare. However, extracardiac adverse effects occurring in association with amiodarone treatment are frequent and feared. These adverse effects have usually been related to total amiodarone exposure (i. e., dose and duration of treatment)...
June 22, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642714/comparative-effectiveness-of-acupuncture-and-antiarrhythmic-drugs-for-the-prevention-of-cardiac-arrhythmias-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
Yanda Li, Hector Barajas-Martinez, Bo Li, Yonghong Gao, Zhenpeng Zhang, Hongcai Shang, Yanwei Xing, Dan Hu
Introduction and Objectives: This study was designed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for arrhythmia compared to existing drug therapy. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through searches of the MEDLINE, CNKI, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1970 through 2016) and hand searches of cross-references from original articles and reviews. Clinical trials that randomized arrhythmia patients to acupuncture therapy vs. conventional drugs, sham acupuncture, or bed rest were included for analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642323/immune-modulation-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#15
EDITORIAL
Barry London
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642118/current-state-of-the-art-for-cardiac-arrhythmia-gene-therapy
#16
REVIEW
J Kevin Donahue
Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Currently available therapeutic options lack sufficient efficacy and safety. Gene therapy has been proposed for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. This review will discuss the current state of development for arrhythmia gene therapy. So far, all published studies are short-term, proof-of-concept animal studies. Potential replacement of cardiac pacemakers has been shown for combination gene therapy using the HCN2 gene and either the gene for adenylate cyclase, the skeletal muscle isoform of the sodium channel, or a dominant negative mutant of the potassium channel responsible for resting membrane potential...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641963/modulation-of-the-heart-s-electrical-properties-by-the-anticonvulsant-drug-retigabine
#17
Lena Rubi, Michael Kovar, Eva Zebedin-Brandl, Xaver Koenig, Manuel Dominguez-Rodriguez, Hannes Todt, Helmut Kubista, Stefan Boehm, Karlheinz Hilber
Retigabine, currently used as antiepileptic drug, has a wide range of potential medical uses. Administration of the drug in patients can lead to QT interval prolongation in the electrocardiogram and to cardiac arrhythmias in rare cases. This suggests that the drug may perturb the electrical properties of the heart, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated here. Effects of retigabine on currents through human cardiac ion channels, heterologously expressed in tsA-201 cells, were studied in whole-cell patch-clamp experiments...
June 19, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641796/cardiac-sympathetic-denervation-for-refractory-ventricular-arrhythmias
#18
Marmar Vaseghi, Parag Barwad, Federico J Malavassi Corrales, Harikrishna Tandri, Nilesh Mathuria, Rushil Shah, Julie M Sorg, Jean Gima, Kaushik Mandal, Luis C Sàenz Morales, Yash Lokhandwala, Kalyanam Shivkumar
BACKGROUND: Cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) has been shown to reduce the burden of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks in small series of patients with structural heart disease (SHD) and recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT). OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the value of CSD and the characteristics associated with outcomes in this population. METHODS: Patients with SHD who underwent CSD for refractory VT or VT storm at 5 international centers were analyzed by the International Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation Collaborative Group...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641242/arrhythmia-mechanism-and-scaling-effect-on-the-spectral-properties-of-electroanatomical-maps-with-manifold-harmonics
#19
Margarita Sanroman-Junquera, Inmaculada Mora-Jimenez, Arcadi Garcia-Alberola, Antonio J Caamano, Beatriz Trenor, Jose Luis Rojo-Alvarez
Spatial and temporal processing of intracardiac electrograms provides relevant information to support the arrhythmia ablation during electrophysiological studies. Current Cardiac Navigation Systems (CNS) and Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) build detailed three-dimensional electroanatomical maps (EAM), which represent the spatial anatomical distribution of bioelectrical features, such as activation time or voltage. We present a principled methodology for spectral analysis of both EAM geometry and bioelectrical feature in CNS or ECGI, including their spectral representation, cut-off frequency, or spatial sampling rate (SSR)...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640933/could-ivabradine-be-a-new-treatment-for-the-short-qt-syndrome
#20
EDITORIAL
Jules C Hancox
The short QT syndrome (SQTS) is a rare condition involving accelerated ventricular repolarization, abbreviated rate-corrected (QTc ) QT intervals on the electrocardiogram (ECG), poor rate adaptation of the QT interval, and an increased risk of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and of sudden cardiac death (1-3). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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