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Hepatitis C AND cerebral infarct

Mohsen Gadallah, Sahar Kandil, Amira Mohsen
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, cardiovascular risk factors and cerebro-cardiovascular (CCV) disease. METHODS: The source of data was the Egypt Health Issues Survey conducted in 2015. Participants were 11,256 individuals with complete HCV testing, age 25-59 years. Data on demographics, cardio-vascular risk factors, CCV disease (myocardial infarction and/or cerebral stroke) and HCV infection were retrieved. Descriptive, bivariate, multivariable logistic regression and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the independent association of past HCV exposure or chronic infection with diabetes, hypertension, and CCV disease...
May 3, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Karan Seegobin, Somphanh Khousakhoun, Ryan Crooks, Satish Maharaj, Cherisse Baldeo
A 58-year-old male, known to have hepatitis C virus (HCV), presented with intermittent headaches and left-sided sensorimotor symptoms. There were no focal neurological deficits on examination. Electrocardiogram was unremarkable. Computed tomography angiography head and neck displayed extracranial right internal carotid artery occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging showed right cortical vein thrombosis, with hemorrhagic infarction. Echocardiography with bubble study was unremarkable. Hypercoagulable workup was significant for protein S deficiency...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Galit Weinstein, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Sarah R Preis, Alexa S Beiser, Charles DeCarli, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Claudia L Satizabal, Ramachandran S Vasan, Sudha Seshadri
Importance: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition that is most often asymptomatic. It is associated with metabolic syndrome, incident diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, conditions that in turn are strongly linked with brain damage and cognitive impairment. However, it is not known whether NAFLD is associated with structural brain measures in humans. Objective: To assess the association between prevalent NAFLD and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures...
January 1, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Pankaj Paliwal, Debabrata Dash, Sairam Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Yoshiteru Shimoda, Satoru Ohtomo, Hiroaki Arai, Takashi Ohtoh, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) causes cerebral infarction, typically, lacunar infarction in the basal ganglia. However, massive cerebral infarction leading to death is rare and its pathophysiology is unclear. We report a case of CM causing massive cerebellar infarction, which led to cerebral herniation and death. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man who suffered from dizziness and gait disturbance for one month was admitted to our hospital and subsequently diagnosed with a cerebellar infarction...
August 9, 2017: BMC Neurology
Harry R Dalton, Jeroen J J van Eijk, Pascal Cintas, Richie G Madden, Catherine Jones, Glynn W Webb, Benjamin Norton, Julie Pique, Suzanne Lutgens, Nikki Devooght-Johnson, Kathy Woolson, John Baker, Maria Saunders, Liz Househam, James Griffiths, Florence Abravanel, Jacques Izopet, Nassim Kamar, Nens van Alfen, Baziel G M van Engelen, Jeremy G Hunter, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Richard P Bendall, Brendan N Mclean, Bart C Jacobs
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been associated with a number of neurological syndromes, but causality has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between HEV and neurological illness by prospective HEV testing of patients presenting with acute non-traumatic neurological injury. METHODS: Four hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients presenting to hospital with acute non-traumatic neurological illnesses were tested for HEV by serology and PCR from four centres in the UK, France and the Netherlands...
November 2017: Journal of Hepatology
F C Brownfoot, C A Cluver, S P Walker
Fetal persistent middle cerebral artery reversed end diastolic flow is a rare and ominous finding. Previous cases have been associated with intracranial hemorrhage, growth restriction, anaemia, and hepatic anomaly. Intrauterine demise or early neonatal death is a common outcome. We report the case of persistent middle cerebral artery reversed end diastolic flow in a well-grown fetus at 32 weeks' gestation resulting from acute, severe anaemia due to a large feto-maternal hemorrhage. An emergency cesarean section was performed and the neonate required advanced resuscitation and immediate blood transfusion...
August 2015: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
C L Shovlin, I Awan, Z Cahilog, F N Abdulla, A E Guttmacher
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac phenotypes should be pronounced in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) due to frequent systemic arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), iron deficiency anemia, hypoxemia, hyperdynamic circulations, venous thromboemboli, and paradoxical emboli through pulmonary AVMs. METHODS/RESULTS: In an international survey, 1025 respondents (median age 55years) met HHT diagnostic criteria: 942 (91.9%) reported nosebleeds, 452 (44.1%) at least daily. AVMs were commonly reported in pulmonary (544, 53%), hepatic (194, 18...
July 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Patrick Losey, Emma Ladds, Maud Laprais, Borna Geuvel, Laura Burns, Regis Bordet, Daniel C Anthony
BACKGROUND: Fenofibrate, a PPAR-α activator, has shown promising results as a neuroprotective therapy, with proposed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, it displays poor blood-brain barrier permeability leading to some ambiguity over its mechanism of action. Experimentally induced brain injury has been shown to elicit a hepatic acute phase response that modulates leukocyte recruitment to the injured brain. Here, we sought to discover whether one effect of fenofibrate might include the suppression of the acute phase response (APR) following brain injury...
May 22, 2015: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Talal Ali Khan, Francis Cheuk Yin Luk, Hakim Taalib Uqdah, Azka Arif, Humira Hussain, Arundathi Jayatilleke, Sandeep Aggarwal
INTRODUCTION: Propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis presenting with renal failure, acute hepatic failure, and cerebral angiitis is a rare yet fatal disease. Early diagnosis and management may help in reducing mortality and morbidity. Plasmapheresis and induction with either cyclophosphamide or rituximab is indicated. Understanding the pathophysiology and complex management of this disease poses challenges to clinicians. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old woman presented with acute renal and hepatic failure...
May 2015: Clinical Nephrology
Hiroshi Abe, Akihito Tsubota, Noritomo Shimada, Masanori Atsukawa, Keizo Kato, Koichi Takaguchi, Toru Asano, Yoshimichi Chuganji, Choitsu Sakamoto, Hidenori Toyoda, Takashi Kumada, Tatsuya Ide, Michio Sata, Yoshio Aizawa
We evaluated the genetic variation in rs8099917, substitutions in core amino acid (aa) 70, and the number of aa substitutions in the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) on the prediction of sustained virological response (SVR) in treatment-naïve hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (G1b) patients. This multicenter study involved 150 Asian treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV G1b who received 12 weeks of telaprevir in combination with 24 weeks of peginterferon-α-2b and ribavirin. The baseline and treatment-related factors potentially associated with SVR were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis...
2014: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
A Castro Caldas, R Geraldes, L Neto, P Canhão, T P Melo
BACKGROUND: The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with various extrahepatic manifestations, being the Central Nervous System (CNS) rarely involved. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 54 year-old black man with arterial hypertension who presented with progressively worsening headaches, apathy, somnolence and left hemiparesis. Brain MRI showed an acute ischemic lesion in the left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and an old ischemic infarct in the right ACA territory...
January 15, 2014: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
M Bauwens, M De Saint-Hubert, J Cleynhens, C Vandeputte, J Li, E Devos
AIM: Recently, 18F-labeled 2-(5-fluoropentyl)-2-methylmalonic acid or ML10 has been proposed as a promising PET tracer for imaging of apoptosis. In this study we compared 18F-ML10, the 123I labeled 5-iodo derivative (123I-ML10) and a 68Ga-labeled Annexin A5 (AnxA5) and evaluated them as apoptosis tracers in several distinct models. METHODS: In vivo stability and biodistribution were studied in healthy mice. Apoptosis imaging was evaluated in anti-Fas treated mice and mice with muscular apoptosis...
June 2013: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Beom Hee Lee, Yoo-Mi Kim, Sun Hee Heo, Gu-Hwan Kim, In-Hee Choi, Byong Sop Lee, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim, Ki-Soo Kim, Won Kyoung Jhang, Seong Jong Park, Han-Wook Yoo
Type 1 citrullinemia (CTLN1) often presents as a hyperammonemic encephalopathy in the neonatal period, but it can also develop in the late-infantile period and in adults. In addition, some patients can be identified in the presymptomatic period by neonatal or family member screening. In this study, twenty Korean patients with CTLN1 (19 families) were examined; fourteen patients with neonatal-onset, three with late-onset, and three that were identified presymptomatically. The 13 patients with hyperammonemic encephalopathy received continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) or peritoneal dialysis (PD)...
January 2013: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
T Magnus, A Melms, I Kötter, J U Holle
Neurologic complications of vasculitis occur frequently in the form of either peripheral neuropathy or manifestations within the central nervous system (CNS). Primary vasculitis of the CNS is characterized by central nervous system manifestations only with no evidence of systemic disease manifestations. Large vessel vasculitis is particularly associated with central nervous system complications, such as ischemic cerebral infarcts whereas medium size, e.g. polyarteritis nodosa and small vessel vasculitis, e...
September 2012: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Naoto Hayasaka, Nobuo Nagai, Naoyuki Kawao, Atsuko Niwa, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Yuki Mori, Hiroshi Shigeta, Nobuo Kashiwagi, Masaaki Miyazawa, Takao Satou, Hideaki Higashino, Osamu Matsuo, Takamichi Murakami
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for animal disease models for pathophysiological research and efficient drug screening. However, one of the technical barriers to the effective use of the models is the difficulty of non-invasive and sequential monitoring of the same animals. Micro-CT is a powerful tool for serial diagnostic imaging of animal models. However, soft tissue contrast resolution, particularly in the brain, is insufficient for detailed analysis, unlike the current applications of CT in the clinical arena...
2012: PloS One
Seung-Woo Kim, Chae-Moon Lim, Hye-Kyung Lee, Ja-Kyeong Lee
Stronger Neo-Minophagen C (SNMC) is a glycyrrhizin-containing preparation that is approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases and is marketed in Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, and India. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpene present in the roots and rhizomes of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-viral effects. In the present study, we demonstrated the marked neuroprotective effects of SNMC in the postischemic rat brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
December 2011: Anatomy & Cell Biology
W H Kitchens, A B Adams, C B Hughes, R M Subramanian
HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests, low platelets) is a rare complication of pregnancy that can result in severe complications such as hepatic infarction, subcapsular liver hematomas, and maternal brain death from cerebral hemorrhage. Recently, several investigators have described cases of successful transplantation using livers procured from donors who suffered brain death as a result of HELLP syndrome. However, this new class of marginal liver donors must be approached with caution. We report the case of a 28-year-old pregnant woman who suffered brain death due to HELLP syndrome and was subsequently evaluated for potential liver donation...
December 2011: Transplantation Proceedings
Connie H Y Wong, Craig N Jenne, Woo-Yong Lee, Caroline Léger, Paul Kubes
Systemic immunosuppression has been associated with stroke for many years, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that stroke induced profound behavioral changes in hepatic invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in mice. Unexpectedly, these effects were mediated by a noradrenergic neurotransmitter rather than a CD1d ligand or other well-characterized danger signals. Blockade of this innervation was protective in wild-type mice after stroke but had no effect in mice deficient in iNKT cells...
October 7, 2011: Science
Wakako Fujita-Hamabe, Shinichi Harada, Shogo Tokuyama
Hyperglycemia is a known exacerbating factor in ischemic stroke. It has been reported that hyperglycemia and post-ischemic glucose intolerance can develop after stroke and be involved in the development of neuronal damage, as we described previously. Here, we focus on the effectiveness of metformin, a hypoglycemic drug, in preventing the development of neuronal damage using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model mice. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in the hypoglycemic effects of metformin...
April 2011: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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