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Haixiang Qiu, Jiansen Gong, Patrick Butaye, Guangwu Lu, Ke Huang, Guoqiang Zhu, Jilei Zhang, Terri Hathcock, Darong Cheng, Chengming Wang
Quinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics that have been used for decades in treating bacterial infections in humans and animals, and subsequently bacterial resistance to these agents has increased. While studies indicated the relationship between gyrA mutations and bacterial resistance to quinolones, CRISPR/Cas9 was used in this study to investigate causal role of gyrA mutation in the quinolone resistance. In this study, 818 clinical Escherichia coli isolates were analyzed for gyrA mutations and their resistance to quinolones...
May 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Meryem Bachir, Rachida Allem, Lucie Benejat, Abedelkarim Tifrit, Meriem Medjekane, Amine El-Mokhtar Drici, Francis Megraud, Kara Turki Douidi
Objectives: In Algeria, there are limited data regarding the pattern of Helicobacter pylori primary antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and rifampicin and to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance. Methods: Two hundred and seventy Algerian adults who had never received H. pylori treatment were enrolled in this study. Human biopsies were obtained for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Etest for clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and rifampicin...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kaichao Chen, Ning Dong, Shaohua Zhao, Lizhang Liu, Ruichao Li, Miaomiao Xie, Dachuan Lin, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Jianghong Meng, Patrick F McDermott, Sheng Chen
This study aimed to characterize novel conjugative plasmids that encode transferrable ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella In this study, 157 non-duplicated Salmonella isolates were recovered from food products, 55 out of which were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin. Interestingly, 37 out of the 55 (67%) CipR Salmonella isolates did not harbor any mutations in the Quinolone resistance determine regions (QRDR). Interestingly, six Salmonella isolates were shown to carry two novel types of conjugative plasmids that could transfer ciprofloxacin resistance phenotype to E...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
D Campbell, K Tagg, A Bicknese, A McCullough, J Chen, B E Karp, J P Folster
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) causes an estimated 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations, and 450 deaths each year in the United States. Decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (DSC) has historically been associated with chromosomal mutations (QRDR), but plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes are increasing. To investigate DSC among serotype Newport, we examined 40 isolates with DSC from 1996-2016. Thirty isolates (71%) contained the PMQR gene, qnrB , and eight isolates (19%) contained a QRDR...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nan Li, Yue Song, Jing Qiu, Yue-Chen Zhao, Yong-Zhong Qian
A new solid phase extraction sorbent, based on poly(methacrylic acid) brushes-containing coordination polymer networks on monolith, was in-situ synthesized in a commercial syringe filter via surface grafting. Extraction of twenty model analytes, including nine sulfonamides, eight steroid hormones, and three quinolones, could be efficiently achieved by the monolithic hybrid filter due to multi-interactions. Through simple filtering steps, fast extraction (60 s of adsorption and 60 s of desorption) could be achieved...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Wei Wang, Zulqarnain Baloch, Mingyuan Zou, Yinping Dong, Zixin Peng, Yujie Hu, Jin Xu, Nafeesa Yasmeen, Fengqin Li, Séamus Fanning
One mcr-1 -carrying ST34-type Salmonella Typhimurium WW012 was cultured from 3,200 ready-to-eat (RTE) pork samples in 2014 in China. Broth dilution method was applied to obtain the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhimurium WW012. Broth matting assays were carried out to detect transferability of this phenotype and whole-genome sequencing was performed to analyze its genomic characteristic. Thirty out of 3,200 RTE samples were positive for Salmonella and the three most frequent serotypes were identified as S ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Erika Castrignanò, Andrew M Kannan, Edward J Feil, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
This paper aims to examine the multiresidue enantiomeric profiling of (fluoro)quinolones and their metabolites in solid and liquid environmental matrices using chiral HPLC-MS/MS method and a CHIRALCEL® OZ-RH column. Simultaneous chiral separation was obtained for chiral ofloxacin and its main metabolites ofloxacin-N-oxide and desmethyl-ofloxacin; moxifloxacin; the prodrug prulifloxacin and its active compound ulifloxacin; flumequine; nadifloxacin and R-(+)-besifloxacin. Achiral antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid) were also included in the method to enable the analysis of all targeted quinolones within one analytical run...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Syed Lal Badshah, Asad Ullah
The inhibition of pathogenic bacteria at the replication stage is important to halt their further reproduction and spread. The replication enzymes include the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV that are recognized targets for the infection control. Novel antibiotic compounds are always in demand for targeting different active sites of these enzymes. Although quinolones are the current drug of choice for targeting these enzymes, emerging resistance is a global concern. Wide-scale efforts are needed to overcome the emerging resistance by designing more potent drugs...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Christian Magnus Thaulow, Dag Berild, Beate Horsberg Eriksen, Tor Åge Myklebust, Hege Salvesen Blix
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is low in Norway, but to prevent an increase the Norwegian Government has launched a National Strategy including a 30% reduction of broad-spectrum antibiotics (BSA) in hospitals within 2020. BSA are defined as second- and third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam and quinolones. There are no recent studies of antibiotic use in Norwegian hospitalized children. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the use of antibiotics with emphasis on BSA in Norwegian hospitalized children and neonates in order to detect possibilities for optimization...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Shu-Lan Sun, Xiaoxi Li, Nan Su, Shi Chen, Xiaoxin Gao, Guirong Zhang, Haozhe Piao
Vacquinol‑1 (Vacq), a quinolone derivative, has recently been reported to display potent antitumor effects in glioblastomas by inducing cellular massive vacuolization and cell death. However, whether Vacq induces cytotoxicities in other types of cancers, and the potential underlying mechanism, remain to be investigated. In the present study, it was revealed that Vacq suppressed cell growth and colony formation in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines BEL7402 and Huh7. In addition, treatment with Vacq increased the number of early and late apoptotic cells as assessed by flow cytometry with fluorescein isothiocyanate‑conjugated Annexin V and propidium iodide double staining...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lamis Galal, Neveen A Abdel Aziz, Walaa M Hassan
Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides offer effective therapy for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacterial infections, but their usefulness is threatened by increasing resistant strains. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to demonstrate the phenotypic outcomes of the coexistence of genetic determinants mediating resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and quinolones in enterobacterial isolates collected from patients with health-care-associated infections in Egypt...
May 11, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jenna R Freund, Corrine J Mansfield, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Danielle R Reed, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), discovered in many tissues outside the tongue, have recently become potential therapeutic targets. We showed previously that airway epithelial cells express several T2Rs that activate innate immune responses that may be important for treatment of airway diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis. It is imperative to more clearly understand what compounds activate airway T2Rs as well as their full range of functions. T2R isoforms in airway motile cilia (T2Rs 4, 14, 16, and 38) produce bactericidal levels of nitric oxide (NO) that also increase ciliary beating, promoting clearance of mucus and trapped pathogens...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Dai Kuang, Jianmin Zhang, Xuebin Xu, Weimin Shi, Sheng Chen, Xiaowei Yang, Xudong Su, Xianming Shi, Jianghong Meng
Disease caused by nontyphoidal serotypes of Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. Many serotypes have also developed resistance to antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of salmonellosis. Here we analyze 179 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates identified among 3680 Salmonella isolated from humans, food, animals, and water collected in Shanghai, China. They were assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants, and mutations in quinolone resistance determination regions (QRDRs); genetic relatedness was examined using PFGE...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mehdi Mirzaii, Sanaz Jamshidi, Maryam Zamanzadeh, Masoud Marashifard, Seyed Ali Asghar Malek Hosseini, Mehri Haeili, Fariba Jahanbin, Fariba Mansouri, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Seyed Sajjad Khoramrooz
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are recommended as the drug of choice for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs).We aimed to investigate the molecular determinants of FQ resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. METHODS: A total of 364 clinical isolates of E. coli (n=144) and K. pneumoniae (n=220) were collected from patients with UTI. Susceptibility of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and nalidixic acid was evaluated by using disc diffusion method...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Jorge Ignacio González Borroto, Malaika Sharon Awori, Luc Chouinard, Susan Y Smith, Cristina Tarragó, Teresa Blazquez, Domingo Gargallo-Viola, Ilonka Zsolt
AIM: Ozenoxacin is a nonfluorinated quinolone antibacterial approved for topical treatment of impetigo. Because quinolones have known chondrotoxic effects in juvenile animals, the potential toxicity of ozenoxacin was assessed in preclinical studies. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ozenoxacin or ofloxacin (300 mg/kg/day for 5 days, for each compound) was orally administered to juvenile rats, and oral ozenoxacin (10-100 mg/kg/day for 14 days) was administered to juvenile dogs...
May 1, 2018: Future Microbiology
Rishi Bolia, Anshu Srivastava, Rungmei Marak, Surender K Yachha, Ujjal Poddar
Background and aims: Risk of infections is increased in patients with Acute Liver Failure (ALF) and Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease (DCLD). We evaluated the frequency, site, type and risk-factors for bacterial infections in children with ALF and DCLD and its effect on outcome. Methods: ALF or DCLD children were enrolled prospectively. Clinical and laboratory details were recorded. Cultures (blood, urine and ascites) and chest X-ray were done at admission followed by weekly surveillance cultures...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Kate S Baker, Timothy J Dallman, Nigel Field, Tristan Childs, Holly Mitchell, Martin Day, François-Xavier Weill, Sophie Lefèvre, Mathieu Tourdjman, Gwenda Hughes, Claire Jenkins, Nicholas Thomson
Shigella are globally important diarrhoeal pathogens that are endemic in low-to-middle income nations and also occur in high income nations, typically in travellers or community-based risk-groups. Shigella phylogenetics reveals population structures that are more reliable than those built with traditional typing methods, and has identified sublineages associated with specific geographical regions or patient groups. Genomic analyses reveal temporal increases in Shigella antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene content, which is frequently encoded on mobile genetic elements...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marta Zatta, Stefano Di Bella, Marina Busetti, Valeria Michelacci, Slawomir Owczarek, Ida Luzzi, Roberto Luzzati
In March 2017, a 45-year-old Italian man who has sex with men was admitted to the Infectious Diseases Department of Trieste Hospital (northeast Italy), because of fever, abdominal pain and dysentery. The patient had neither foreign travel history nor sexual contact with non-Italian partners. Stool cultures grew multidrug-resistant Shigella flexneri (resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin) and whole genome sequencing detailed the resistance features...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Behnam Hashemi, Maryam Abdollahi, Alireza Rafiei, Ali Pourmohammad, Mohammad Ahanjan, Masoud Moghadaszadeh, Shima Rashidian
The mutation in gyrA and parC genes alters amino acids. Also, it causes resistance against Fluoroquinolones in E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the significant mutation of gyrA (ser83-asp87) and parC (ser80-glu84) genes through using MAMA PCR and SSCP PCR methods. In so doing, the isolated samples were collected. Then, utilizing agar disc diffusion method, the reserchers performed antibiotic sensitivity test. Moreover, Fluoroquinolones resistance was confirmed by E-test method (MIC experiment)...
May 6, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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