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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930567/molecular-mechanisms-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-resistance-to-antimicrobial-drugs
#1
Tomislav Mestrovic, Suncanica Ljubin-Sternak
Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in developed and undeveloped countries, and therefore a global public health issue. In an era of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, resistance has been an exceedingly rare phenomenon in C. trachomatis; however, clinical treatment failures attributed to multidrug-resistant C. trachomatis strains have been described on several occasions. Cell culture systems using McCoy cells and subsequent immunofluorescent staining are still the most common methodology used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, but the presence of resistance markers should be appraised by further genetic analysis...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922026/characterization-of-quinolone-resistance-in-salmonella-enterica-from-farm-animals-in-china
#2
Ting-Ting Cao, Guo-Hui Deng, Liang-Xing Fang, Run-Shi Yang, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu, Xiao-Ping Liao
This study was focused on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella directly isolated at animal clinics in Guangdong, People's Republic of China. The isolation rates from chickens, ducks, and pigs were 11.3% (11 of 97 samples), 15.4% (53 of 344 samples), and 3.0% (13 of 434 samples), respectively. Among the 77 Salmonella enterica isolates, the most predominant serovar was Typhimurium (81.8%, 63 isolates), followed by serovars Meleagridis (2.6%, 2 isolates) and Abaetetuba (1.3%, 1 isolate)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921956/recognition-of-dna-supercoil-geometry-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-gyrase
#3
Rachel E Ashley, Tim R Blower, James M Berger, Neil Osheroff
Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes only a single type II topoisomerase, gyrase. As a result, this enzyme likely carries out the cellular functions normally performed by canonical gyrase and topoisomerase IV, both in front of and behind the replication fork. In addition, it is the sole target for quinolone antibacterials in this species. Because quinolone-induced DNA strand breaks generated on positively supercoiled DNA ahead of replication forks and transcription complexes are most likely to result in permanent genomic damage, the actions of M...
September 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920628/fluoroquinolones-as-imaging-agents-for-bacterial-infection
#4
Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Karl Drlica
Diagnosis of deep-seated bacterial infection is difficult, as neither standard anatomical imaging nor radiolabeled, autologous leukocytes distinguish sterile inflammation from infection. Two recent imaging efforts are receiving attention: (1) radioactive derivatives of sorbitol show good specificity with Gram-negative bacterial infections, and (2) success in combining anatomical and functional imaging for cancer diagnosis has rekindled interest in (99m)Tc-fluoroquinolone-based imaging. With the latter, computed tomography (CT) would be combined with single-photon-emission-computed tomography (SPECT) to detect (99m)Tc-fluoroquinolone-bacterial interactions...
September 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919197/imported-poultry-meat-as-a-source-of-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-cmy-2-producing-salmonella-heidelberg-and-s-minnesota-in-european-union-2014-2015
#5
Joana Campos, Joana Mourão, Leonor Silveira, Margarida Saraiva, Cristina Belo Correia, Ana Paula Maçãs, Luísa Peixe, Patrícia Antunes
Extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella has been described at low level in EU, nevertheless the increasing importation of poultry meat could be an important source of epidemic strains carrying ESC-resistant genes. We evaluated ESC resistance and characterized genetic platforms as well as the clonal relatedness of Salmonella isolates from poultry meat products imported into Portugal. All Salmonella isolates recovered from samples of fresh meat destined to be imported into the EU in the scope of Portuguese official border control between 2014 and 2015 were studied...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916321/analysis-of-resistance-genes-in-pan-resistant-myroides-odoratimimus-clinical-strain-pr63039-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#6
Desong Ming, Qing-Qing Chen, Xiao-Tin Chen
To clarify the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Myroides odoratimimus, pan-resistant M. odoratimimus strain PR63039 was isolated and its genome sequenced and analyzed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the Phoenix-100 Automated Microbiology System with a NMIC/ID-4 panel including aminoglycosides, β-lactams, polypeptides, quinolones, sulfonamides, chloramphenicols, and tetracyclines. Single-molecule real-time whole genome sequencing was conducted using the PacBio RSII system, and genome annotation was performed using RAST and IMG ER...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915420/determination-of-eight-quinolones-in-milk-using-immunoaffinity-microextraction-in-a-packed-syringe-and-liquid-chromatography-with-fluorescence-detection
#7
Xinda Zhang, Cuicui Wang, Linyan Yang, Wei Zhang, Jing Lin, Cun Li
We have established a new, highly selective, and sensitive method for the determination of eight quinolones (QNs) in milk: danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, fleroxacin, and ciprofloxacin. The method uses immunoaffinity microextraction in a packed syringe and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (IA-MEPS-LC-FLD). Traditionally, QN residues are determined by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) sample preparation techniques; however, these methods are time-consuming and require large quantities of organic solvents...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914802/phylogenetic-analysis-and-antimicrobial-profiles-of-cultured-emerging-opportunistic-pathogens-phyla-actinobacteria-and-proteobacteria-identified-in-hot-springs
#8
Jocelyn Leonie Jardine, Akebe Luther King Abia, Vuyo Mavumengwana, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa
Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin)...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910113/tandem-synthesis-of-pyrrolo-2-3-b-quinolones-via-cadogen-type-reaction
#9
Zhichen Lin, Zhongyan Hu, Xin Zhang, Jinhuan Dong, Jian-Biao Liu, De-Zhan Chen, Xianxiu Xu
A tandem [3 + 2] cycloaddition/reductive cyclization of nitrochalcones with activated methylene isocyanides for the efficient synthesis of pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinolones is reported. In this reaction, the in situ generated dihydropyrroline acts as the internal reductant to convert the nitro into an electrophilic nitroso group, which undergoes subsequent C-N bond formation. Transition-metal-free, simple experimental procedure and ready accessibility of starting materials characterize the present transformation.
September 14, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901761/a-mild-rhodium-catalyzed-direct-synthesis-of-quinolones-from-pyridones-application-in-the-detection-of-nitroaromatics
#10
Aniruddha Biswas, Dipanjan Giri, Debapratim Das, Anurima De, Sanjib Kumar Patra, Rajarshi Samanta
A rhodium catalyzed direct regioselective oxidative annulation by double C-H activations is described to synthesize highly substituted quinolones from pyridones. The reaction proceeds at mild conditions with broad scope and wide functional group tolerance. Those novel quinolones were explored to recognize nitroaromatic compounds.
September 13, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901259/structure-based-drug-design-synthesis-x-ray-crystallography-and-biological-evaluation-of-n-substituted-4-hydroxy-2-quinolone-3-carboxamides-as-potential-pi3k%C3%AE-inhibitors
#11
Dima A Sabbah, Bayan Hishmah, Kamal Sweidan, Sanaa Bardaweel, Murad AlDamen, Haizhen A Zhong, Reema Abu Khalaf, Ameerah Hasan Ibrahim, Tariq Al-Qirim, Ghassan Abu Sheikha, Mohammad S Mubarak
BACKGROUND: Oncogenic potential of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3Kα) has been highlighted as a therapeutic target for anticancer drug design. OBJECTIVE: Target compounds were designed to address the effect of different substitution patterns at the N atom of the carboxamide moiety on the bioactivity of this series. METHODS: Synthesis of the targeted compounds, crystallography, biological evaluation tests against human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), and Glide docking studies...
September 11, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898946/towards-the-understanding-of-antibiotic-occurrence-and-transport-in-groundwater-findings-from-the-baix-fluvi%C3%A3-alluvial-aquifer-ne-catalonia-spain
#12
M Boy-Roura, J Mas-Pla, M Petrovic, M Gros, D Soler, D Brusi, A Menció
Antibiotics are an increasing focus of interest due to their high detection frequency in the environment. However, their presence in water bodies is not regulated by environmental policies. This field study investigates, for the first time, the occurrence, behavior and fate of a selection of 53 antibiotics, including up to 10 chemical groups, in an alluvial aquifer originated from manure application in an agricultural region using hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotopic approaches. Up to 11 antibiotics were found in groundwater corresponding to 4 different chemical groups: fluoroquinolones, macrolides, quinolones and sulfonamides...
September 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893751/non-typhoidal-salmonella-in-calabria-italy-a-laboratory-and-patient-based-survey
#13
Valentina Mascaro, Claudia Pileggi, Maria Crinò, Yolande Therese Rose Proroga, Maria Rosaria Carullo, Caterina Graziani, Fabio Arigoni, Pasquale Turno, Maria Pavia
INTRODUCTION: Although there has been a decrease in the number of cases of salmonellosis in the European Union, it still represents the primary cause of foodborne outbreaks. In Calabria region, data are lacking for the incidence of human non-typhoid salmonellosis as active surveillance has never been carried out. OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a laboratory and patient-based morbidity survey in Calabria to describe the incidence and distribution of Salmonella serovars isolated from humans, with a focus on antimicrobial resistance patterns...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893357/fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-japanese-tertiary-hospital-silent-shifting-to-ctx-m-15-producing-k-pneumoniae
#14
Masashi Higashino, Mika Murata, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Norihiko Akamatsu, Junichi Matsuda, Kazuaki Takeda, Norihito Kaku, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara
PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolone resistance (FQ-r) in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers is an urgent health concern in countries where ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-Kpn) is prevalent. We investigated FQ-r in Japan where ESBL-Kpn is less prevalent. METHODOLOGY: Clinical ESBL-Kpn isolates from 2011 to 2013 were collected in Nagasaki University Hospital. The ESBL genotypes included CTX-M-15, and the mechanisms of FQ-r through plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were examined...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893183/antimicrobial-resistance-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#15
Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Elizabeth A Ashley, Stefano Ongarello, Joshua Havumaki, Miranga Wijegoonewardena, Iveth J González, Sabine Dittrich
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is widely acknowledged as a global problem, yet in many parts of the world its magnitude is still not well understood. This review, using a public health focused approach, aimed to understand and describe the current status of AMR in Africa in relation to common causes of infections and drugs recommended in WHO treatment guidelines. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and other relevant databases were searched for recent articles (2013-2016) in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890509/proposed-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-breakpoint-of-garenoxacin-and-other-quinolones
#16
Yuka Yamagishi, Tatsuya Shibata, Satoshi Nakagawa, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroshige Mikamo
The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) breakpoints (BPs) of garenoxacin (GRNX) and other oral quinolones were calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) based on the distribution of changes in their plasma concentrations. PK-PD BPs of 400 mg once a day (QD) of GRNX for the free area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUC/MIC) for 30 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100 of Gram-negative bacteria: (G (-)) were 0.5 and 0.125 μg/mL, respectively. PK-PD BPs of other quinolones for S. pneumoniae/G(-) were 1/0...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880567/direct-synthesis-of-4-quinolones-via-copper-catalyzed-anilines-and-alkynes
#17
Xuefeng Xu, Xu Zhang
A unique and direct approach for constructing 4-quinolones from simple and readily available anilines and alkynes is described. Under the optimal conditions, both N-alkyl- and N-aryl-substituted anilines can be successfully transformed into the corresponding 4-quinolones. This reaction is characterized by mild reaction conditions, high functional-group tolerance, and amenability to gram-scale synthesis.
September 7, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878891/epidemic-characterization-and-molecular-genotyping-of-shigella-flexneri-isolated-from-calves-with-diarrhea-in-northwest-china
#18
Zhen Zhu, Mingze Cao, Xuzheng Zhou, Bing Li, Jiyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: The widespread presence of antibiotics resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria can cause enormous problems. Food animals are one of the main reservoirs of intestinal pathogens that pose a potential risk to human. Analyzing the epidemiological characteristics and resistance patterns of Shigella flexneri in calves is necessary for animal and human health. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 54 Shigella flexneri isolates, including six serotypes (1a, 2a, 2b, 4a, 6 and Xv), were collected from 837 fecal samples obtained from 2014 to 2016...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872202/fixed-drug-eruption-induced-by-ciprofloxacin-and-cross-reactivity-to-other-quinolones
#19
Diana R Garnica Velandia, Gaspar Dalmau Duch, Vanessa Gázquez García, Martina Indiveri, Pere Gaig Jané
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871888/subproteomic-signature-comparison-of-in-vitro-selected-fluoroquinolone-resistance-and-ciprofloxacin-stress-in-salmonella-typhimurium-dt104b
#20
Susana Correia, Michel Hébraud, Ingrid Chafsey, Christophe Chambon, Didier Viala, Carmen Torres, Manuela Caniça, José Luis Capelo, Patrícia Poeta, Gilberto Igrejas
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolone resistance in nontyphoidal Salmonella is a situation of serious and international concern, particularly in S. Typhimurium DT104B multiresistant strains. Although known to be multifactorial, fluoroquinolone resistance is still far from a complete understanding. AIM AND METHODS: To evaluate subproteome changes between an experimentally selected fluoroquinolone-resistant strain (Se6-M) and its parent strain (Se6), and also in Se6-M under ciprofloxacin (CIP) stress, in order to give new insights into the mechanisms involved...
September 5, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
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