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neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

Jun-Tao Tan, Yang Yang, Nai-Qun Mao, De-Sen Liu, Ding-Ming Huang, Hong Pan, Tong Xie, Qi Pan, Li Yang, Jian-Hong Zhong, Chuan-Tian Zuo
This study aims to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) on perioperative immune function during surgery to treat resectable locally advanced esophageal cancer. Records were retrospectively analyzed for 220 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer, of whom 112 received surgery alone and 98 received neoadjuvant NCRT plus surgery. The two groups were compared in terms of proportions of CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) , and natural kill (NK) cells, as well as the ratio of CD4(+) to CD8(+) cells...
October 21, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Lucas Goense, Peter S N van Rossum, Jelle P Ruurda, Marco van Vulpen, Stella Mook, Gert J Meijer, Richard van Hillegersberg
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised regarding the toxicity of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for esophageal cancer that could contribute to an increased risk of postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the radiation dose to the gastric fundus on the risk of postoperative anastomotic leakage in patients undergoing nCRT followed by transthoracic esophagectomy. METHODS: Between January 2012 and July 2015, 97 consecutive patients who underwent nCRT followed by transthoracic esophagectomy were included in this single-center cohort study...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Nadia Haj Mohammad, Sophia De Rooij, Maarten Hulshof, Jelle Ruurda, Bas Wijnhoven, Frans Erdkamp, Meindert Sosef, Suzanne Gisbertz, Mark van Berge Henegouwen, Mirjam Sprangers, Hanneke van Laarhoven
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) followed by esophagectomy is a treatment with curative intent for resectable esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to measure activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QoL), and to examine correlates of changes in ADL and QoL. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with three time points (baseline, 1 week after the end of nCRT, 3-months post-surgery) together with a cross-sectional post-treatment study...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Michitaka Honda, Takashi Akiyoshi, Hisashi Noma, Atsushi Ogura, Toshiya Nagasaki, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Yoshiya Fujimoto, Satoshi Nagayama, Yosuke Fukunaga, Masashi Ueno
BACKGROUND: For patients with low-lying rectal cancer, the feasibility of anus-preserving surgery in combination with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) has been not well established from the perspective of patient-centered outcomes. METHODS: We investigated 278 patients with low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2012. We compared their symptoms and QOL scores of patients who underwent anus-preserving surgery with (n = 88) and without (n = 143) NACRT according to the Wexner scale, EORTC QLQ C-30, CR29, and the modified fecal incontinence quality life scale (mFIQL)...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
S Tonoli, D Alterio, O Caspiani, A Bacigalupo, F Bunkheila, M Cianciulli, A Merlotti, A Podhradska, M Rampino, D Cante, L Bruschieri, R Gatta, S M Magrini
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes with respect to long-term survival and toxicity in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in a European country with low incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study carried out by the AIRO Head and Neck group in 12 Italian institutions included 136 consecutive patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy (CHT) for NPC (without distant metastasis) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010...
October 19, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Yuki Homma, Goro Honda, Katsunori Sakamoto, Masanao Kurata, Masahiko Honjo, Yoshihiro Hirata, Satoshi Shinya
BACKGROUND: Although surgical resection is the only curative strategy for pancreatic cancer, the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. Recently, neoadjuvant treatment has been frequently employed as a promising treatment. Here, the mid-term results of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy(NACRT)using S-1, which has been performed in our hospital since 2008, are reported. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients with resectable or borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, who had been intended to undergo NACRT treatment using S-1, were enrolled...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Kyung Ha Lee, Jin Soo Kim, Ji Yeon Kim
PURPOSE: Oral capecitabine has demonstrated to be safe and efficient as neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term oncologic outcomes of NCRT with capecitabine and radical surgery. METHODS: From January 2000 to June 2010, 238 patients were treated at our center for locally advanced rectal cancers using conventional NCRT with capecitabine and radical surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the factors associated with oncologic outcomes with log rank and Cox regression tests...
October 2016: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
Rohen White, Farshad Foroudi, Joseph Sia, Mary Ann Marr, Daryl Lim Joon
INTRODUCTION: No consensus exists regarding the optimal treatment setup for neoadjuvant radiotherapy of rectal cancer using a 3D conformal (3D CRT) technique. Positioning the patient prone with a belly board aims to reduce the amount of small bowel irradiated. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with locally advanced rectal cancer underwent computed tomography (CT) planning for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Patients were simulated prone with a belly board and then in the supine position...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Helen M Heneghan, Claire Donohoe, Jessie Elliot, Zuhair Ahmed, Vinod Malik, Narayamasamy Ravi, John V Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess CT-PET and endoscopic assessment postneoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in predicting complete pathologic response (pCR) in locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. BACKGROUND: nCRT is increasingly standard of care in LAEC, with pCR a surrogate for excellent outcome. Predicting pCR before surgery, with metabolic imaging and endoscopy, may spare patients' operative intervention...
November 2016: Annals of Surgery
Yulia Kundel, Nicola J Nasser, Lea Rath-Wolfson, Ofer Purim, Natalia Yanichkin, Ronen Brenner, Tanya Zehavi, Yuval Nardi, Eyal Fenig, Aaron Sulkes, Baruch Brenner
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the expression of specific molecular markers in the rectal cancer biopsies prior to treatment, can correlate with complete tumor response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) as determined by the pathology of the surgical specimen. METHODS: We retrospectively examined pretreatment rectal biopsies of patients aged 18 years or older with locally advanced rectal cancer who had been treated with neoadjuvant CRT and surgical resection in our tertiary-care, university-affiliated medical center, between January 2001 and December 2011...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Florence K Keane, Jennifer Y Wo, Cristina R Ferrone, Jeffrey W Clark, Lawrence S Blaszkowsky, Jill N Allen, Eunice L Kwak, David P Ryan, Keith D Lillemoe, Carlos Fernandez-Del Castillo, Theodore S Hong
OBJECTIVES: Improved outcomes with FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have prompted incorporation of these regimens into neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced unresectable PDAC. Whereas some patients remain unresectable on surgical exploration, others are able to undergo resection after intensive neoadjuvant treatment. We evaluated outcomes and toxicity associated with use of intensive neoadjuvant treatment followed by intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in combination with resection or exploratory laparotomy...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Jorn Beukinga, Jan Binne Hulshoff, Lisanne van Dijk, Christina Muijs, Johannes Burgerhof, Gursah Kats-Ugurlu, Riemer Slart, Cornelis Slump, Véronique Mul, John Plukker
: Adequate prediction of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in esophageal cancer (EC) patients is important in a more personalized treatment. The current best clinical method to predict pathologic complete response is the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) imaging. To improve the prediction of response, we constructed a model to predict complete response to nCRT in EC based on pre-treatment clinical parameters and (18)F-FDG PET/CT derived textural features...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Lin Xiao, Xin Yu, Wenjing Deng, Huixia Feng, Hui Chang, Weiwei Xiao, Huizhong Zhang, Shaoyan Xi, Mengzhong Liu, Yujia Zhu, Yuanhong Gao
We investigated the distribution of residual cancer cells (RCCs) within different layers of the bowel wall in surgical specimens and the value of biopsies of primary rectal lesion after preoperative volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with concurrent chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. Between April 2011 and April 2013, 178 patients with rectal cancer who received preoperative VMAT, concurrent chemotherapy, and surgery were evaluated; 79 of the patients received a biopsy of the primary lesion after chemoradiotherapy and prior to surgery...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Paola De Nardi, Sabrina Gloria Giulia Testoni, Maura Corsetti, Hulda Andreoletti, Patrizia Giollo, Sandro Passaretti, Pier Alberto Testoni
BACKGROUND: An altered anorectal function is reported after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery for rectal cancer. AIM: The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgical resection on the impairment of anorectal function as evaluated by anorectal manometry. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with rectal cancer, who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and laparoscopic rectal resection, were evaluated with the Pescatori Faecal Incontinence score, and with anorectal manometry: before neoadjuvant therapy (T0), after neoadjuvant therapy and before surgery (T1), 12 months after stoma closure (T2)...
September 22, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Tyler P Robin, Arya Amini, Tracey E Schefter, Kian Behbakht, Christine M Fisher
PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine cervical cancer is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis, yet there is a paucity of data to guide treatment decisions when managing patients with this diagnosis. Specifically, there are little data to aid practitioners in deciding if there is added value to brachytherapy given the additional time, cost, discomfort, and toxicity to patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We used the National Cancer Data Base to identify women with locally advanced neuroendocrine cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy to determine if the addition of brachytherapy improves outcomes in this disease...
October 3, 2016: Brachytherapy
Y Sun, P Chi, H Lin, X Lu, Y Huang, Z Xu, S Huang, X Wang
AIM: To assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) on inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) nodal metastasis and identify predictors for IMA nodal metastasis in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) after nCRT. METHOD: Propensity score matching of 1167 patients with LARC was performed. Clinicopathological predictors and survival rates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Compared to surgery alone, nCRT reduced the incidence of IMA nodal metastasis (before matching, 4...
September 24, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Juanita Crook
Squamous cell cancer of the penis is a radiocurable malignancy all too often managed solely by partial or total penectomy. Effective management of the primary tumor while preserving penile morphology and function is a priority. External radiotherapy and brachytherapy have a role to play in the definitive management of the primary tumor. Surgical nodal staging remains a cornerstone of management because it is the strongest predictor of survival, and inguinal status determines pelvic management. Postoperative radiotherapy of the regional nodes for high-risk pathology is indicated...
November 2016: Urologic Clinics of North America
Daisuke Taniguchi, Hiroshi Saeki, Yuichiro Nakashima, Ryosuke Tsutsumi, Sho Nishimura, Kensuke Kudou, Yu Nakaji, Hirotada Tajiri, Satoshi Tsutsumi, Takafumi Yukaya, Ryota Nakanishi, Masahiko Sugiyama, Hideto Sonoda, Kippei Ohgaki, Eiji Oki, Yoshihiko Maehara
A 65-year-old man with cT3N2M0 stage III cervical esophageal cancer underwent subtotal esophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction through the retrosternal route after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The anastomosis was located adjacent to the left side of the trachea, and a circular stapler was used for anastomosis. Postoperative anastomotic leakage occurred, and an esophagotracheal fistula between the esophagogastric anastomotic site and cartilage portion of the trachea was observed on postoperative day 44...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
Arancha Cebrián, Teresa Gómez Del Pulgar, Maria Jesús Fernández-Aceñero, Aurea Borrero-Palacios, Laura Del Puerto-Nevado, Javier Martínez-Useros, Juan Pablo Marín-Arango, Cristina Caramés, Ricardo Vega-Bravo, María Rodríguez-Remírez, Felix Manzarbeitia, Jesús García-Foncillas
AIM: Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) plays a key role in mitotic cell division and DNA damage repair. It has been observed that either up-regulated or down-regulated Plk1 could induce mitotic defects that results in aneuploidy and tumorigenesis, probably depending on the context. Few previous reports have associated Plk1 expression with prognosis and response to radiotherapy in rectal carcinomas. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic impact of Plk1 expression and its role in predicting response to neoadjuvant cheomoradiotherapy in rectal cancer...
September 22, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
Lihong Cong, Shikun Wang, Teng Gao, Likuan Hu
OBJECTIVE: We want to review the value of 18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography for response prediction of primary tumor in patients with esophageal cancer during or after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: Studies were searched in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library with specific search strategy. The published articles were included according to the criteria established in advance. The included studies were divided into two groups according to the time of the repeat positron emission tomography: during (Group A) or after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (Group B)...
October 4, 2016: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
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