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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722178/cdk9-a-key-player-in-cancer-and-other-diseases
#1
Lia Carolina Franco, Fátima Morales, Silvia Boffo, Antonio Giordano
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9 (CDK9) is part of a functional diverse group of enzymes responsible for cell cycle control and progression. It associates mainly with Cyclin T1 and forms the Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (p-TEFb) complex responsible for regulation of transcription elongation and mRNA maturation. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of CDK9 in many relevant pathologic processes, like cancer, cardiovascular diseases and viral replication. Herein we provide an overview of the different pathways in which CDK9 is directly and indirectly involved...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714472/targeting-the-differential-addiction-to-anti-apoptotic-bcl-2-family-for-cancer-therapy
#2
Akane Inoue-Yamauchi, Paul S Jeng, Kwanghee Kim, Hui-Chen Chen, Song Han, Yogesh Tengarai Ganesan, Kota Ishizawa, Sylvia Jebiwott, Yiyu Dong, Maria C Pietanza, Matthew D Hellmann, Mark G Kris, James J Hsieh, Emily H Cheng
BCL-2 family proteins are central regulators of mitochondrial apoptosis and validated anti-cancer targets. Using small cell lung cancer (SCLC) as a model, we demonstrated the presence of differential addiction of cancer cells to anti-apoptotic BCL-2, BCL-XL or MCL-1, which correlated with the respective protein expression ratio. ABT-263 (navitoclax), a BCL-2/BCL-XL inhibitor, prevented BCL-XL from sequestering activator BH3-only molecules (BH3s) and BAX but not BAK. Consequently, ABT-263 failed to kill BCL-XL-addicted cells with low activator BH3s and BCL-XL overabundance conferred resistance to ABT-263...
July 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701053/microrna-613-inhibits-the-progression-of-gastric-cancer-by-targeting-cdk9
#3
Yebin Lu, Ling Tang, Qi Zhang, Zhipeng Zhang, Wei Wei
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the development and progression of human malignancy. miR-613, as a tumour suppressor, was reported to decrease in several tumours. However, the expression levels and role of miR-613 in gastric cancer remain unknown. In this study, we found that miR-613 was evidently downregulated in gastric cancer tissue and cell. The functional analysis showed that miR-613 suppressed cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancer. Next, the dual-luciferase reporter system supported CDK9 as a direct target gene of miR-613...
July 13, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677507/the-hiv-1-tat-protein-mechanism-of-action-and-target-for-hiv-1-cure-strategies
#4
Andrew P Rice
The general mechanism involved in Tat activation of RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) elongation of the integrated HIV-1 was elucidated over 20 years ago. This mechanism involves Tat binding to the TAR RNA element that forms at the 5' end of viral transcripts and recruiting a general RNAP II elongation factor termed as P-TEFb. This elongation factor consists of CDK9 and Cyclin T1, and when recruited by Tat to TAR RNA, CDK9 was proposed to phosphorylate the carboxyl terminal domain of RNAP II and thereby activate elongation...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673542/bet-bromodomain-proteins-function-as-master-transcription-elongation-factors-independent-of-cdk9-recruitment
#5
Georg E Winter, Andreas Mayer, Dennis L Buckley, Michael A Erb, Justine E Roderick, Sarah Vittori, Jaime M Reyes, Julia di Iulio, Amanda Souza, Christopher J Ott, Justin M Roberts, Rhamy Zeid, Thomas G Scott, Joshiawa Paulk, Kate Lachance, Calla M Olson, Shiva Dastjerdi, Sophie Bauer, Charles Y Lin, Nathanael S Gray, Michelle A Kelliher, L Stirling Churchman, James E Bradner
Processive elongation of RNA Polymerase II from a proximal promoter paused state is a rate-limiting event in human gene control. A small number of regulatory factors influence transcription elongation on a global scale. Prior research using small-molecule BET bromodomain inhibitors, such as JQ1, linked BRD4 to context-specific elongation at a limited number of genes associated with massive enhancer regions. Here, the mechanistic characterization of an optimized chemical degrader of BET bromodomain proteins, dBET6, led to the unexpected identification of BET proteins as master regulators of global transcription elongation...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651979/discovery-of-a-highly-potent-selective-and-novel-cdk9-inhibitor-as-an-anticancer-drug-candidate
#6
Yongtao Li, Qingxiang Guo, Chao Zhang, Zhi Huang, Tianqi Wang, Xin Wang, Xiang Wang, Guangwei Xu, Yanhua Liu, Shengyong Yang, Yan Fan, Rong Xiang
A series of novel hybrid structure derivatives, containing both LEE011 and Cabozantinib pharmacophore, were designed, synthesized and evaluated. Surprisingly, a compound 4d was discovered that highly exhibited effective and selective activity of CDK9 inhibition with IC50=12nM. It effectively induced apoptosis in breast and lung cancer cell lines at nanomolar level. Molecular docking of 4d to ATP binding site of CDK9 kinase demonstrated a new hydrogen bonding between F atom of 4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy) group and ASN116 residue, compared with the positive control, LEE011...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646117/cyclin-dependent-kinase-9-is-a-novel-specific-molecular-target-in-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#7
Tomoko Narita, Takashi Ishida, Asahi Ito, Ayako Masaki, Shiori Kinoshita, Susumu Suzuki, Hisashi Takino, Takashi Yoshida, Masaki Ri, Shigeru Kusumoto, Hirokazu Komatsu, Kazunori Imada, Yuetsu Tanaka, Takaori-Kondo Akifumi, Hiroshi Inagaki, Arne Scholz, Philip Lienau, Taruho Kuroda, Ryuzo Ueda, Shinsuke Iida
Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), a subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex, regulates gene transcription elongation by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII).  The deregulation of CDK9/P-TEFb has important implications for many cancer types.  BAY 1143572 is a novel and highly selective CDK9/P-TEFb inhibitor currently being investigated in phase I studies. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of BAY 1143572 in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL)...
June 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642448/combined-brd4-and-cdk9-inhibition-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach-in-malignant-rhabdoid-tumors
#8
Natalia Moreno, Till Holsten, Julius Mertins, Annabelle Zhogbi, Pascal Johann, Marcel Kool, Michael Meisterernst, Kornelius Kerl
Rhabdoid tumors are caused by the deletion of SMARCB1, whose protein encodes the SMARCB1 subunit of the chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF that is involved in global chromatin organization and gene expression control. Simultaneously inhibiting the main players involved in the deregulated transcription machinery is a promising option for preventing exaggerated tumor cell proliferation and survival as it may bypass compensatory mechanisms. In support of this hypothesis, we report efficient impairment of cellular proliferation and strong induction of cell death elicited by inhibition of bromodomain protein BRD4 and transcription kinase CDK9 using small molecular compounds...
June 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636052/chemically-induced-degradation-of-cdk9-by-a-proteolysis-targeting-chimera-protac
#9
Caroline M Robb, Jacob I Contreras, Smit Kour, Margaret A Taylor, Mohammad Abid, Yogesh A Sonawane, Muhammad Zahid, Daryl J Murry, Amarnath Natarajan, Sandeep Rana
Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family, is involved in transcriptional elongation of several target genes. CDK9 is ubiquitously expressed and has been shown to contribute to a variety of malignancies such as pancreatic, prostate and breast cancers. Here we report the development of a heterobifunctional small molecule proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) capable of cereblon (CRBN) mediated proteasomal degradation of CDK9. In HCT116 cells, it selectively degrades CDK9 while sparing other CDK family members...
July 4, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630312/uncovering-brd4-hyperphosphorylation-associated-with-cellular-transformation-in-nut-midline-carcinoma
#10
Ranran Wang, Xing-Jun Cao, Katarzyna Kulej, Wei Liu, Tongcui Ma, Margo MacDonald, Cheng-Ming Chiang, Benjamin A Garcia, Jianxin You
The epigenetic reader BRD4 plays a vital role in transcriptional regulation, cellular growth control, and cell-cycle progression. Dysregulation of BRD4 function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of cancers. However, how BRD4 is regulated to maintain its normal function in healthy cells and how alteration of this process leads to cancer remain poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that BRD4 is hyperphosphorylated in NUT midline carcinoma and identified CDK9 as a potential kinase mediating BRD4 hyperphosphorylation...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608935/cdk9-regulates-apoptosis-of-myoblast-cells-by-modulation-of-microrna-1-expression
#11
Vahideh Tarhriz, Kay-Dietrich Wagner, Zahra Masoumi, Ommoleila Molavi, Mohammad Saeid Hejazi, Hossein Ghanbarian
Cdk9 is the catalytic core of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and regulates transcriptional elongation factors by phosphorylation of RNA pol II. Apart from its role on myogenic gene expression, Cdk9 regulation of muscle-specific microRNAs in the early stage of cardiomyogenesis is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Cdk9 not only regulates myogenic transcription factors, but also controls muscle-specific microRNAs. During cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells, high Cdk9 expression preceded up-regulation of miR-1...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578223/serpinb2-is-regulated-by-dynamic-interactions-with-pause-release-proteins-and-enhancer-rnas
#12
Lihua Shii, Li Song, Kelly Maurer, Zhe Zhang, Kathleen E Sullivan
The SERPINB2 gene is strongly upregulated in inflammatory states. In monocytes, it can constitute up to 1% of total cellular protein. It functions in protection from proteotoxic stress and plays a role in angioedema. The purpose of this study was to define the roles of enhancer RNAs embedded in the SERPIN gene complex. We found that the upstream enhancer RNAs upregulated SERPINB2 and the enhancer RNAs were expressed prior to those of SERPINB2 mRNA. Studies of the SERPINB2 promoter demonstrated the presence of an RNA polymerase II pause-inducing protein, NELF...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539972/site-specific-regulation-of-histone-h1-phosphorylation-in-pluripotent-cell-differentiation
#13
Ruiqi Liao, Craig A Mizzen
BACKGROUND: Structural variation among histone H1 variants confers distinct modes of chromatin binding that are important for differential regulation of chromatin condensation, gene expression and other processes. Changes in the expression and genomic distributions of H1 variants during cell differentiation appear to contribute to phenotypic differences between cell types, but few details are known about the roles of individual H1 variants and the significance of their disparate capacities for phosphorylation...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520795/birc6-mediates-imatinib-resistance-independently-of-mcl-1
#14
Denis O Okumu, Michael P East, Merlin Levine, Laura E Herring, Raymond Zhang, Thomas S K Gilbert, David W Litchfield, Yanping Zhang, Lee M Graves
Baculoviral IAP repeat containing 6 (BIRC6) is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), a family of functionally and structurally related proteins that inhibit apoptosis. BIRC6 has been implicated in drug resistance in several different human cancers, however mechanisms regulating BIRC6 have not been extensively explored. Our phosphoproteomic analysis of an imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line (MYL-R) identified increased amounts of a BIRC6 peptide phosphorylated at S480, S482, and S486 compared to imatinib-sensitive CML cells (MYL)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481868/prolyl-isomerase-pin1-regulates-the-stability-transcriptional-activity-and-oncogenic-potential-of-brd4
#15
X Hu, S-H Dong, J Chen, X Z Zhou, R Chen, S Nair, K P Lu, L-F Chen
BRD4 has emerged as an important factor in tumorigenesis by promoting the transcription of genes involved in cancer development. However, how BRD4 is regulated in cancer cells remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the stability and functions of BRD4 are positively regulated by prolyl isomerase PIN1 in gastric cancer cells. PIN1 directly binds to phosphorylated threonine (T) 204 of BRD4 as revealed by peptide binding and crystallographic studies and enhances BRD4's stability by inhibiting its ubiquitination...
May 8, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448849/regulation-of-the-human-papillomavirus-type-16-late-promoter-by-transcriptional-elongation
#16
William K Songock, Matthew L Scott, Jason M Bodily
Transcripts from the late promoter of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are upregulated upon host cell differentiation. Differentiation-dependent transcript regulation is thought to sequester viral antigens in the uppermost epithelial layers, facilitating immune evasion. The mechanisms regulating late promoter upregulation during differentiation are poorly characterized. We show that the late promoter is upregulated at the transcriptional level and that the viral enhancer stimulates promoter activity. Using kinase inhibition and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we show evidence for differentiation-dependent enhancement of transcript elongation...
July 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434229/cell-cycle-dependent-kinase-cdk9-is-a-postexposure-drug-target-against-human-adenoviruses
#17
Vibhu Prasad, Maarit Suomalainen, Silvio Hemmi, Urs F Greber
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) infect respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts and give rise to eye infections and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). They persist in lymphoid tissue and cause morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised people. Treatments with significant postexposure efficacy are not available. Here, we report that inhibition of the cell cycle-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9) by RNA interference, or the compound flavopiridol, blocked infections with HAdV-C2/5, EKC-causing HAdV-D8/37, and progeny formation in human corneal epithelial and cancer cells...
June 9, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426094/sirt7-dependent-deacetylation-of-cdk9-activates-rna-polymerase-ii-transcription
#18
Maximilian F Blank, Sifan Chen, Fabian Poetz, Martina Schnölzer, Renate Voit, Ingrid Grummt
SIRT7 is an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that regulates cell growth and proliferation. Previous studies have shown that SIRT7 is required for RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription and pre-rRNA processing. Here, we took a proteomic approach to identify novel molecular targets and characterize the role of SIRT7 in non-nucleolar processes. We show that SIRT7 interacts with numerous proteins involved in transcriptional regulation and RNA metabolism, the majority of interactions requiring ongoing transcription...
March 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422315/regulation-of-the-alternative-splicing-and-function-of-cyclin-t1-by-the-serine-arginine-rich-protein-asf-sf2
#19
Jieqiong Zhou, Guozhen Gao, Panpan Hou, Chun-Mei Li, Deyin Guo
Positive transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb) is required for the release of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) from its pause near the gene promoters and thus for efficient proceeding to the transcription elongation. It consists of two core subunits-CDK9 and one of T-typed or K-typed cyclin, of which, cyclin T1/CDK9 is the major and most studied combination. We have previously identified a novel splice variant of cyclin T1, cyclin T1b, which negatively regulates the transcription elongation of HIV-1 genes as well as several host genes...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404924/antitumor-effects-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-9-inhibition-in-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#20
Zhimin Tong, Devkumar Chatterjee, Defeng Deng, Omkara Veeranki, Alicia Mejia, Jaffer A Ajani, Wayne Hofstetter, Steven Lin, Sushovan Guha, Scott Kopetz, Sunil Krishnan, Dipen Maru
Role of cyclin dependent kinase 9(CDK9) as a potential target in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is unknown. We investigated CDK9 protein expression in EAC and Barrett's esophagus and role of CDK9 in oncogenic processes of EAC in vitro and in murine xenografts. The CDK9 expression was significantly higher in EAC as compared to Barrett's esophagus in patient samples. Stable shCDK9 in SKGT4 reduced proliferation by 37% at day 4, increased apoptosis at 48 hours and induced G1 cell cycle arrest at 48 hours (58...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
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