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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682280/sar-study-on-n-2-n-4-disubstituted-pyrimidine-2-4-diamines-as-effective-cdk2-cdk9-inhibitors-and-antiproliferative-agents
#1
Liandong Jing, Yanbo Tang, Masuo Goto, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Zhiyan Xiao
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are pivotal kinases in cell cycle transition and gene transcription. A series of N 2 , N 4 -diphenylpyrimidine-2,4-diamines were previously identified as potent CDK2/CDK9 inhibitors. To explore the SAR of this structural prototype, twenty-four novel N 2 , N 4 -disubstituted pyrimidine-2,4-diamines were designed and synthesized. Among them, twenty-one compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activities against both CDK2/cyclin A and CDK9/cyclin T1 systems, and the most potent CDK2 and CDK9 inhibitors, 3g and 3c , showed IC50 values of 83 nM and 65 nM respectively...
April 2, 2018: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649811/transcription-elongation-factor-p-tefb-is-involved-in-il-17f-signaling-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
Masayuki Nakajima, Mio Kawaguchi, Masashi Matsuyama, Kyoko Ota, Junichi Fujita, Satoshi Matsukura, Shau-Ku Huang, Yuko Morishima, Yukio Ishii, Hiroaki Satoh, Tohru Sakamoto, Nobuyuki Hizawa
BACKGROUND: IL-17F is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including asthma and COPD. However, the effects of steroids on the function of IL-17F signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. One of the transcription elongation factors, positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) composed of cyclin T1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), is known as a novel checkpoint regulator of gene expression via bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4). METHODS: Human airway smooth muscle cells were stimulated with IL-17F and the expression of IL-8 was evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA...
April 12, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588524/sumo-suppresses-and-myc-amplifies-transcription-globally-by-regulating-cdk9-sumoylation
#3
Fang Yu, Guang Shi, Shimeng Cheng, Jiwei Chen, Shwu-Yuan Wu, Zhiqiang Wang, Nansong Xia, Yunhao Zhai, Zhenxing Wang, Yu Peng, Dong Wang, James X Du, Lujian Liao, Sheng-Zhong Duan, Tieliu Shi, Jinke Cheng, Cheng-Ming Chiang, Jiwen Li, Jiemin Wong
Regulation of transcription is fundamental to the control of cellular gene expression and function. Although recent studies have revealed a role for the oncoprotein MYC in amplifying global transcription, little is known as to how the global transcription is suppressed. Here we report that SUMO and MYC mediate opposite effects upon global transcription by controlling the level of CDK9 sumoylation. On one hand, SUMO suppresses global transcription via sumoylation of CDK9, the catalytic subunit of P-TEFb kinase essential for productive transcriptional elongation...
March 27, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563491/rna-cytosine-methylation-and-methyltransferases-mediate-chromatin-organization-and-5-azacytidine-response-and-resistance-in-leukaemia
#4
Jason X Cheng, Li Chen, Yuan Li, Adam Cloe, Ming Yue, Jiangbo Wei, Kenneth A Watanabe, Jamile M Shammo, John Anastasi, Qingxi J Shen, Richard A Larson, Chuan He, Michelle M Le Beau, James W Vardiman
The roles of RNA 5-methylcytosine (RNA:m5 C) and RNA:m5 C methyltransferases (RCMTs) in lineage-associated chromatin organization and drug response/resistance are unclear. Here we demonstrate that the RCMTs, namely NSUN3 and DNMT2, directly bind hnRNPK, a conserved RNA-binding protein. hnRNPK interacts with the lineage-determining transcription factors (TFs), GATA1 and SPI1/PU.1, and with CDK9/P-TEFb to recruit RNA-polymerase-II at nascent RNA, leading to formation of 5-Azacitidine (5-AZA)-sensitive chromatin structure...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559581/rna-glycosidase-and-other-agents-target-tat-to-inhibit-hiv-1-transcription
#5
David Harrich, Hongping Jin
The HIV-1 tat gene encodes a small 86-104 amino acid protein depending on the HIV-1 strain. Tat is essential for HIV-1 replication through interactions with numerous cellular transcription factors. The interaction between Tat and P-TEFb, which is a cellular protein complex composed of cyclin T1 and CDK9, delivers P-TEFb to the newly transcribed viral mRNAs where phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II by CDK9 leads to highly efficient mRNA transcription. It has long been recognized that Tat is a potential anti-HIV-1 target and possibly a viral Achilles' heel...
March 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559264/an-in-silico-designed-flavone-derivative-6-fluoro-4-hydroxy-3-5-dimetoxyflavone-prevents-replication-of-human-cytomegalovirus-in-infected-cells-stronger-than-ganciclovir
#6
Kazuhiro J Fujimoto, Daiki Nema, Masayuki Ninomiya, Mamoru Koketsu, Hidetaka Sadanari, Masaya Takemoto, Tohru Daikoku, Tsugiya Murayama
A novel type of antiviral agent for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is required, because the appearance of ganciclovir (GCV) resistant viruses has been reported. Tricin (4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone) has been shown to suppress significantly HCMV replication in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblast cells. Recently, we revealed that the action of tricin is different from that of GCV and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is one of the target proteins of tricin. These results suggested that tricin is considered as a novel type of anti-HCMV agent...
March 17, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550093/discovery-of-novel-cdk-inhibitors-via-scaffold-hopping-from-can508
#7
Liandong Jing, Yanbo Tang, Zhiyan Xiao
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are promising drug targets for various human diseases, especially for cancers. Scaffold hopping strategy was applied on CAN508, a known selective CDK9 inhibitor, and a series of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine compounds were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as CDK2 and CDK9 inhibitors. Most compounds exhibited moderate to potent inhibitory activities against both CDK2/cyclin A and CDK9/cyclin T1 systems. Among them, compound 2e showed IC50 values of 0.36 μM for CDK2 and 1.8 μM for CDK9, respectively...
May 1, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545334/icec0942-an-orally-bioavailable-selective-inhibitor-of-cdk7-for-cancer-treatment
#8
Hetal Patel, Manikandan Periyasamy, Georgina P Sava, Alexander Bondke, Brian W Slafer, Sebastian H B Kroll, Marion Barbazanges, Richard Starkey, Silvia Ottaviani, Alison Harrod, Eric O Aboagye, Laki Buluwela, Matthew J Fuchter, Anthony G M Barrett, Charles Coombes, Simak Ali
Recent reports indicate that some cancer types are especially sensitive to transcription inhibition, suggesting that targeting the transcriptional machinery provides new approaches to cancer treatment. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)7 is necessary for transcription, and acts by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (PolII) to enable transcription initiation. CDK7 additionally regulates the activities of a number of transcription factors, including Estrogen receptor-α (ER). Here we describe a new, orally bioavailable CDK7 inhibitor, ICEC0942...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491412/the-novel-bet-bromodomain-inhibitor-bi-894999-represses-super-enhancer-associated-transcription-and-synergizes-with-cdk9-inhibition-in-aml
#9
Daniel Gerlach, Ulrike Tontsch-Grunt, Anke Baum, Johannes Popow, Dirk Scharn, Marco H Hofmann, Harald Engelhardt, Onur Kaya, Janina Beck, Norbert Schweifer, Thomas Gerstberger, Johannes Zuber, Fabio Savarese, Norbert Kraut
Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitors have been reported as treatment options for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in preclinical models and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. This work presents a novel potent and selective BET inhibitor (BI 894999), which has recently entered clinical trials (NCT02516553). In preclinical studies, this compound is highly active in AML cell lines, primary patient samples, and xenografts. HEXIM1 is described as an excellent pharmacodynamic biomarker for target engagement in tumors as well as in blood...
March 1, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490263/resistance-to-bet-inhibitor-leads-to-alternative-therapeutic-vulnerabilities-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#10
Aishwarya Pawar, Paradesi Naidu Gollavilli, Shaomeng Wang, Irfan A Asangani
BRD4 plays a major role in the transcription networks orchestrated by androgen receptor (AR) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Several BET inhibitors (BETi) that displace BRD4 from chromatin are being evaluated in clinical trials for CRPC. Here, we describe mechanisms of acquired resistance to BETi that are amenable to targeted therapies in CRPC. BETi-resistant CRPC cells displayed cross-resistance to a variety of BETi in the absence of gatekeeper mutations, exhibited reduced chromatin-bound BRD4, and were less sensitive to BRD4 degraders/knockdown, suggesting a BRD4-independent transcription program...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471852/cdk9-inhibitors-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#11
REVIEW
Silvia Boffo, Angela Damato, Luigi Alfano, Antonio Giordano
Current treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is less than optimal, but increased understanding of disease pathobiology and genomics has led to clinical investigation of novel targeted therapies and rational combinations. Targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) pathway, which is dysregulated in AML, is an attractive approach. Inhibition of CDK9 leads to downregulation of cell survival genes regulated by super enhancers such as MCL-1, MYC, and cyclin D1. As CDK9 inhibitors are nonselective, predictive biomarkers that may help identify patients most likely to respond to CDK9 inhibitors are now being utilized, with the goal of improving efficacy and safety...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466697/cdk-related-kinase-9-regulates-rna-polymerase-ii-mediated-transcription-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#12
Abhijit S Deshmukh, Pallabi Mitra, Ashok Kolagani, Rajkumar Gurupwar
Cyclin-dependent kinases are an essential part of eukaryotic transcriptional machinery. In Apicomplexan parasites, the role and relevance of the kinases in the multistep process of transcription seeks more attention given the absence of full repertoire of canonical Cdks and cognate cyclin partners. In this study, we functionally characterize T. gondii Cdk-related kinase 9 (TgCrk9) showing maximal homology to eukaryotic Cdk9. An uncanonical cyclin, TgCyclin L, colocalizes with TgCrk9 in the parasite nucleus and co-immunoprecipitate, could activate the kinase in-vitro...
February 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434052/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-tumor-and-anti-inflammatory-capabilities-of-the-novel-gsk3-and-ckd9-inhibitor-abc1183
#13
Randy S Schrecengost, Cecelia L Green, Yan Zhuang, Staci N Keller, Ryan A Smith, Lynn W Maines, Charles D Smith
Glycogen synthase kinase-3s (GSK3α and GSK3β) are constitutively active protein kinases that target over 100 substrates, incorporate into numerous protein complexes, and regulate vital cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) regulates RNA production as a component of positive transcription elongation factor b and promotes expression of oncogenic and inflammatory genes. Simultaneous inhibition of these signaling nodes is a promising approach for drug discovery, although previous compounds exhibit limited selectivity and clinical efficacy...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416031/cdk9-regulates-a-promoter-proximal-checkpoint-to-modulate-rna-polymerase-ii-elongation-rate-in-fission-yeast
#14
Gregory T Booth, Pabitra K Parua, Miriam Sansó, Robert P Fisher, John T Lis
Post-translational modifications of the transcription elongation complex provide mechanisms to fine-tune gene expression, yet their specific impacts on RNA polymerase II regulation remain difficult to ascertain. Here, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we examine the role of Cdk9, and related Mcs6/Cdk7 and Lsk1/Cdk12 kinases, on transcription at base-pair resolution with Precision Run-On sequencing (PRO-seq). Within a minute of Cdk9 inhibition, phosphorylation of Pol II-associated factor, Spt5 is undetectable. The effects of Cdk9 inhibition are more severe than inhibition of Cdk7 and Cdk12, resulting in a shift of Pol II toward the transcription start site (TSS)...
February 7, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415456/bet-family-protein-brd4-an-emerging-actor-in-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-inflammation-and-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Azadeh Hajmirza, Anouk Emadali, Arnaud Gauthier, Olivier Casasnovas, Rémy Gressin, Mary B Callanan
NFκB (Nuclear Factor- κ -light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) signaling elicits global transcriptional changes by activating cognate promoters and through genome-wide remodeling of cognate regulatory elements called "super enhancers". BET (Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain) protein family inhibitor studies have implicated BET protein member BRD4 and possibly other BET proteins in NFκB-dependent promoter and super-enhancer modulation. Members of the BET protein family are known to bind acetylated chromatin to facilitate access by transcriptional regulators to chromatin, as well as to assist the activity of transcription elongation complexes via CDK9/pTEFb...
February 6, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374194/2-phenylquinazolinones-as-dual-activity-tankyrase-kinase-inhibitors
#16
Yves Nkizinkiko, Jenny Desantis, Jarkko Koivunen, Teemu Haikarainen, Sudarshan Murthy, Luca Sancineto, Serena Massari, Federica Ianni, Ezeogo Obaji, Maria I Loza, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Jose Brea, Oriana Tabarrini, Lari Lehtiö
Tankyrases (TNKSs) are enzymes specialized in catalyzing poly-ADP-ribosylation of target proteins. Several studies have validated TNKSs as anti-cancer drug targets due to their regulatory role in Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Recently a lot of effort has been put into developing more potent and selective TNKS inhibitors and optimizing them towards anti-cancer agents. We noticed that some 2-phenylquinazolinones (2-PQs) reported as CDK9 inhibitors were similar to previously published TNKS inhibitors. In this study, we profiled this series of 2-PQs against TNKS and selected kinases that are involved in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335245/cdk9-mediated-phosphorylation-controls-the-interaction-of-tip60-with-the-transcriptional-machinery
#17
Prisca Brauns-Schubert, Florian Schubert, Manuela Wissler, Martina Weiss, Lisa Schlicher, Simon Bessler, Mariam Safavi, Cornelius Miething, Christoph Borner, Tilman Brummer, Ulrich Maurer
The acetyltransferase TIP60 is regulated by phosphorylation, and we have previously shown that phosphorylation of TIP60 on S86 by GSK-3 promotes p53-mediated induction of the BCL-2 protein PUMA. TIP60 phosphorylation by GSK-3 requires a priming phosphorylation on S90, and here, we identify CDK9 as a TIP60S90 kinase. We demonstrate that a phosphorylation-deficient mutant, TIP60S90A , exhibits reduced interaction with chromatin, histone 3 and RNA Pol II, while its association with the TIP60 complex subunit EPC1 is not affected...
February 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329658/novel-compounds-with-potent-cdk9-inhibitory-activity-for-the-treatment-of-myeloma
#18
Zsófia Czudor, Mária Balogh, Péter Bánhegyi, Sándor Boros, Nóra Breza, Judit Dobos, Márk Fábián, Zoltán Horváth, Eszter Illyés, Péter Markó, Anna Sipos, Csaba Szántai-Kis, Bálint Szokol, László Őrfi
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and Polo-like kinases (PLKs) play key role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The aim of our study was originally the further development of our recently discovered polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitors. A series of new 2,4-disubstituted pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized around the original hit, but their PLK1 inhibitory activity was very poor. However the novel compounds showed nanomolar CDK9 inhibitory activity and very good antiproliferative effect on multiple myeloma cell lines (RPMI-8226)...
February 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297149/repurposing-of-the-cdk-inhibitor-pha-767491-as-a-nrf2-inhibitor-drug-candidate-for-cancer-therapy-via-redox-modulation
#19
Hsiu-Yu Liu, Andrea Z Tuckett, Myles Fennell, Ralph Garippa, Johannes L Zakrzewski
Oxidative stress and cellular response mechanisms such as NRF2-mediated antioxidant responses play differential roles in healthy and diseased cells. Constant generation and elimination of high levels of reactive oxygen species is a hallmark of many cancer cell types; this phenomenon is not observed during steady state of healthy cells. Manipulation of NRF2 transcriptional activity and the cellular redox homeostasis therefore has potential to be therapeutically exploitable for cancer therapy by preferentially targeting cancer cells for induction of oxidative stress...
January 3, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291023/combined-venetoclax-and-alvocidib-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#20
James Bogenberger, Clifford Whatcott, Nanna Hansen, Devora Delman, Chang-Xin Shi, Wontak Kim, Hillary Haws, Katherine Soh, Ye Sol Lee, Peter Peterson, Adam Siddiqui-Jain, Steven Weitman, Keith Stewart, David Bearss, Ruben Mesa, Steven Warner, Raoul Tibes
More effective treatment options for elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients are needed as only 25-50% of patients respond to standard-of-care therapies, response duration is typically short, and disease progression is inevitable even with some novel therapies and ongoing clinical trials. Anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family inhibitors, such as venetoclax, are promising therapies for AML. Nonetheless, resistance is emerging. We demonstrate that venetoclax combined with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor alvocidib is potently synergistic in venetoclax-sensitive and -resistant AML models in vitro , ex vivo and in vivo ...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
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