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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622599/adrenergic-regulation-of-cytoplasmic-structures-related-to-secretory-processes-in-pig-pinealocytes-an-ultrastructural-quantitative-study
#1
Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz, Bogdan Lewczuk, Natalia Ziółkowska, Magdalena Prusik
Two structures, considered as secretory in nature, are present in the pinealocytes in of the domestic pig show the presence of two structures, which are considered as secretory in nature - the dense core vesicles (DCV) and the membrane bounded (dense) bodies (MBB). The latter are extremely numerous in pig pinealocytes (they occupy 6-20% of the cytoplasm), and the number of MBB changes under different physiological and experimental conditions. Norepinephrine is the main neurotransmitter that regulates the secretion of pineal melatonin...
June 9, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597249/differential-regulation-of-protein-phosphatase-1-pp1-isoforms-in-human-heart-failure-and-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Stefanie Meyer-Roxlau, Simon Lämmle, Annett Opitz, Stephan Künzel, Julius P Joos, Stefan Neef, Karolina Sekeres, Samuel T Sosalla, Friedrich Schöndube, Konstantin Alexiou, Lars S Maier, Dobromir Dobrev, Kaomei Guan, Silvio Weber, Ali El-Armouche
Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a key regulator of important cardiac signaling pathways. Dysregulation of PP1 has been heavily implicated in cardiac dysfunctions. Accordingly, pharmacological targeting of PP1 activity is considered for therapeutic intervention in human cardiomyopathies. Recent evidence from animal models implicated previously unrecognized, isoform-specific activities of PP1 in the healthy and diseased heart. Therefore, this study examined the expression of the distinct PP1 isoforms PP1α, β, and γ in human heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) and addressed the consequences of β-adrenoceptor blocker (beta-blocker) therapy for HF patients with reduced ejection fraction on PP1 isoform expression...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539361/synthesis-of-the-ca-2-mobilizing-messengers-naadp-and-cadpr-by-intracellular-cd38-enzyme-in-mouse-heart-role-in-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-signaling
#3
Wee K Lin, Emma L Bolton, Wilian A Cortopassi, Yanwen Wang, Fiona O'Brien, Matylda Maciejewska, Matthew P Jacobson, Clive Garnham, Margarida Ruas, John Parrington, Ming Lei, Rebecca Sitsapesan, Antony Galione, Derek A Terrar
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) are Ca(2+)-mobilizing messengers important for modulating cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and pathophysiology. CD38, which belongs to the ADP-ribosyl cyclase (ARC) family, catalyzes synthesis of both NAADP and cADPR in vitro However, it remains unclear whether this is the main enzyme for their production under physiological conditions. Here, we show that membrane fractions from WT but not CD38(-/-) mouse hearts supported NAADP and cADPR synthesis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522796/effects-of-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-and-catechol-o-methyl-transferase-comt-polymorphism-on-postoperative-outcome-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#4
Stefan Dhein, Pascal M Dohmen, Matthias Sauer, Julia Tews, Johannes Weickmann, Anne-Kathrin Funkat, Martin Misfeld, Michael A Borger, Friedrich W Mohr
BACKGROUND There is a long-standing debate about the role of beta-adrenoceptor polymorphisms in the cardiovascular system. We wanted to elucidate whether β1-adrenoceptor-polymorphisms affects the postoperative catecholamine consumption and the length of intermediate care unit stay in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and whether this might be enhanced or attenuated by catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) polymorphism. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 116 patients (63±1.2 years; 34% females; 81±1 kg) undergoing cardiac surgery...
May 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486910/clinical-significance-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
Ru-Xia Liu, Qian Luo, Hui Qiao, Juan Yu, Qian-Long Zhang, Peng Wang, Yong-Gang Cao, Chang-Lin Jiang, Li-Hui Qu
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is defined as a complex disease of clinically characterized by elevated pulmonary pressure eventually resulting in right heart failure and premature death. To date, PAH still remains a life-threatening disease. Published evidence suggests that patients with PAH present profound sympathetic nervous system abnormalities and sympathetic activity has been shown to be increased. The mechanism of PAH is still complex and poorly understood. <p> Results: Some data have showed that adrenoceptors are involved in the process of the pathology and have different functions in the progression of PAH followed by heart failure...
January 12, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459660/beta-adrenoceptor-polymorphism-and-clinical-response-to-sertraline-in-major-depressive-patients
#6
Negar Firouzabadi, Roshanak Raeesi, Kamiar Zomorrodian, Ehsan Bahramali, Ilnaz Yavarian
PURPOSE: The adrenoceptor family, as one of the main contributors in regulating the noradrenergic system, has been studied in involvement of depression and its treatment. A functional polymorphism of G1165C on beta adrenoceptor (βAR) enhances post receptor signalling and is assumed to be involved in pharmacotherapy of depression. The aim of the present study was to discern the influence of G1165C polymorphism in the β1AR gene on individual differences in response to sertraline. METHODS: One hundred newly diagnosed patients completed 6 weeks of sertraline treatment...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437032/autonomic-receptor-mediated-regulation-of-production-and-release-of-nitric-oxide-in-normal-and-malignant-human-urothelial-cells
#7
Michael Winder, Renata Vesela, Patrik Aronsson, Bhavik Patel, Thomas Carlsson
In the urinary bladder, the main source of NO seems to be the urothelium and the underlying suburothelium. In this study, we aimed to characterize how receptors in the human urothelium regulate the production and release of NO. For this, we cultured two human urothelial cell lines - the normal immortalized cell line UROtsa and the malignant cell line T24. These were treated with an array of agonists and antagonists with affinity for adrenergic, muscarinic and purinergic receptors. The production of NO and expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was studied by immunocytochemistry and western blotting...
April 24, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434969/translational-science-approach-for-assessment-of-cardiovascular-effects-and-proarrhythmogenic-potential-of-the-beta-3-adrenergic-agonist-mirabegron
#8
Cees Korstanje, Masanori Suzuki, Koichiro Yuno, Shuichi Sato, Masashi Ukai, Marlowe J Schneidkraut, Gan X Yan
INTRODUCTION: Translational assessment of cardiac safety parameters is a challenge in clinical development of beta-3 adrenoceptor agonists. The preclinical tools are presented that were used for assessing human safety for mirabegron. METHODS: Studies were performed on electrical conductance at ion channels responsible for cardiac repolarization (IKr, IKs, Ito, INa, and ICa,L), on QT-interval, subendocardial APD90, Tpeak-end interval, and arrhythmia's in ventricular dog wedge tissue in vitro and on cardiovascular function (BP, HR, and QTc) in conscious dogs...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410967/involvement-of-alpha-and-beta-adrenoceptors-in-the-automaticity-of-the-isolated-guinea-pig-pulmonary-vein-myocardium
#9
Masahiko Irie, Yayoi Tsuneoka, Mariko Shimobayashi, Nao Hasegawa, Yusuke Tanaka, Soh Mochizuki, Sho Ichige, Shogo Hamaguchi, Iyuki Namekata, Hikaru Tanaka
We examined the involvement of adrenoceptors in the automaticity of the pulmonary vein myocardium, which probably plays a crucial role in the generation of atrial fibrillation. The automatic activity of the myocardium in guinea pig pulmonary vein tissue preparations were monitored by contractile force or membrane potential measurement. In quiescent preparations, application of noradrenaline induced an automatic activity. The firing frequency was reduced by prazosin or atenolol. Methoxamine induced an automatic activity of low frequency, which was accelerated by further application of isoproterenol...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389717/sex-difference-in-expression-and-function-of-beta-adrenoceptors-in-macrovessels-role-of-the-endothelium
#10
Suzan Al-Gburi, Andreas Deussen, Birgit Zatschler, Silvio Weber, Stephan Künzel, Ali El-Armouche, Kristina Lorenz, Maria Cybularz, Henning Morawietz, Irakli Kopaliani
Estrogen modulates adrenergic reactivity of macrovessels, resulting in weaker α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in females than males. However, the mechanisms governing this important sex-specific difference are not well understood. We hypothesized that vessels of females express more dilatory β-adrenoceptors, which counteract constrictive effects of α-adrenoceptors. This hypothesis was tested using aortas of normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR), along with human mammary artery. Selective blockade of β1 (CGP20712) or β3 (SR59230A), but not β2 (ICI118,551) adrenoceptors, greatly increased α-adrenergic constriction (norepinephrine) of aorta in female SHRs, but not in male SHRs at 12 weeks of age...
May 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387384/nebivolol-valsartan-fixed-dose-combination-for-treatment-of-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
D M Paton
Clinical trials demonstrated that a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of the beta-blocker nebivolol (5 mg) and the angiotensin II antagonist valsartan (80 mg) produced a significant reduction of both diastolic and systolic blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Both nebivolol and valsartan contributed to this effect, partial additivity of 86.6% and 82.2% being observed for diastolic and systolic blood pressure, respectively. These values are very similar to the additivity ratios of other recently approved FDCs for hypertension...
January 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279368/imaging-guided-cardioprotective-treatment-in-a-community-elderly-population-of-stage-b-heart-failure
#12
Hong Yang, Kazuaki Negishi, Ying Wang, Mark Nolan, Thomas H Marwick
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the benefit of care guided by the detection of stage B heart failure (SBHF) using advanced echocardiography for the reduction of new HF in the community. BACKGROUND: The detection of nonischemic SBHF has been facilitated by advanced echocardiographic imaging modalities. However, improved outcomes have not been proven as they are predicated on benefit of treatment. METHODS: Between September 13, 2013 and November 6, 2015, 618 asymptomatic community-based patients with HF risks (age 71 ± 5 years) were randomized to care guided by advanced echocardiography (myocardial deformation and detailed diastolic function) versus usual care...
March 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185314/beta-3-adrenergic-receptor-is-expressed-in-acetylcholine-containing-nerve-fibers-of-the-human-urinary-bladder-an-immunohistochemical-study
#13
Ana Coelho, Tiago Antunes-Lopes, James Gillespie, Francisco Cruz
AIMS: To identify in the human bladder the structures which express the Beta-3 adrenoceptor (β3AR). METHODS: Human bladders from cadaveric organ donors (equally balanced in sex and age) were collected. Bladders were immediately fixed in paraformaldehyde and further processed for cryostat sectioning. Single and double immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against β3AR C-terminal, β3AR N-terminal, a pan-neuronal marker (β3-Tubulin) and markers of cholinergic (Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter), adrenergic (Tyrosine Hidroxylase), and peptidergic (Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide) nerve fibers...
February 10, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160292/preoperative-%C3%AE-blockade-and-hypertension-in-the-first-hour-of-functional-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#14
Samuel A Schechtman, Aileen P Wertz, Amy Shanks, Aleda Thompson, Kevin Tremper, Melissa A Pynnonen, David W Healy
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Local anesthetic with epinephrine is commonly injected into the nasal mucosa during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Systemic absorption of epinephrine following local injection may occur, resulting in a mild sympathetic response. This study seeks to determine whether an exaggerated sympathetic response to epinephrine is demonstrated in patients undergoing FESS treated preoperatively with established pharmacologic beta (β) adrenoceptor blockade. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing FESS at a tertiary care university hospital...
February 3, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092625/adrenergic-control-of-pinealocyte-chondriome-an-in-vitro-study
#15
B Przybylska-Gornowicz, B Lewczuk, N Ziółkowska, M Prusik
Norepinephrine released from sympathetic innervation plays the main role in the regulation of melatonin secretion in mammalian pinealocytes. The present study was conducted for the following reasons: 1) to establish whether the pinealocyte chondriome is controlled by norepinephrine, 2) to determine the effect of adrenergic stimulation on mitochondria, and 3) to characterize adrenoceptors involved in the regulation of the chondriome. The static organ culture of the pineal gland was used. The explants were incubated for 5 consecutive days in control medium and between 20:00 and 08:00 in medium with the presence of 10 μM norepinephrine - adrenergic agonist; isoproterenol - beta-adrenoceptor agonist; cirazoline, methoxamine, M-6364 - alfa1 - adrenoceptors agonists or PMA - activator of PKC...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088894/clinical-significance-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#16
Ru-Xia Liu, Qian Luo, Hui Qiao, Juan Yu, Qian-Long Zhang, Peng Wang, Yong-Gang Cao, Chang-Lin Jiang, Li-Hui Qu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is defined as a complex disease of clinically characterized by elevated pulmonary pressure eventually resulting in right heart failure and premature death. To date, PAH still remains a life-threatening disease. Published evidence suggests that patients with PAH present profound sympathetic nervous system abnormalities and sympathetic activity has been shown to be increased. The mechanism of PAH is still complex and poorly understood. RESULTS: Some data have showed that adrenoceptors are involved in the process of the pathology and have different functions in the progression of PAH followed by heart failure...
2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041715/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-different-beta-adrenoceptor-blockers-in-heart-failure-patients
#17
Tien-Yu Lin, Chung-Yu Chen, Yaw-Bin Huang
BACKGROUND: According to guidelines and pivotal trials, β-blockers are associated with better survival in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the superiority of any β-blockers is still unclear. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan to evaluate the effectiveness of β-blockers and compare the clinical outcomes of different β-blockers in patients with HF. We enrolled patients diagnosed with HF between 2005 and 2012...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990717/the-first-in-man-randomized-trial-of-a-beta3-adrenoceptor-agonist-in-chronic-heart-failure-the-beat-hf-trial
#18
Henning Bundgaard, Anna Axelsson, Jakob Hartvig Thomsen, Mathias Sørgaard, Klaus F Kofoed, Rasmus Hasselbalch, Natasha A S Fry, Nana Valeur, Søren Boesgaard, Finn Gustafsson, Lars Køber, Kasper Iversen, Helge H Rasmussen
AIMS: The third isotype of beta adrenergic receptors (β3 ARs) has distinctly different effects on cardiomyocytes compared with β1 and β2 ARs. Stimulation of β3 ARs may reduce cardiomyocyte Na(+) overload and reduce oxidative stress in heart failure (HF). We examined if treatment with the β3 AR agonist mirabegron increases LVEF in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a double-blind trial we randomly assigned 70 patients with NYHA class II-III HF and LVEF <40% at screening-echocardiography to receive mirabegron or placebo for 6 months as add-on to optimized standard therapy...
April 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984527/agomelatine-a-new-opportunity-to-reduce-neuropathic-pain-preclinical-evidence
#19
Chouki Chenaf, Eric Chapuy, Frédéric Libert, Fabien Marchand, Christine Courteix, Marianne Bertrand, Cecilia Gabriel, Elisabeth Mocaër, Alain Eschalier, Nicolas Authier
Antidepressants are first-line treatments of neuropathic pain but not all these drugs are really effective. Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a novel mode of action, acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonergic receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist that involves indirect norepinephrine release. Melatonin, serotonin, and norepinephrine have been involved in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. Yet, no study has been conducted to determine agomelatine effects on neuropathic pain in animal models. Using 3 rat models of neuropathic pain of toxic (oxaliplatin/OXA), metabolic (streptozocin/STZ), and traumatic (sciatic nerve ligation/CCI [chronic constriction nerve injury]) etiologies, we investigated the antihypersensitivity effect of acute and repeated agomelatine administration...
January 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916533/activation-of-beta-and-alpha-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-has-opposing-effects-on-hippocampal-prefrontal-long-term-potentiation
#20
Ee Peng Lim, Gavin S Dawe, Thérèse M Jay
Noradrenaline (NA), released by the locus coeruleus (LC), plays a key role in mediating the effects of stress on memory functions. The LC provides diffuse projections to many forebrain nuclei including the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). These three structures are intricately interlinked. The hippocampal-prefrontal (H-PFC) pathway is involved in various cognitive functions. The first aim of this study was to examine the role of BLA in H-PFC plasticity by infusion of drugs to activate and inactivate the BLA and studying the effects on H-PFC long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat in vivo...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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