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Beta adrenergic receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442571/beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-activation-mobilizes-intracellular-calcium-via-a-non-canonical-camp-independent-signaling-pathway
#1
Monica Galaz-Montoya, Sara J Wright, Gustavo J Rodriguez, Olivier Lichtarge, Theodore G Wensel
Beta adrenergic receptors (βARs) are G protein-coupled receptors essential for physiological responses to the hormones/neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine which are found in the nervous system and throughout the body. They are the targets of numerous widely used drugs, especially in the case of the most extensively studied βAR, β2AR, whose ligands are used for asthma and cardiovascular disease. βARs signal through Gαs G proteins and via activation of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but some alternative downstream pathways have also been proposed, which could be important for understanding normal physiological functioning of β2AR signaling and its disruption in disease...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437032/autonomic-receptor-mediated-regulation-of-production-and-release-of-nitric-oxide-in-normal-and-malignant-human-urothelial-cells
#2
Michael Winder, Renata Vesela, Patrik Aronsson, Bhavik Patel, Thomas Carlsson
In the urinary bladder, the main source of NO seems to be the urothelium and the underlying suburothelium. In this study, we aimed to characterize how receptors in the human urothelium regulate the production and release of NO. For this, we cultured two human urothelial cell lines - the normal immortalized cell line UROtsa and the malignant cell line T24. These were treated with an array of agonists and antagonists with affinity for adrenergic, muscarinic and purinergic receptors. The production of NO and expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was studied by immunocytochemistry and western blotting...
April 24, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431781/clenbuterol-hydrochloride
#3
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Nasr Y Khalil, Ibraheem Khbrani, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz
Clenbuterol (Broncodil and trade) is a direct-acting sympathomimetic agent with mainly beta-adrenergic activity and a selective action on β2 receptors (a β2 agonist). It has properties similar to those of salbutamol. It is used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airways obstruction, as in asthma and in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The uses, applications, and the synthetic pathways of this drug are outlined. Physical characteristics including: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods of analysis, UV spectrum, IR spectrum, mass spectrum are all produced...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411128/the-effects-of-experimental-gestational-hypertension-on-maternal-blood-pressure-and-fluid-intake-and-pre-weanling-hypothalamic-neuronal-activity
#4
Juan Arguelles, Carmen Perillan, Terry G Beltz, Baojian Xue, Daniel Badaue-Passos, Jose A Vega, Alan Kim Johnson
To examine the fetal programming effects of maternal hypertension, natriophilia and hyperreninemia [experimentally induced in rats by partial inter-renal aortic ligature (PAL) prior to mating] fos immunoreactivity was studied in 6-day-old offspring of PAL and control mothers. The purposes of the present set of experiments were twofold. The first was to characterize the effects of PAL on the mother's arterial blood pressure and intake of salt (1.8% NaCl solution) and water over the course of gestation. Second, was to study the pattern of neuronal activation in key brain areas of 6-day-old offspring treated with the dipsogen isoproterenol that were from PAL and control mothers...
April 11, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404638/kidney-triglyceride-accumulation-in-the-fasted-mouse-is-dependent-upon-serum-free-fatty-acids
#5
Diego Scerbo, Ni-Huiping Son, Alaa Sirwi, Lixia Zeng, Kelli M Sas, Vincenza Cifarelli, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Lesley-Ann Huggins, Namrata Gumaste, Yunying Hu, Subramaniam Pennathur, Nada A Abumrad, Erin E Kershaw, M Mahmood Hussain, Katalin Susztak, Ira J Goldberg
Lipid accumulation is a pathological feature of every type of kidney injury. Despite this striking histological feature, physiological accumulation of lipids in the kidney is poorly understood. We studied whether the accumulation of lipids in the fasted kidney are derived from lipoproteins or non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). With overnight fasting, kidneys accumulated triglyceride but had reduced levels of ceramide and glycosphingolipid species. Fasting led to a nearly 5-fold increase in kidney uptake of plasma [14C]oleic acid...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398147/salmeterol-a-long-acting-%C3%AE-2-aderenergic-receptor-agonist-inhibits-macrophage-activation-by-lipopolysaccharide-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#6
Monika Sharma, Lindsay Patterson, Elisha Chapman, Patrick M Flood
BACKGROUND: Salmeterol is a long-acting beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist that is used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previously we had shown that pre-incubation of primary microglial enriched cells with Salmeterol could inhibit the inflammatory response induced by E. Coli LPS, a TLR-4 (toll-like receptor-4) agonist. In this study, we sought to determine if Salmeterol had a similar inhibitory effect on the inflammatory response of the murine macrophage cell line RAW264...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396116/beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-agonists-are-novel-regulators-of-macrophage-activation-in-diabetic-renal-and-cardiovascular-complications
#7
Hyunjin Noh, Mi Ra Yu, Hyun Joo Kim, Ji Hye Lee, Byoung-Won Park, I-Hsien Wu, Motonobu Matsumoto, George L King
Macrophage activation is increased in diabetes and correlated with the onset and progression of vascular complications. To identify drugs that could inhibit macrophage activation, we developed a cell-based assay and screened a 1,040 compound library for anti-inflammatory effects. Beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists were identified as the most potent inhibitors of phorbol myristate acetate-induced tumor necrosis factor-α production in rat bone marrow macrophages. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, β2AR agonists inhibited diabetes-induced tumor necrosis factor-α production, which was prevented by co-treatment with a selective β2AR blocker...
April 7, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356898/novel-pharmacologic-candidates-for-treatment-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#8
REVIEW
Louise J Lu, James C Tsai, Ji Liu
Primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) affects approximately 45 million people worldwide and more than 2.5 million people aged 40 years or older in the United States. Pharmacologic treatment for glaucoma is directed towards lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) to slow disease progression and delay visual field loss. Current medical treatment options for the lowering of IOP include the following classes of topical medications: beta-adrenergic antagonists, alpha-adrenergic agonists, cholinergic agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and prostaglandin analogs...
March 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348460/epac1-blocks-nlrp3-inflammasome-to-reduce-il-1%C3%AE-in-retinal-endothelial-cells-and-mouse-retinal-vasculature
#9
Youde Jiang, Li Liu, Elizabeth Curtiss, Jena J Steinle
Inflammation is an important component of diabetic retinal damage. We previously reported that a novel β-adrenergic receptor agonist, Compound 49b, reduced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in retinal endothelial cells (REC) grown in high glucose. Others reported that TLR4 activates high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which has been associated with the NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Thus, we hypothesized that Epac1, a downstream mediator of β-adrenergic receptors, would block TLR4/HMGB1-mediated stimulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to reduced cleavage of caspase-1 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341362/sinus-bradycardia-in-habitual-cocaine-users
#10
Sona M Franklin, Sudarone Thihalolipavan, John M Fontaine
Common physiological manifestations of cocaine are related to its adrenergic effects, due to inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake at the postsynaptic terminal. Few studies have documented bradycardia secondary to cocaine use, representing the antithesis of its adrenergic effects. We assessed the prevalence of sinus bradycardia (SB) in habitual cocaine users and postulated a mechanism for this effect. One hundred sixty-two patients with a history of cocaine use were analyzed and compared with age- and gender-matched controls...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338370/the-potential-of-stimulating-nitric-oxide-formation-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension
#11
Lucas C Pinheiro, Jose E Tanus-Santos, Michele M Castro
Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A major pathophysiological factor contributing to hypertension is reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Strategies to address this pathophysiological mechanism could offer significant advantages. Areas covered: In this review we aimed at examining a variety of drugs (statins, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers) used to treat hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, particularly with respect to their potential of increasing NO bioavailability and activity in the cardiovascular system...
March 30, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320606/autoantibodies-with-beta-adrenergic-activity-from-chronic-chagasic-patients-induce-cardiac-arrhythmias-and-early-afterdepolarization-in-a-drug-induced-lqt2-rabbit-hearts
#12
Marco Antonio Vidal Jiménez, José H M Nascimento, Gustavo Monnerat, Leonardo Maciel, Claudia N Paiva, Roberto Coury Pedrosa, Antonio C Campos de Carvalho, Emiliano Medei
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias are one of the main causes of death in ChCP and other dilated cardiomyopathies. Previous studies demonstrated that ventricular arrhythmias are associated with the presence of autoantibodies with beta-adrenergic activity, Ab-β. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether Ab-β, present in chronic chagasic patients (ChCP), induce cardiac arrhythmias in the pharmacological type-2 long QT syndrome model (LQTS-2). METHODS/RESULTS: The LQTS2 was established by perfusion of Tyrode saline solution with a potassium channel blocker E-4031 (5μM) in isolated rabbit hearts or in rabbit cardiac strips, in order to record ECG or action potential, respectively...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300321/skeletal-colonization-by-breast-cancer-cells-is-stimulated-by-an-osteoblast-and-%C3%AE-2ar-dependent-neo-angiogenic-switch
#13
Patrick L Mulcrone, J Preston Campbell, Lise Clément-Demange, Ana Lia Anbinder, Alyssa R Merkel, Rolf A Brekken, Julie A Sterling, Florent Elefteriou
The skeleton is a common site for breast cancer metastasis. Although significant progress has been made to manage osteolytic bone lesions, the mechanisms driving the early steps of the bone metastatic process are still not sufficiently understood to design efficacious strategies needed to inhibit this process and offer preventative therapeutic options. Progression and recurrence of breast cancer, as well as reduced survival of patients with breast cancer, are associated with chronic stress, a condition known to stimulate sympathetic nerve outflow...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296053/vasoactive-effect-of-fibronectin-derived-epiviosamine-1-and-related-peptides-in-quiescent-and-stress-models
#14
Mary D Frame, Fubao Lin, Anthony M Dewar, Richard Af Clark
OBJECTIVE: Following thermal burn injury, plasma fibronectin degrades within the interstitium; one possible product is epiviosamine-1 (EVA-1, PSHISKYILRWRPK) found within the first type III repeat of plasma fibronectin (FNIII1 ). EVA-1 ameliorates thermal burn injury progression, and binds to and enhances platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in promoting cell metabolism, growth and survival; shorter related peptides lose these abilities. Here we study the effect of EVA-1 and shorter peptides for their vasoactivity under quiescent and stress conditions...
March 15, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292194/clinical-utility-of-sympathetic-blockade-in-cardiovascular-disease-management
#15
REVIEW
Chan Soon Park, Hae-Young Lee
A dysregulated sympathetic nervous system is a major factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease; thus, understanding the mechanism and function of the sympathetic nervous system and appropriately regulating sympathetic activity to treat various cardiovascular diseases are crucial. Areas covered: This review focused on previous studies in managing hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and perioperative management with sympathetic blockade. We reviewed both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management...
April 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288148/natriuretic-peptide-c-receptor-in-the-developing-sheep-lung-role-in-perinatal-transition
#16
Bobby Mathew, Christopher A D'Angelis, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Peter A Nickerson, June J Sokolowski, Vasantha H S Kumar, Huamei Wang, Karen A Wynn, Bruce A Holm, Rita M Ryan
BACKGROUND: At birth, the release of surfactant from Alveolar Type II (ATII) cells is stimulated by increased activity of the beta-adrenergic/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP- signaling cascade. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) stimulates surfactant secretion through Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A). ANP inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity through its binding to NPR-C. We wished to further understand the role of the NPR-C in perinatal transition. METHODS: We studied fetal and newborn sheep ATII expression of NPR-C and surfactant secretion in isolated ATIIs by measuring (3)[H] choline release into the media...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283550/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-drugs-on-embryonic-ventricular-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-and-their-impact-on-donor-cell-transplantation
#17
Tiam Feridooni, Adam Hotchkiss, Mark Baguma-Nibasheka, Feixiong Zhang, Brittney Allen, Sarita Chinni, Kishore B S Pasumarthi
The beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and catecholamines are present in rodents as early as embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). However, it is not known whether β-AR signaling plays any role in proliferation and differentiation of ventricular cells in the embryonic heart. Here, we characterized the expression profiles of β-AR subtypes and established dose response curves for a nonselective β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) in the developing mouse ventricular cells. Further, we investigated the effects of ISO on cell cycle activity and differentiation of cultured E11...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283422/importance-of-compensatory-heart-rate-increase-during-myocardial-ischemia-to-preserve-appropriate-oxygen-kinetics
#18
Sadamitsu Yoshida, Hitoshi Adachi, Makoto Murata, Junichi Tomono, Shigeru Oshima, Masahiko Kurabayashi
BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemia induces cardiac dysfunction, resulting in insufficient oxygen supply to peripheral tissues and mismatched energy production during exercise. To relieve the insufficient oxygen supply, heart rate (HR) response is augmented; however, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (BB) restrict HR response. Although BB are essential drugs for angina pectoris, the effect of BB on exercise tolerance in patients with angina has not been studied. The aim of this study was to clarify the importance of HR augmentation to preserve exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280758/effect-of-beta-blockers-on-number-of-osteoblasts-and-osteoclasts-in-alveolar-socket-following-tooth-extraction-in-wistar-rats
#19
Katayoun Sadr, Amirala Aghbali, Makan Sadr, Hamed Abachizadeh, Maryam Azizi, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Various researchers have suggested the use of β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists in prevention or treatment of bone resorption. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists on number of osteoclasts and osteoblasts involved in the healing of extraction socket of maxillary first molar in rats. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Maxillary first molars of 40 rats were extracted and divided into two groups...
March 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275305/b2-adrenergic-receptors-and-morphological-changes-of-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-colorectal-adenocarcinoma
#20
Raluca Niculina Ciurea, Ion Rogoveanu, Daniel Pirici, Georgică-Costinel Târtea, Costin Teodor Streba, Cristina Florescu, Bogdan Cătălin, Ileana Puiu, Elena-Anca Târtea, Cristin Constantin Vere
AIM: To study the morphology of the enteric nervous system and the expression of beta-2 adrenergic (B2A) receptors in primary colorectal cancer. METHODS: In this study, we included forty-eight patients with primary colorectal cancer and nine patients for control tissue from the excision of a colonic segment for benign conditions. We determined the clinicopathological features and evaluated the immunohistochemical expression pattern of B2A receptors as well as the morphological changes of the enteric nervous system (ENS)...
February 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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