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Oncolytic virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782928/a-mathematical-approach-to-effects-of-ctls-on-cancer-virotherapy-in-the-second-injection-of-virus
#1
A Ashyani, O RabieiMotlagh, H M Mohammadinezhad
This paper proposes a planar delay differential equation for cancer virotherapy. The model simulates the situation in which an oncolytic virus is injected for the second time, and the immune system suppresses the viral infection with a time delay. Our purpose is to provide theoretical conditions so that the therapy can be continued successfully. With the help of the characteristic equation, we examine the singularities and their local stability. Hopf bifurcation is also investigated around the endemic singularity...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781359/rhabdoviruses-as-vaccine-platforms-for-infectious-disease-and-cancer
#2
Franz Zemp, Jahanara Rajwani, Douglas J Mahoney
The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779454/vaccinia-based-vaccines-to-biothreat-and-emerging-viruses
#3
Les P Nagata, Chad R Irwin, Wei-Gang Hu, David H Evans
The past few years have seen a rash of emerging viral diseases, including the Ebola crisis in West Africa, the pandemic spread of chikungunya, and the recent explosion of Zika in South America. Vaccination is the most reliable and cost-effective method of control of infectious diseases, however, there is often a long delay in production and approval in getting new vaccines to market. Vaccinia was the first vaccine developed for the successful eradication of smallpox and has properties that make it attractive as a universal vaccine vector...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773661/phase-i-study-of-oncolytic-vaccinia-virus-gl-onc1-in-patients-with-peritoneal-carcinomatosis
#4
Ulrich M Lauer, Martina Schell, Julia Beil, Susanne Berchtold, Ursula Koppenhöfer, Jörg Glatzle, Alfred Königsrainer, Robert Möhle, Dominik Nann, Falko Fend, Christina Pfannenberg, Michael Bitzer, Nisar P Malek
OBJECTIVE: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is common in advanced tumor stages or disease recurrence arising from gastrointestinal cancers, gynecologic malignancies, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Since current therapies are mostly ineffective, new thera-peutic approaches are needed. Here, we report on a phase I study designed to assess safety, MTD, and anti-tumor activity of intra-peri-toneal (i.p.) administration of oncolytic vaccinia virus GL-ONC1 in advanced stage PC patients. DESIGN: GL-ONC1 was administered i...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772755/temozolomide-enhances-triple-negative-breast-cancer-virotherapy-in-vitro
#5
Rodolfo Garza-Morales, Roxana Gonzalez-Ramos, Akiko Chiba, Roberto Montes de Oca-Luna, Lacey R McNally, Kelly M McMasters, Jorge G Gomez-Gutierrez
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive types of cancer, and treatment is limited to chemotherapy and radiation. Oncolytic virotherapy may be a promising approach to treat TNBC. However, oncolytic adenovirus (OAd)-based mono-therapeutic clinical trials have resulted in modest outcomes. The OAd potency could be increased by chemotherapy-induced autophagy, an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome. In this study, the ability of alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ)-induced autophagy to increase OAd replication and oncolysis in TNBC cells was evaluated...
May 17, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767404/carrier-cells-for-delivery-of-oncolytic-measles-virus-into-tumors-determinants-of-efficient-loading
#6
Chun Xu, Mao Xia, Gang Meng, Chunyan Li, Aiqin Jiang, Jiwu Wei
Oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent. However, the presence of anti-measles neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the hemagglutinin (H) protein of OMV is a major barrier to the therapeutic application of OMV in clinical practice. In order to overcome this challenge, specific types of cells have been used as carriers for OMV. Differential loading strategies appear to result in different therapeutic outcomes; despite this, only few studies have reported practical ex vivo loading strategies required for effective treatment...
May 16, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765912/oncolytic-adenovirus-ad657-for-systemic-virotherapy-against-prostate-cancer
#7
Tien V Nguyen, Catherine M Crosby, Gregory J Heller, Zachary I Mendel, Mary E Barry, Michael A Barry
Background: Human species C adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the archetype oncolytic adenovirus and has been used in the vast majority of preclinical and clinical tests. While Ad5 can be robust, species C Ad6 has lower seroprevalence, side effects, and appears to be more potent as a systemic therapy against a number of tumors than Ad5. Historically, there have only been four species C human adenoviruses: serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6. More recently a new species C adenovirus, Ad57, was identified...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765544/comparison-of-infectivity-and-spread-between-hsv-1-and-hsv-2-based-oncolytic-viruses-on-tumor-cells-with-different-receptor-expression-profiles
#8
Xinping Fu, Lihua Tao, Pin-Yi Wang, Timothy P Cripe, Xiaoliu Zhang
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the many viruses that have been modified or adapted for oncolytic purposes. There are two serotypes of HSV, HSV-1 and HSV-2. The majority of oncolytic HSVs, including T-VEC which has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use in treating late stage melanoma patients, are derived from HSV-1. Recently, we and others have developed several HSV-2 based oncolytic viruses. During our in vitro characterization of oncolytic viruses developed from both serotypes (Baco-1 from HSV-1 and FusOn-H2 from HSV-2), we noticed there is a subpopulation of cancer cells in which both viruses could infect but only FusOn-H2 could spread from cell to cell on monolayers...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764498/talimogene-laherparepvec-combined-with-anti-pd-1-based-immunotherapy-for-unresectable-stage-iii-iv-melanoma-a-case-series
#9
Lillian Sun, Pauline Funchain, Jung Min Song, Patricia Rayman, Charles Tannenbaum, Jennifer Ko, Michael Mcnamara, C Marcela Diaz-Montero, Brian Gastman
BACKGROUND: Talimogene Laherparepvec (T-VEC) is an oncolytic virus approved as an intratumoral therapy for treating unresectable stage IIIB-IV metastatic melanoma. The mechanisms of action for T-VEC and checkpoint inhibitor are highly complementary. Recent studies have shown that combining checkpoint inhibitor therapy with T-VEC injection can lead to improved response rates for stage IIIB-IV melanoma patients. METHODS: We reviewed 10 consecutive cases of stage IIIC to stage IVM1b melanoma patients that received T-VEC plus checkpoint inhibitor(s) therapy (pembrolizumab, ipilimumab/nivolumab, or nivolumab) treated between June 2016 and August 2017 at the Cleveland Clinic with a median follow-up of 7 months (range: 4 to 13 months)...
May 16, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764161/the-emerging-role-of-oncolytic-virus-therapy-against-cancer
#10
Luke Russell, Kah-Whye Peng
This review discusses current clinical advancements in oncolytic viral therapy, with a focus on the viral platforms approved for clinical use and highlights the benefits each platform provides. Three oncolytic viruses (OVs), an echovirus, an adenovirus, and a herpes simplex-1 virus, have passed governmental regulatory approval in Latvia, China, and the USA and EU. Numerous other recombinant viruses from diverse families are in clinical testing in cancer patients and we highlight the design features of selected examples, including adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, measles virus, retrovirus, reovirus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755464/oncolytic-viral-therapy-and-the-immune-system-a-double-edged-sword-against-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Giulia Marelli, Anwen Howells, Nicholas R Lemoine, Yaohe Wang
Oncolytic viral therapy is a new promising strategy against cancer. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can replicate in cancer cells but not in normal cells, leading to lysis of the tumor mass. Beside this primary effect, OVs can also stimulate the immune system. Tumors are an immuno-suppressive environment in which the immune system is silenced in order to avoid the immune response against cancer cells. The delivery of OVs into the tumor wakes up the immune system so that it can facilitate a strong and durable response against the tumor itself...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750140/proof-of-principle-that-a-decoy-virus-protects-oncolytic-measles-virus-against-neutralizing-antibodies
#12
Chun Xu, Annika Verena Goß, Carmen Dorneburg, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Jiwu Wei, Christian Beltinger
Background: Attenuated oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent in early-phase clinical trials. However, pre-existing immunity against measles might be a hurdle for OMV therapy. Methods: OMV was inactivated with short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C). Loss of replication and oncolytic activity of UV-inactivated OMV were confirmed by tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50 ) assay using Vero cells and by flow cytometry using Jurkat cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify that UV-inactivated OMV remained antigenic...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748568/carf-enrichment-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-its-clinical-relevance-and-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target
#13
Rajkumar S Kalra, Anupama Chaudhary, A-Rum Yoon, Priyanshu Bhargava, Amr Omar, Sukant Garg, Chae-Ok Yun, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa
CARF (Collaborator of ARF)/CDKN2AIP was discovered as a novel ARF-binding protein. It has been established as an essential cell survival, p53-, and cell proliferation-regulatory protein. Although a moderate upregulation of CARF caused growth arrest and senescence, its excessively enriched levels were shown to facilitate aggressive proliferation and malignant transformation of cancer cells. Here, we examined the relevance of CARF levels in clinical tumors and found its amplification (both at gene and transcript levels) in a variety of invasive and metastatic malignancies...
May 11, 2018: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746804/contemporary-approaches-to-in-transit-melanoma
#14
Jennifer A Perone, Nellie Farrow, Douglas S Tyler, Georgia M Beasley
In-transit melanoma represents a distinct disease pattern of heterogeneous superficial tumors. Many treatments have been developed specifically for this type of disease, including regional chemotherapy and a variety of directly injectable agents. Novel strategies include the intralesional delivery of oncolytic viruses and immunocytokines. The combination of intralesional or regional chemotherapy with systemic immune checkpoint inhibitors also is a promising approach. In the current review, we examine the general management of the workup of patients with in-transit disease, the range of available therapies, and recommendations for specific therapies for an individual patient...
May 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743717/integrating-oncolytic-viruses-in-combination-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Praveen K Bommareddy, Megha Shettigar, Howard L Kaufman
Oncolytic viruses can be usefully integrated into tumour immunotherapies, as they target multiple steps within the cancer-immunity cycle. Oncolytic viruses directly lyse tumour cells, leading to the release of soluble antigens, danger signals and type I interferons, which drive antitumour immunity. In addition, some oncolytic viruses can be engineered to express therapeutic genes or can functionally alter tumour-associated endothelial cells, further enhancing T cell recruitment into immune-excluded or immune-deserted tumour microenvironments...
May 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739251/heparan-sulfate-binding-coxsackievirus-b3-strain-pd-a-novel-avirulent-oncolytic-agent-against-human-colorectal-carcinoma
#16
Ahmet Hazini, Markian Pryshliak, Vanessa Brückner, Karin Klingel, Martina Sauter, Sandra Pinkert, Jens Kurreck, Henry Fechner
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a single-stranded RNA virus of the picornavirus family, has been described as a novel oncolytic virus. However, the used CVB3 strain induced hepatitis and myocarditis in vivo. We hypothesized that oncolytic activity and safety of CVB3 depends on the virus strain and its specific receptor tropism. We investigated different laboratory strains of CVB3 (Nancy, 31-1-93, H3) which use the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and the strain PD which uses N- and 6-O-sulfated heparin sulfate (HS) for entry into the cells, for their potential to lyse tumor cells and for their safety profile...
May 9, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735993/recombinant-viruses-with-other-anti-cancer-therapeutics-a-step-towards-advancement-of-oncolytic-virotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Geetanjali Lal, Maitreyi S Rajala
Cancer as a disease is a multifaceted foe which sometimes succumbs to the prescribed treatment and sometimes develops resistance against various therapies. Conventional cancer therapies suffer from many limitations, the least of which is their specificity and systemic side effects. In a majority of cases, acquired mutations render the cancer cells resistant to therapy and lower the prognostic outcome. In the constant effort to devise a therapeutic moiety which can comprehensively eliminate cancer cells, oncolytic viruses provide an attractive avenue as they selectively infect and lyse cancer cells sparing normal cells from their effects...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735917/cancer-immunotherapy-a-focus-on-the-regulation-of-immune-checkpoints
#18
REVIEW
Tao Shi, Yanyu Ma, Lingfeng Yu, Jiaxuan Jiang, Sunan Shen, Yayi Hou, Tingting Wang
In recent years, the role of cancer immunotherapy has become increasingly important compared to traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Of note, the clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade, such as PD-1 and CTLA-4, represent a landmark event in cancer immunotherapy development. Therefore, further exploration of how immune checkpoints are regulated in the tumor microenvironment will provide key insights into checkpoint blockade therapy. In this review, we discuss in details about the regulation of immune checkpoints mediated by immune cells, oncolytic viruses, epigenetics, and gut microbiota and mutual regulation by co-expressed checkpoints...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731836/overexpression-of-p53-delivered-using-recombinant-ndv-induces-apoptosis-in-glioma-cells-by-regulating-the-apoptotic-signaling-pathway
#19
Xiaoyong Fan, Hongzhen Lu, Youqiang Cui, Xianzeng Hou, Chuanjiang Huang, Guangcun Liu
Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain carcinoma in the world and has a poor survival rate. Previous studies have demonstrated that p53 dysfunction contributes to the development and severity of malignant glioma. It has also been demonstrated that Newcastle disease virus (NDV) may be a viable candidate for the treatment of various types of cancer. In the present study, a p53 oncolytic agent delivered using recombinant NDV (rNDV-p53) was constructed and its anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo were assessed...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728690/publisher-correction-oncolytic-viruses-as-engineering-platforms-for-combination-immunotherapy
#20
Kwame Twumasi-Boateng, Jessica L Pettigrew, Y Y Eunice Kwok, John C Bell, Brad H Nelson
In the online html version of this article, the affiliations for Jessica L. Pettigrew and John C. Bell were not correct. Jessica L. Pettigrew is at the Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and John C. Bell is at the Center for Innovative Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. This is correct in the print and PDF versions of the article and has been corrected in the html version.
May 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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