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Gastrointestinal motility disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781137/variants-in-actg2-underlie-a-substantial-number-of-australasian-patients-with-primary-chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction
#1
G Ravenscroft, S Pannell, G O'Grady, R Ong, H C Ee, F Faiz, L Marns, H Goel, P Kumarasinghe, E Sollis, P Sivadorai, M Wilson, A Magoffin, S Nightingale, M-L Freckmann, E P Kirk, R Sachdev, D A Lemberg, M B Delatycki, M A Kamm, C Basnayake, P J Lamont, D J Amor, K Jones, J Schilperoort, M R Davis, N G Laing
BACKGROUND: Primary chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by severely impaired gastrointestinal motility. The objective of this study was to examine the contribution of ACTG2, LMOD1, MYH11, and MYLK mutations in an Australasian cohort of patients with a diagnosis of primary CIPO associated with visceral myopathy. METHODS: Pediatric and adult patients with primary CIPO and suspected visceral myopathy were recruited from across Australia and New Zealand...
May 21, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778241/dual-autonomic-inhibitory-action-of-central-apelin-on-gastric-motor-functions-in-rats
#2
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen
Centrally administered apelin has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying (GE) in rodents, however, the relevant mechanism has been investigated incompletely. Using male Wistar rats, we investigated the efferent pathways involved in gastroinhibitory action of central apelin. Stereotaxic intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulation, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) and/or celiac ganglionectomy (CGX) were performed 7 days prior to the experiments. Apelin-13 was administered (30 nmol, icv) 90 min prior to GE measurement...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766276/anti-ganglionic-achr-antibodies-in-japanese-patients-with-motility-disorders
#3
Akihiro Mukaino, Hitomi Minami, Hajime Isomoto, Hitomi Hamamoto, Eikichi Ihara, Yasuhiro Maeda, Osamu Higuchi, Tohru Okanishi, Yohei Kokudo, Kazushi Deguchi, Fumisato Sasaki, Toshihito Ueki, Ken-Ya Murata, Takeshi Yoshida, Mistuyo Kinjo, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Akio Ido, Hidenori Matsuo, Kazuhiko Nakao, Shunya Nakane
BACKGROUND: The existence of several autoantibodies suggests an autoimmune basis for gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility. Whether GI motility disorders are features of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) or are related to circulating anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) antibodies (Abs) is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between autonomic dysfunction, anti-gAChR Abs, and clinical features in patients with GI motility disorders including achalasia and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756476/ginger-extract-and-6-gingerol-inhibit-contraction-of-rat-entire-small-intestine
#4
Usana Chatturong, Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Sakara Tunsophon, Rachanee Chanasong, Krongkarn Chootip
This study aims to investigate the effect of oral administration and the direct action of ginger extract or [6]-gingerol on small intestinal contractility. The direct effect of 10 minutes preincubation of ginger ethanolic extract (10, 100 and 300 μg/mL) or [6]-gingerol (1, 30, and 100 μM) on 0.01 to 30 μM ACh-induced contractions of all parts of the small intestine isolated from normal rats was investigated using the organ bath technique. For in vivo study, the rats were orally administered with extract (10, 20, and 100 mg/kg/d) or [6]-gingerol (2 mg/kg/d) for 7 days, followed by determining the contractile responses to ACh of rat isolated duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and their histology were assessed...
January 2018: Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746341/screening-endoscopy-contributes-to-relevant-modifications-of-therapeutic-regimen-in-children-with-intestinal-failure
#5
Andreas Busch, Ekkehard Sturm
OBJECTIVE: The role of endoscopy in the diagnostic work-up of children with intestinal failure (IF) is not well defined. It is unclear whether endoscopies should be performed as a screening procedure or only upon manifestation of symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate, whether performing screening endoscopy contributes to clinical management in children with IF. METHODS: Comparative retrospective case-series study in children with IF (mean age 70,4 months ± 58,4 months) presenting for diagnostic work-up in a single intestinal rehabilitation center...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745439/cannabinoids-and-gastrointestinal-motility-pharmacology-clinical-effects-and-potential-therapeutics-in-humans
#6
REVIEW
M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid agents and cannabis are frequently used for relief of diverse gastrointestinal symptoms. PURPOSE: The objective of this article is to increase the awareness of gastroenterologists to the effects of cannabinoids on gastrointestinal motility, as gastroenterologists are likely to encounter patients who are taking cannabinoids, or those with dysmotility that may be associated with cannabinoid mechanisms. The non-selective cannabinoid agonist, dronabinol, retards gastric emptying and inhibits colonic tone and phasic pressure activity...
May 10, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723849/the-mechanism-of-action-of-zingerone-in-the-pacemaker-potentials-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-isolated-from-murine-small-intestine
#7
Jung Nam Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Iksung Kim, Yun Tai Kim, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Zingerone, a major component found in ginger root, is clinically effective for the treatment of various diseases. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells responsible for slow waves in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We investigated the effects of zingerone on the pacemaker potentials of ICCs to assess its mechanisms of action and its potential as a treatment for GI tract motility disorder. METHODS: We isolated ICCs from small intestines, and the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record the pacemaker potentials in cultured ICCs...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720852/gastrointestinal-dysmotility-in-critically-ill-patients
#8
REVIEW
Theodoros Ladopoulos, Maria Giannaki, Christina Alexopoulou, Athanasia Proklou, Emmanuel Pediaditis, Eumorfia Kondili
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are commonly present in critical illness. Up to 60% of critically ill patients have been reported to experience GI dysmotility of some form necessitating therapeutic intervention. It has been attributed to various factors, related to both the underlying disease and the therapeutic interventions undertaken. The assessment of motility disturbances can be challenging in critically ill patients, as the available tests used to detect abnormal motility have major limitations in the setting of an Intensive Care Unit...
May 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716590/in-vitro-effects-of-aqueous-extract-from-maytenus-senegalensis-lam-exell-stem-bark-on-egg-hatching-larval-migration-and-adult-worms-of-haemonchus-contortus
#9
Calvin Bogning Zangueu, Abiodoun Pascal Olounlade, Marlyse Ossokomack, Yolande Noelle Nangue Djouatsa, Goue Géorcelin Alowanou, Anatole Guy Blaise Azebaze, Eulogio José Llorent-Martínez, Maria Luisa Fernández de Córdova, Alain Bertrand Dongmo, Mawulé Sylvie Hounzangbe-Adote
BACKGROUND: Maytenus senegalensis is a common shrub which is scattered in tropical Africa. Different parts of this plant have been reported to be useful in traditional medicine against gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal worms. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of M. senegalensis using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and adult worms' motility inhibition assay (AMIA). RESULTS: On EHA, the extract concentrations tested resulted in a significant (p < 0...
May 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707856/enteric-neural-stem-cell-therapies-for-enteric-neuropathies
#10
REVIEW
C J McCann, N Thapar
BACKGROUND: Enteric neuropathies exist as a wide range of human disorders which impact on gastrointestinal motility. Current standard therapies for enteric neuropathies are limited to surgical resection or manipulation (eg, myotomy) of affected gut segments or medical management including both therapy (eg, prokinetic pharmacotherapy) and support such as parenteral nutrition. However, such treatments often result in poor prognosis and significant morbidity. The current limitations in treatment options for enteric neuropathies underline the need for alternative approaches to treat these devastating diseases...
April 29, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705015/evaluation-of-postural-tachycardia-syndrome-pots
#11
REVIEW
Brent P Goodman
The diagnostic evaluation of a patient with suspected postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) requires a thoughtful diagnostic approach utilizing a careful clinical history and examination, laboratory, and autonomic testing. This article outlines the importance of a thorough history in identifying mechanism of symptom onset, clinical features, associated clinical conditions or disorders, and factors that may result in symptom exacerbation. The clinical examination involves an assessment of pupillary responses, an evaluation for sudomotor and vasomotor signs, and an assessment for joint hypermobility...
April 22, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700293/dna-methylation-through-dnmt1-has-an-essential-role-in-the-development-of-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-cells-and-disease
#12
Brian G Jorgensen, Robyn M Berent, Se Eun Ha, Kazuhide Horiguchi, Kent C Sasse, Laren S Becker, Seungil Ro
DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification that can regulate gene expression. Genomic DNA hypomethylation is commonly found in many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Dysregulated gene expression in GI smooth muscle cells (GI-SMCs) can lead to motility disorders. However, the consequences of genomic DNA hypomethylation within GI-SMCs are still elusive. Utilizing a Cre-lox murine model, we have generated SMC-restricted DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) knockout (KO) mice and analyzed the effects of Dnmt1 deficiency...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698944/mucosally-expressed-cytokines-are-associated-with-the-esophageal-motility-function
#13
Keita Fukaura, Eikichi Ihara, Haruei Ogino, Yoichiro Iboshi, Kazumasa Muta, Bai Xiaopeng, Shohei Hamada, Yoshitaka Hata, Tsutomu Iwasa, Akira Aso, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Yoshihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although basic research has shown that certain cytokines affect gastrointestinal motility, the clinical evidence is lacking. The objective of this study was to explore the association between mucosally expressed cytokines and the esophageal motility function in humans. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 57 patients with suspected esophageal motility disorders (EMDs) who underwent high-resolution manometry. RESULTS: The diagnoses of the patients were as follows: normal esophageal motility (n = 25), ineffective esophageal motility (n = 5), esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO; n = 10), distal esophageal spasm (n = 5), achalasia (n = 10), absent contractility (n = 1), and jackhammer esophagus (n = 1)...
April 26, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692530/primary-presentation-of-jeune-s-syndrome-as-gastric-motility-disorder-in-an-infant-a-case-report
#14
Amit Katyan, Shabnam Bhandari Grover, Heena Rajani, Deepak Bagga, Neha Antil
We report a case of a 4-week-old female neonate with Jeune's asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) and coexistent situs anomaly, primarily presenting as gastric motility disorder. The child presented with abdominal distension and nonbilious vomiting since birth with failure to thrive. However, skeletal survey revealed JATD. Upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed situs inversus with delayed gastric emptying. Pyloric biopsy and intraoperative antro-duodenal manometry confirmed association of gastric motility disorder...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670354/inhibitory-effect-of-the-kampo-medicinal-formula-yokukansan-on-acute-stress-induced-defecation-in-rats
#15
Yasuaki Kanada, Ayami Katayama, Hideshi Ikemoto, Kana Takahashi, Mana Tsukada, Akio Nakamura, Shogo Ishino, Tadashi Hisamitsu, Masataka Sunagawa
Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms of abnormal defecation and abdominal discomfort. Psychological factors are well known to be involved in onset and exacerbation of IBS. A few studies have reported effectiveness of traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines in IBS treatment. Yokukansan (YKS) has been shown to have anti-stress and anxiolytic effects. We investigated the effect of YKS on defecation induced by stress and involvement of oxytocin (OT), a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, in order to elucidate the mechanism of YKS action...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669681/the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-functional-dyspepsia
#16
Ahmed Madisch
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is one of the more common functional disorders, with a prevalence of 10-20%. It affectsthe gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: This article is based on publications retrieved by a selective search of PubMed, with special attention to controlled trials, guidelines, and reviews. RESULTS: Typical dyspeptic symptoms in functional dyspepsia include epigastric pain, sensations of pressure and fullness, nausea, and early subjective satiety...
March 30, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668559/gabapentin-improves-symptoms-of-functional-dyspepsia-in-a-retrospective-open-label-cohort-study
#17
Kyle Staller, Andrea H Thurler, Justin S Reynolds, Laurie R Dimisko, Ryan McGovern, Kristina F Skarbinski, Braden Kuo
GOALS: We sought to determine the efficacy of gabapentin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia among an observational cohort of patients. BACKGROUND: Gabapentin has an established role in the treatment of neuropathic pain, with evidence supporting a benefit in visceral hypersensitivity. There is currently no data on the use of gabapentin for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. STUDY: Consecutive patients presenting to a tertiary motility clinic for the evaluation of functional dyspepsia without concurrent gastric emptying delay completed a baseline Patient Assessment of Gastrointestinal Disorders-Symptom Severity Index (PAGI-SYM) before evaluation and were started on gabapentin for functional dyspepsia by their providers...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652029/evaluation-of-a-modified-rat-model-for-functional-dyspepsia
#18
Qiankun Liang, Yuan Yan, Lanfang Mao, Xiaojuan Du, Jingjing Liang, Junhong Liu, Longde Wang, Hongfang Li
Background/Aim: The purpose of this study was to establish a modified rat model with functional dyspepsia (FD) and analyze the changes in gastrointestinal motility and brain-gut peptide levels in serum and brain-gut axis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control group (Con) and FD model group. FD model was established by stimulating semi-starvation rats via tail damping, provocation, and forced exercise fatigue until gastrointestinal motility disorder appeared, and then levels of motilin, leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were detected in serum by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and in duodenum, antrum, and hypothalamus by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot...
April 13, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622813/advances-in-the-physiological-assessment-and-diagnosis-of-gerd
#19
Edoardo Savarino, Albert J Bredenoord, Mark Fox, John E Pandolfino, Sabine Roman, C Prakash Gyawali
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2017.130.
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622812/advances-in-the-management-of-oesophageal-motility-disorders-in-the-era-of-high-resolution-manometry-a-focus-on-achalasia-syndromes
#20
Peter J Kahrilas, Albert J Bredenoord, Mark Fox, C Prakash Gyawali, Sabine Roman, André J P M Smout, John E Pandolfino
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2017.132.
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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