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Gastrointestinal motility disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913883/interactions-between-erythromycin-flunixin-meglumine-levamisole-and-plant-secondary-metabolites-towards-bovine-gastrointestinal-motility-in-vitro-study
#1
M Mendel, M Chłopecka, N Dziekan, W Karlik
Continued ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by ruminants can provoke pharmacological interactions with pharmaceutical agents used in animals. As some drugs and phytocompounds affect smooth muscle activity, the aim of this study was to verify the possible interaction between selected pharmaceutical agents and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility. The interactions between phytocompounds-apigenin, quercetin, hederagenin, medicagenic acid-and medicines-erythromycin, flunixin meglumine and levamisole-were evaluated on bovine isolated abomasal and duodenal specimens obtained from routinely slaughtered cows...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913607/diabetes-and-the-esophagus
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Monreal-Robles, José M Remes-Troche
Chronic hyperglycemia is a well-known cause of gastrointestinal motility disorders extending from the esophagus to the anorectum. Even though little attention has been paid to esophageal disorders in the context of DM, its prevalence is higher compared to gastroparesis. Heartburn, as a typical symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is the most prevalent symptom and has been found in 25 to 41% of patients with DM. Furthermore, DM has recently been established as possible independent factor for the development of Barrett's esophagus...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912251/neuro-immune-interaction-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#3
Simon Verheijden, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion and blood flow are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuro-immune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894245/an-extremely-simple-macroscale-electronic-skin-realized-by-deep-machine-learning
#4
Kee-Sun Sohn, Jiyong Chung, Min-Young Cho, Suman Timilsina, Woon Bae Park, Myungho Pyo, Namsoo Shin, Keemin Sohn, Ji Sik Kim
Complicated structures consisting of multi-layers with a multi-modal array of device components, i.e., so-called patterned multi-layers, and their corresponding circuit designs for signal readout and addressing are used to achieve a macroscale electronic skin (e-skin). In contrast to this common approach, we realized an extremely simple macroscale e-skin only by employing a single-layered piezoresistive MWCNT-PDMS composite film with neither nano-, micro-, nor macro-patterns. It is the deep machine learning that made it possible to let such a simple bulky material play the role of a smart sensory device...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887755/prokinetics-in-the-management-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to review the current status of prokinetics and to place it in historical context. Impaired motility and thus propulsion have long been thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of a number of gastrointestinal disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastroparesis, chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. Historically, disordered motility was also thought to contribute to a number of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
September 8, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871143/dysbiosis-contributes-to-chronic-constipation-development-via-regulation-of-serotonin-transporter-in-the-intestine
#6
Hailong Cao, Xiang Liu, Yingying An, Guoqiong Zhou, Yanrong Liu, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Sinan Wang, Fang Yan, Kui Jiang, Bangmao Wang
Chronic constipation is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder accompanied with intestinal dysbiosis. However, causal relationship between dysbiosis and constipation remains poorly understood. Serotonin transporter (SERT) is a transmembrane transport protein which re-uptakes excessive 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from effective location to terminate its physiological effects and involves in regulating gastrointestinal motility. In this study, fecal microbiota from patients with constipation and healthy controls were transplanted into the antibiotic depletion mice model...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829355/the-herbal-bitter-drug-gentiana-lutea-modulates-lipid-synthesis-in-human-keratinocytes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Ute Wölfle, Birgit Haarhaus, Jasmin Seiwerth, Anja Cawelius, Kay Schwabe, Karl-Werner Quirin, Christoph M Schempp
Gentiana lutea is a herbal bitter drug that is used to enhance gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Recently we have shown that amarogentin, a characteristic bitter compound of Gentiana lutea extract (GE), binds to the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R38 in human keratinocytes, and stimulates the synthesis of epidermal barrier proteins. Here, we wondered if GE also modulates lipid synthesis in human keratinocytes. To address this issue, human primary keratinocytes were incubated for 6 days with GE...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826627/neurostimulation-for-abdominal-pain-related-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-adolescents-a-randomised-double-blind-sham-controlled-trial
#8
Katja Kovacic, Keri Hainsworth, Manu Sood, Gisela Chelimsky, Rachel Unteutsch, Melodee Nugent, Pippa Simpson, Adrian Miranda
BACKGROUND: Development of safe and effective therapies for paediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders is needed. A non-invasive, US Food and Drug Administration-cleared device (Neuro-Stim, Innovative Health Solutions, IN, USA) delivers percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation (PENFS) in the external ear to modulate central pain pathways. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of PENFS in adolescents with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders...
August 18, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816177/electrical-stimulation-of-gut-motility-guided-by-an-in-silico-model
#9
Bradley Brigham Barth, Craig S Henriquez, Warren M Grill, Xiling Shen
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802231/phytochemical-properties-and-pharmacological-effects-of-quercus-ilex-l-aqueous-extract-on-gastrointestinal-physiological-parameters-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Kaïs Rtibi, Imen Hammami, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amri, Lamjed Marzouki
INTRODUCTION: Several research studies have reported on the pharmacological relevance of the medicinal plants used for treating various gastrointestinal disorders and controlling the dietary glucose uptake in the intestinal tract. METHODS: Male rats were used to investigate the pharmacological effects of green oak acorn aqueous extract (GOAE) on gastrointestinal physiological parameters in vivo and in vitro. In this respect, the gastro-intestinal motility and hypersecretion essays were evaluated using a simple test meal (10% charcoal in 5% gum arabic) and castor oil induced diarrhea...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761904/iglon5-antibody-neurological-accompaniments-and-outcomes-in-20-patients
#11
Josephe A Honorat, Lars Komorowski, Keith A Josephs, Kai Fechner, Erik K St Louis, Shannon R Hinson, Sabine Lederer, Neeraj Kumar, Avi Gadoth, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotypes, treatment response, and outcome of IgLON5 autoimmunity. METHODS: Archived serum and CSF specimens from 367 patients known to harbor unclassified antibodies which stained neural synapses diffusely (mimicking amphiphysin-IgG) were reevaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using a composite of mouse tissues and recombinant IgLON5-transfected cell-based assay (CBA, Euroimmun). RESULTS: Available specimens (serum, 25; CSF, 9) from 26/367 patients (7%) had identical IFA appearance and robust IgLON5 CBA positivity...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761578/esophageal-motility-and-rikkunshito-treatment-for-proton-pump-inhibitor-refractory-nonerosive-reflux-disease-a-prospective-uncontrolled-open-label-pilot-study-trial
#12
Takeo Odaka, Shigeru Yamato, Osamu Yokosuka
BACKGROUND: Only a few reports focused on esophageal motility in patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and there has been no established strategy for treatment. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the characteristics of esophageal motility in patients with PPI-refractory NERD, we evaluated esophageal function using combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry (MII-EM). In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of rikkunshito (RKT), which is a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755521/antibiotic-induced-microbiota-dysbiosis-impairs-neuromuscular-function-in-juvenile-mice
#13
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Viviana Filpa, Silvia Cerantola, Genny Orso, Michela Bistoletti, Nicola Paccagnella, Sara De Martin, Monica Montopoli, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Francesca Crema, Iole-Maria Di Gangi, Francesca Galuppini, Isabella Lante, Sara Bogialli, Massimo Rugge, Patrizia Debetto, Cristina Giaroni, Maria Cecilia Giron
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gut microbiota is essential for the development of the gastrointestinal system, including the enteric nervous system (ENS). Early life perturbations of gut microbiota can potentially impact neurodevelopment leading to functional bowel disorders later in life. We examined the hypothesis that gut dysbiosis impairs ENS structural and functional integrity leading to gut dysmotility in juvenile mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: To induce gut dysbiosis broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered by gavage to juvenile male C57Bl/6 mice for 14 days...
July 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746079/distribution-of-esophageal-motor-disorders-in-diabetic-patients-with-dysphagia
#14
Nina S George, Vikram Rangan, Zhuo Geng, Freeha Khan, Adam Kichler, Scott Gabbard, Stephen Ganocy, Ronnie Fass
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. Assessment of esophageal dysmotility in diabetic patients has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to determine the esophageal motor characteristics of diabetic versus nondiabetic patients who present with dysphagia. METHODS: High-resolution esophageal manometries (HREMs) of 83 diabetic patients and 83 age and gender-matched nondiabetic patients with dysphagia from 2 medical centers were included in this study...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744774/early-onset-of-efficacy-in-patients-with-functional-and-motility-related-gastrointestinal-disorders-a%C3%A2-noninterventional-study-with-iberogast%C3%A2
#15
Richard Raedsch, Bettina Vinson, Bertram Ottillinger, Gerald Holtmann
STW 5 (Iberogast®; Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) contains nine plant extracts and possesses well-documented overall efficacy in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Little is known about the onset of symptom relief. Twenty-nine centers in Germany recruited 272 patients with established FGID. These patients were treated with STW 5 for approximately 3 weeks in this noninterventional study. Patients assessed the severity of their gastrointestinal complaints before and at defined times after the intake of STW 5 (10 cm visual analogue scale; VAS)...
July 25, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727474/a-primer-on-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-fat-malabsorption-and-fatty-acid-abnormalities
#16
Samer Alkaade, Ashley A Vareedayah
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is characterized by a deficiency of exocrine pancreatic enzymes, resulting in deficits in digestion of all macronutrients, with deficiencies in digestion of fats being the most clinically relevant. The leading cause of EPI is chronic pancreatitis. However, many other causes and conditions may be implicated, including cystic fibrosis, pancreatic duct obstruction, gastric and pancreatic surgery, diabetes mellitus and other conditions. Physical and biochemical causes of EPI include decreased production and secretion of lipase, increased lipase destruction, pancreatic duct obstruction, decreased lipase stimulation and degradation, as well as gastrointestinal motility disorders...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713271/luminally-acting-agents-for-constipation-treatment-a-review-based-on-literatures-and-patents
#17
REVIEW
Hong Yang, Tonghui Ma
Constipation is one of the most frequently reported gastrointestinal (GI) disorders that negatively impacts quality of life and is associated with a significant economic burden to the patients and society. Traditional treatments including lifestyle modification and laxatives are often ineffective in the more severe forms of constipation and over the long term. New medications targeting at intestinal chloride channels and colonic serotonin receptors have been demonstrated effective in recent years. Emerging agents focusing on improving intestinal secretion and/or colonic motility have been shown effective in animal models and even in clinical trials...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705931/proof-of-concept-design-and-initial-evaluation-of-a-new-device-to-measure-gastrointestinal-transit-time
#19
Robert H Wagner, Bital Savir-Baruch, James Halama, Mukund Venu, Medhat Gabriel, Davide Bova
Chronic constipation and gastrointestinal motility disorders constitute a large part of a gastroenterology practice and represent a significant impact on patient quality of life and lifestyle. In most cases, medications are prescribed to alleviate symptoms without an objective measurement of response. Commonly used current investigations of gastrointestinal transit times are limited to radiopaque markers or electronic capsules. Repeated use of these techniques is limited due to radiation exposure or the significant cost of the devices...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703341/esophageal-function-testing-billing-and-coding-update
#20
REVIEW
A Khan, B Massey, S Rao, J Pandolfino
Esophageal function testing is being increasingly utilized in diagnosis and management of esophageal disorders. There have been several recent technological advances in the field to allow practitioners the ability to more accurately assess and treat such conditions, but there has been a relative lack of education in the literature regarding the associated Common Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes and methods of reimbursement. This review, commissioned and supported by the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society Council, aims to summarize each of the CPT codes for esophageal function testing and show the trends of associated reimbursement, as well as recommend coding methods in a practical context...
July 13, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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