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Gastrointestinal motility disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890710/in-vivo-and-vitro-characterization-of-the-effects-of-kisspeptin-13-endogenous-ligands-for-gpr54-on-mouse-gastrointestinal-motility
#2
Jinhong Jiang, Weidong Jin, Yali Peng, Zhen He, Lijuan Wei, Shu Li, Xiaoli Wang, Min Chang, Rui Wang
Kisspeptin (KP), the endogenous ligand of GPR54, is a mammalian amidated neurohormone, which belongs to the RF-amide peptide family. However, in contrast with the related members of the RF-amide family, little information is available regarding its role in the gastrointestinal motility. With regard to the recent data suggesting KP play an important role in food intake, and while gastrointestinal motility are closely related to it. Thus, in the present work, effects of central administration of KP-13, one of the endogenous active isoforms, on gastrointestinal motility were investigated...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#3
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869805/engineered-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-tissues-with-a-functional-enteric-nervous-system
#4
Michael J Workman, Maxime M Mahe, Stephen Trisno, Holly M Poling, Carey L Watson, Nambirajan Sundaram, Ching-Fang Chang, Jacqueline Schiesser, Philippe Aubert, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Mohammad A Mandegar, Bruce R Conklin, Michel Neunlist, Samantha A Brugmann, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract controls many diverse functions, including motility and epithelial permeability. Perturbations in ENS development or function are common, yet there is no human model for studying ENS-intestinal biology and disease. We used a tissue-engineering approach with embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to generate human intestinal tissue containing a functional ENS. We recapitulated normal intestinal ENS development by combining human-PSC-derived neural crest cells (NCCs) and developing human intestinal organoids (HIOs)...
November 21, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#5
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
November 14, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864598/impact-of-fetal-counseling-on-outcome-of-antenatal-congenital-surgical-anomalies
#6
Shilpa Sharma, Ranjana Bhanot, Dipika Deka, Minu Bajpai, Devendra K Gupta
AIM: To analyze the impact of counseling on antenatal congenital surgical anomalies (ACSA). METHODS: Cases presenting with ACSA for fetal counseling and those presenting in post-natal period following diagnosis of ACSA (PACSA) for surgical opinion were analyzed for spectrum, presentation and outcome. RESULTS: 117 cases including ACSA(68);PACSA(49) were analyzed. Gestational age at diagnosis of ACSA;PACSA was 17-37;17-39 weeks (median 24;32 weeks)...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860408/ionized-calcium-binding-adaptor-molecule-1-positive-macrophages-and-ho-1-up-regulation-in-intestinal-muscularis-resident-macrophages
#7
Hanne B Mikkelsen, Jan D Huizinga, Jytte O Larsen, Svend Kirkeby
: Small intestinal muscularis externa macrophages have been associated with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). They have been proposed to play various roles in motility disorders and to take part in a microbiota-driven regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Our objective was to understand the reaction of resident macrophages of the musculature to a pro-inflammatory stimulator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were injected with LPS or saline and sacrificed after 6 hours. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies toward CD169, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1) (microglial/macrophage marker) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
November 16, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833517/clinical-utility-of-esophageal-manometry-in-the-patients-with-dysphagia-experience-from-sudan
#8
Amin M Abbas, Sami Medani, Tajeldin M Abdallah, Gasim I Gasim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of esophageal manometry among Sudanese patients presenting to the National Centre for Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Ibn Sina Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive patients referred for esophageal manometry at the aforementioned center from July 2008 through January 2011 were included in the study. Manometric studies were done after stopping medicines with a known effect on esophageal motility and an overnight fast...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829122/opposite-effects-of-central-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-on-changes-in-gastric-motor-function-induced-by-chronic-stress
#9
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Burcu Gemici, V Nimet İzgüt-Uysal
Hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are known to act oppositely on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress response and gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In rodents, exposure to restraint stress (RS) delays gastric emptying (GE), however, repeated exposure to the same stressor (chronic homotypic stress (CHS)), the delayed GE is restored to basal level, while hypothalamic OXT is upregulated. In contrast, when rats are exposed to chronic heterotypic stress (CHeS), these adaptive changes are not observed...
November 6, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824643/clinical-psychological-and-physiological-correlates-of-patients-who-defecate-after-meal
#10
Michel Bouchoucha, Ghislain Devroede, Florence Mary, Cyriaque Bon, Gheorges Airinei, Bakhtiar Bejou, Robert Benamouzig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Food is the most important synchronizer of gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Many patients with functional bowel or anorectal disorders complain of fecal urge and stool output after eating. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 408 consecutive outpatients with functional bowel and/or anorectal disorders (74% female, 50.2±15.6 years, 24.8±5.0 kg/m²) filled Rome III questionnaires. Depression and anxiety scores, a physiological evaluation (total and segmental colonic transit time, colonic transit response to eating using a standard 1000 kcal test meal, and anorectal manometry), were measured...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792038/role-of-cannabis-in-digestive-disorders
#11
Hemant Goyal, Umesh Singla, Urvashi Gupta, Elizabeth May
Cannabis sativa, a subspecies of the Cannabis plant, contains aromatic hydrocarbon compounds called cannabinoids. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol is the most abundant cannabinoid and is the main psychotropic constituent. Cannabinoids activate two types of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors: cannabinoid type 1 receptor and cannabinoid type 2 receptor. There has been ongoing interest and development in research to explore the therapeutic potential of cannabis. [INCREMENT]-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts biological functions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
October 27, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781369/ion-channels-ion-channel-receptors-and-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
I M Fuentes, J A Christianson
Ion channels are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal system and regulate nearly every aspect of digestion, including fluid secretion and absorption, motility, and visceral sensitivity. It is therefore not surprising that in the setting of functional bowel disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), ion channels are often altered in terms of expression level and function and are a target of pharmacological intervention. This is particularly true of their role in driving abdominal pain through visceral hypersensitivity (VH), which is the main reason IBS patients seek medical care...
November 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765162/surgical-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders
#13
Jon S Thompson, Sean J Langenfeld, Alexander Hewlett, Amareshewar Chiruvella, Christopher Crawford, Priscila Armijo, Dmitry Oleynikov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Current Problems in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756919/problems-with-extracellular-recording-of-electrical-activity-in-gastrointestinal-muscle
#14
REVIEW
Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward, Grant W Hennig
Motility patterns of the gastrointestinal tract are important for efficient processing of nutrients and waste. Peristalsis and segmentation are based on rhythmic electrical slow waves that generate the phasic contractions fundamental to gastrointestinal motility. Slow waves are generated and propagated actively by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and these events conduct to smooth muscle cells to elicit excitation-contraction coupling. Extracellular electrical recording has been utilized to characterize slow-wave generation and propagation and abnormalities that might be responsible for gastrointestinal motility disorders...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748181/gastrointestinal-motility-and-acute-toxicity-of-pistagremic-acid-isolated-from-the-galls-of-pistacia-integerrima
#15
Tareq Abu-Izneid, Aneela Maalik, Saud Bawazeer, Ajmal Khan, Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Haroon Khan, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan, Imran Khan, Mohammad S Mubarak, Ghias Uddin, Alia Bahadar, Shujaat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Pistacia integerrima has many medicinal uses in therapeutic as well as folk medicine. P. integerrima has been used for the treatment of different ailments such as blood purifier, anti-inflammatory, and as remedy for gastrointestinal disorders such as vomiting and diarrhea, expectorant, cough, asthma and fever. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research work was to evaluate the effect of pistagremic acid (PA) isolated from the galls of Pistacia integerima in acute toxicity and gastrointestinal (GIT) motility tests...
October 7, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725459/evaluation-of-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-using-gastrointestinal-motility-tests
#16
Shiko Kuribayashi, Hiroko Hosaka, Motoyasu Kusano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723700/-evaluation-of-clinical-efficacy-of-serotonin-adipate-in-treatment-and-prevention-of-enteral-insufficiency-syndrome-at-generalized-peritonitis
#17
B M Belik
AIM: To substantiate pathogenetic expediency and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the drug use serotonin adipate (dinaton) in a complex correction enteral insufficiency syndrome (EIN) in patients with generalized peritonitis (GP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The comparative analysis of results of treatment of 182 patients with GP, which in principle approach to EIN correction in the postoperative period were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 92 patients who received standard intensive therapy using conventional methods of stimulation of intestinal peristalsis...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705853/a-theoretical-analysis-of-electrogastrography-egg-signatures-associated-with-gastric-dysrhythmias
#18
Stefan Calder, Gregory O'Grady, Leo Cheng, Peng Du
Routine screening and accurate diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal motility disorders represents a significant problem in current clinical practice. The electrogastrography (EGG) provides a non-invasive option for assessing gastric slow waves, as a means of diagnosing gastric dysrhythmias, but its uptake in motility practice has been limited partly due to an incomplete sensitivity and specificity. This paper presents the development of a human whole-organ gastric model to enable virtual (insilico) testing of gastric electrophysiological dispersion in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of EGG...
September 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693869/colo-colonic-intussusception-due-to-large-submucous-lipoma-a-case-report
#19
Luiza Ohasi de Figueiredo, D P C Garcia, Luiz Ronaldo Alberti, R A Paiva, Andy Petroianu, Luiza Barbosa Paolucci, M R L G Costa
INTRODUCTION: Intussusception in adult is rarely caused by idiopathic conditions. Main causes are inflammatory diseases, benign or malignant tumors and motility disorders. As a benign cause, lipomas appear as a particularly rare gastrointestinal intraluminal tumor occurring with highest incidence in the colon, mostly in the caecum and ascending colon. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 57-year-old male patient was admitted at the surgical emergency in Belo Horizonte, with history of chronic and intermittent diffuse abdominal pain, associated with variations of his bowel habits and rare episodes of vomiting starting around 3days prior to admission...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692369/-tension-pneumothorax-during-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-for-treatment-of-esophageal-achalasia-under-general-anesthesia
#20
Tsung-Shih Li, Tsung-Yang Lee, Kate Hsiurong Liao
More and more endoscopically gastrointestinal procedures require anesthesiologists to perform general anesthesia, such as "peroral endoscopic myotomy". Peroral endoscopic myotomy is a novel invasive treatment for the primary motility disorder of esophagus, called esophageal achalasia. Despite of its minimally invasive feature, there are still complications during the procedure which develop to critical conditions and threat patients' lives. Herein we describe a case about tension pneumothorax subsequent to esophageal rupture during peroral endoscopic myotomy...
September 27, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
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