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Gastrointestinal motility disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637453/electroacupuncture-at-li11-promotes-jejunal-motility-via-the-parasympathetic-pathway
#1
Xuanming Hu, Mengqian Yuan, Yin Yin, Yidan Wang, Yuqin Li, Na Zhang, Xueyi Sun, Zhi Yu, Bin Xu
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal motility disorder has been demonstrated to be regulated by acupuncture treatment. The mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture stimulation of abdominal and lower limb acupoints on gastrointestinal motility have been thoroughly studied; however, the physiology underlying the effects of acupuncture on the forelimbs to mediate gastrointestinal motility requires further exploration. The aim of this study was to determine whether electroacupuncture (EA) at LI11 promotes jejunal motility, whether the parasympathetic pathway participates in this effect, and if so, which somatic afferent nerve fibres are involved...
June 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628846/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-expression-in-dog-ileum-with-and-without-inflammation
#2
Giulia Polidoro, Fiorella Giancola, Federico Fracassi, Marco Pietra, Giuliano Bettini, Martina Asti, Roberto Chiocchetti
In the gastrointestinal tract, the tachykinin Substance P (SP) is involved in motility, fluid and electrolyte secretion, and blood flow and regulation of immunoinflammatory response. SP exerts its biological activity on target cells by interacting mainly with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). The present study aims to quantify the percentage of SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) enteric neurons and the density of SP-IR nerve fibers in the ileum of control dogs (CTRL-dogs; n=7) vs dogs with spontaneous ileal inflammation (INF-dogs; n=8)...
June 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621589/effect-of-hospitalization-on-gastrointestinal-motility-and-ph-in-dogs
#3
Kanawee Warrit, Pedro Boscan, Leah E Ferguson, Allison M Bradley, Kristy L Dowers, David C Twedt
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of hospitalization on gastrointestinal motility and pH in healthy dogs. DESIGN Experimental study. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURES A wireless motility capsule (WMC) that measured pressure, transit time, and pH within the gastrointestinal tract was administered orally to dogs in 2 phases. In the first phase, dogs received the WMC at the hospital and then returned to their home to follow their daily routine. In the second phase, dogs were hospitalized, housed individually, had abdominal radiography performed daily, and were leash exercised 4 to 6 times/d until the WMC passed in the feces...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620922/supraspinal-inhibitory-effects-of-chimeric-peptide-mcrt-on-gastrointestinal-motility-in-mice
#4
Chunbo He, Hailan Li, Jing Zhang, Yanping Kang, Fang Jia, Shouliang Dong, Lanxia Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Chimeric peptide MCRT, based on morphiceptin and PFRTic-NH2 , was a bifunctional ligand of μ- and δ-opioid receptors (MOR-DOR) and produced potent analgesia in tail-withdrawal test. The study focused on the supraspinal effects of morphiceptin, PFRTic-NH2 and MCRT on gastrointestinal motility. Moreover, opioid receptor antagonists, naloxone (non-selective), cyprodime (MOR selective) and naltrindole (DOR selective) were utilized to explore the mechanisms. METHODS: Intracerebroventricular administration was achieved via the implanted cannula...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620185/c-abl-regulates-gastrointestinal-muscularis-propria-homeostasis-via-erks
#5
Jinnan Xiang, Yiqun Zhang, Dandan Bao, Na Cao, Xin Zhang, Ping Li, Shoutao Qiu, Jigang Guo, Dan He, Baojie Li, Liqing Yao, Huijuan Liu
The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for food digestion and absorption. The muscularis propria propels the foodstuff through the GI tract and defects in intestine motility may cause obstruction disorders. Our present genetic studies identified non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl as an important regulator of the muscularis propria homeostasis and a risk factor for rectal prolapse. Mouse deficient for c-Abl showed defects in the muscularis propria of gastrointestinal tract and older c-Abl (-/-) mice developed megaesophagus and rectal prolapse...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610994/manganese-induced-sex-specific-gut-microbiome-perturbations-in-c57bl-6-mice
#6
Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Overexposure to manganese (Mn) leads to toxic effects, such as promoting the development of Parkinson's-like neurological disorders. The gut microbiome is deeply involved in immune development, host metabolism, and xenobiotics biotransformation, and significantly influences central nervous system (CNS) via the gut-brain axis, i.e. the biochemical signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the CNS. However, it remains unclear whether Mn can affect the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions, particularly those linked to neurotoxicity...
June 10, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589631/systematic-review-exercise-induced-gastrointestinal-syndrome-implications-for-health-and-intestinal-disease
#7
REVIEW
R J S Costa, R M J Snipe, C M Kitic, P R Gibson
BACKGROUND: "Exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome" refers to disturbances of gastrointestinal integrity and function that are common features of strenuous exercise. AIM: To systematically review the literature to establish the impact of acute exercise on markers of gastrointestinal integrity and function in healthy populations and those with chronic gastrointestinal conditions. METHODS: Search literature using five databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, SPORTSdiscus, and Ovid Medline) to review publications that focused on the impact of acute exercise on markers of gastrointestinal injury, permeability, endotoxaemia, motility and malabsorption in healthy populations and populations with gastrointestinal diseases/disorders...
June 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589298/changes-in-esophageal-motility-after-acupuncture
#8
Felipe M Vieira, Fernando A M Herbella, Daniel H Habib, Marco G Patti
BACKGROUND: Chinese medicine is widely used in the East with good results for the treatment of many diseases. Acupuncture has been increasingly used and recognized as a complementary medical treatment. Some studies on gastrointestinal motility are available; however, acupuncture effect on esophageal motility is still elusive due to the lack of studies with adequate methodology. This study aims to evaluate acupuncture effect on esophageal motility. METHODS: We studied 16 (50% females, mean age 26 years) volunteers...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584525/gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-and-their-clinical-implications-in-cirrhosis
#9
REVIEW
Eleni Theocharidou, Ameet Dhar, David Patch
Gastrointestinal motility is impaired in a substantial proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis-related autonomic neuropathy, increased nitric oxide production, and gut hormonal changes have been implicated. Oesophageal dysmotility has been associated with increased frequency of abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux. Impaired gastric emptying and accommodation may result in early satiety and may have an impact on the nutritional status of these patients. Small intestinal dysmotility might be implicated in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580775/persistent-distention-of-colon-damages-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-through-ca-2-erk-ap-1-mir-34c-scf-deregulation
#10
Shu Yang, Fang Dong, Dandan Li, Haimei Sun, Bo Wu, Tingyi Sun, Yaxi Wang, Ping Shen, Fengqing Ji, Deshan Zhou
Gastrointestinal motility disorders (GMDs) are attributed to loss of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), whose survival and function are deeply dependent on the activation of KIT/SCF signalling. Based on the facts that gastrointestinal distention is common in GMD patients and SCF produced by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is usually decreased before ICC loss, we considered a possible contribution of persistent gastrointestinal distention/stretch to SCF deficiency. In this study, chronic colonic distention mouse model, diabetic gastrointestinal paresis mouse model, cultured mouse colonic SMCs and colon specimens from Hirschsprung's disease patients were used...
June 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556421/gastrointestinal-disorders-after-immunosuppression-an-experimental-model-to-evaluate-the-influence-of-monotherapy-on-motility-parameters
#11
Denize Jussara Rupolo Dall'Agnol, Luciana Aparecida Corá, Maria do Carmo Borges Teixeira, Maysa Bruno de Lima, Loyane Almeida Gama, José Ricardo de Arruda Miranda, Madileine Francely Américo
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to propose an animal model for investigating the effects of immunosuppressive monotherapy on gastrointestinal motility using a non-invasive biomagnetic technique. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into groups: Cyclosporine, Tacrolimus, Prednisone, Sirolimus, Mycophenolate Mofetil, Everolimus and Azathioprine. Each animal was treated during 14 days by gavage with dosage ranging from 1 to 20 mg Kg(-1)  day(-1) considering area per volume ratio and hepatic metabolism...
May 26, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553630/choice-of-allograft-in-patients-requiring-intestinal-transplantation-a-critical-review
#12
REVIEW
Genevieve Huard, Thomas Schiano, Jang Moon, Kishore Iyer
Intestinal transplantation (ITx) is indicated in patients with irreversible intestinal failure (IF) and life-threatening complications related to total parenteral nutrition (TPN). ITx can be classified into three main types. Isolated intestinal transplantation (IITx), that is, transplantation of the jejunoileum, is indicated in patients with preserved liver function. Combined liver-intestine transplantation (L-ITx), that is, transplantation of the liver and the jejunoileum, is indicated in patients with liver failure related to TPN...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507013/mechanisms-of-action-of-probiotics-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-on-gut-motility-and-constipation
#13
REVIEW
Eirini Dimidi, Stephanos Christodoulides, S Mark Scott, Kevin Whelan
Constipation is a common and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder that may result from altered gastrointestinal motility. The effect of probiotics on constipation has been increasingly investigated in both animal and human studies, showing promising results. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the mechanisms of action of probiotics on gut motility and constipation. Several factors are vital to normal gut motility, including immune and nervous system function, bile acid metabolism and mucus secretion, and the gastrointestinal microbiota and fermentation; an imbalance or dysfunction in any of these components may contribute to aberrant gut motility and, consequently, symptoms of constipation...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505119/laxative-effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-sujiaonori-algal-biomaterial-in-japanese-adult-women-with-functional-constipation-a-case-study
#14
Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Mitsunori Ikeda, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Mamoru Tanaka, Masataka Inoue
Constipation is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that represents a major health problem in Japan. Approximately 26% of young Japanese adult women are reported to have this complaint. We report on the health effects of daily intake of Sujiaonori algal biomaterial (SBM) on constipation on 12 Japanese adult women. Data are from a four-week dietary intervention study on the health effects of daily Sujiaonori supplementation on cardiovascular, skin, and gastrointestinal health in which 32 adult Japanese volunteers (age range: 20-54 years) participated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502440/motility-disorders-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Samuel Nurko
Gastrointestinal motility disorders in the pediatric population are common and can range from benign processes to more serious disorders. Performing and interpreting motility evaluations in children present unique challenges. There are primary motility disorders but abnormal motility may be secondary due to other disease processes. Diagnostic studies include radiographic scintigraphic and manometry studies. Although recent advances in the genetics, biology, and technical aspects are having an important impact and have allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapy for gastrointestinal motility disorders in children, further research is needed to be done to have better understanding of the pathophysiology and for better therapies...
June 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480865/impact-of-food-enriched-with-dietary-fiber-on-patients-with-constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
G Sulaberidze, M Okujava, K Liluashvili, M Tughushi, M Abramashvili
The causes of motility disorder of gastrointestinal tract and in particular Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS are multifold, leading to complexity of treatment and requirement of more precise investigation of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. The aim of the study was investigation and comparison of the dietary fiber intake among women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and without, improvement of the dietary fiber intake using interventions with less rough changes of food related behavior and study of its effects on the bowel function, general wellbeing and compliance of patients...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474782/a-comparative-pharmacokinetic-study-of-three-flavonoids-and-three-anthraquinones-in-normal-and-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-rat-plasma-after-the-oral-administration-of-wei-chang-shu-tablet-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#17
Yan Ren, Weiwei Zhao, Juanjuan Zhao, Xiangming Chen, Chen Yu, Mengan Liu
A simple, fast and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetic study of three flavonoids (liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin and formononetin) and three anthraquinones (emodin, rhein and aloe-emodin), which are the bioactive ingredients of Wei-Chang-Shu tablet found in rat plasma. After extraction by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (4...
May 5, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462704/the-role-of-dietary-approach-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
Piero Portincasa, Antony Lembo, Ornella De Bari, Domenica M Di Palo, Anna Maggio, Ilaria Cataldo, Giuseppe Calamita
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases. In IBS multiple pathophysiological mechanisms including alterations in intestinal motility, permeability, nutrient absorption, and intestinal microbiota have been implicated. Foods are commonly reported by patients to be a trigger of symptoms and therefore are likely involved in the generation of symptoms in IBS. Among all possible therapeutic options, a first-line approach to IBS is dietary education and identification of foods potentially responsible for the onset or worsening of symptoms...
April 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454890/plasticity-of-vagal-afferent-signaling-in-the-gut
#19
REVIEW
Gintautas Grabauskas, Chung Owyang
Vagal sensory neurons mediate the vago-vagal reflex which, in turn, regulates a wide array of gastrointestinal functions including esophageal motility, gastric accommodation and pancreatic enzyme secretion. These neurons also transmit sensory information from the gut to the central nervous system, which then mediates the sensations of nausea, fullness and satiety. Recent research indicates that vagal afferent neurons process non-uniform properties and a significant degree of plasticity. These properties are important to ensure that vagally regulated gastrointestinal functions respond rapidly and appropriately to various intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
April 10, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440477/synchronized-dual-pulse-gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-gastric-emptying-and-activates-enteric-glial-cells-via-upregulation-of-gfap-and-s100b-with-different-courses-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-in-rats
#20
Nian Wang, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Previous research and clinical practice have indicated that damage to the vagal nerve may seriously affect gastrointestinal physiological movement behavior. The aim of the current study was to observe the change of gastric motility, as well as enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the stomach with different courses of vagal nerve transection in rats prior to and following synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation. The gastric emptying rates were measured to assess the gastric motility. The glial markers, containing calcium binding protein (S100B) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double‑labeling immunofluorescence analysis...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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