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Bipolar disorder and circadian rhythms

Susanne A Bengesser, Eva Z Reininghaus, Nina Lackner, Armin Birner, Frederike T Fellendorf, Martina Platzer, Nora Kainzbauer, Bernhard Tropper, Christa Hörmanseder, Robert Queissner, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Sandra J Wallner-Liebmann, Robert Fuchs, Erwin Petek, Christian Windpassinger, Mario Schnalzenberger, Bernd Reininghaus, Bernd Evert, Andreas Waha
OBJECTIVES: The clock gene ARNTL is associated with the transcription activation of monoamine oxidase A according to previous literature. Thus, we hypothesised that methylation of ARNTL may differ between bipolar disorder (BD) and controls. METHODS: The methylation status of one CpG island covering the first exon of ARNTL (PS2) and one site in the 5' region of ARNTL (cg05733463) were analysed in patients with BD (n = 151) versus controls (n = 66). Methylation analysis was performed by bisulphite-conversion of DNA from fasting blood with the EpiTect Bisulfite Kit, PCR and pyrosequencing...
October 14, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Thaíse Campos Mondin, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
BACKGROUND: It is known that sleep disturbance has been considered a trait-marker of mood disorders. However, the role of disruptions in biological rhythms, such as eating, activity, and social patterns, needs to be better understood. AIM: To assess the differences in biological rhythms in subjects with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and healthy controls. We also tested the association between disruptions of biological rhythms and circadian preferences...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
P A Geoffroy, J-A Micoulaud Franchi, R Lopez, I Poirot, A Brion, S Royant-Parola, B Etain
OBJECTIVES: Sleep complaints are very common in bipolar disorders (BD) both during acute phases (manic and depressive episodes) and remission (about 80 % of patients with remitted BD have poor sleep quality). Sleep complaints during remission are of particular importance since they are associated with more mood relapses and worse outcomes. In this context, this review discusses the characterization and treatment of sleep complaints in BD. METHODS: We examined the international scientific literature in June 2016 and performed a literature search with PubMed electronic database using the following headings: "bipolar disorder" and ("sleep" or "insomnia" or "hypersomnia" or "circadian" or "apnoea" or "apnea" or "restless legs")...
September 23, 2016: L'Encéphale
Matias Carvalho Aguiar Melo, Raquel Fernandes Garcia, Vicente Bezerra Linhares Neto, Mariana Brasil Sá, Licia Marah Figueredo de Mesquita, Carolina Freitas Cardeal de Araújo, Veralice Meireles Sales de Bruin
BACKGROUND: Sleep and circadian abnormalities have been mostly demonstrated in bipolar patients. However, it is not clear whether these alterations are present in population at high risk for bipolar disorder (BD), indicating a possible risk factor for this condition. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to define current evidence about sleep and rhythm alterations in people at risk for BD and to evaluate sleep and circadian disorders as risk factor for BD. METHODS: The systematic review included all articles about the topic until February 2016...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred
Lithium is the most effective and well established treatment for bipolar disorder, and it has a broad array of effects within cellular pathways. However, the specific processes through which therapeutic effects occur and are maintained in bipolar disorder remain unclear. This paper provides a timely update to an authoritative review of pertinent findings that was published in CNS Drugs in 2013. A literature search was conducted using the Scopus database, and was limited by year (from 2012). There has been a resurgence of interest in lithium therapy mechanisms, perhaps driven by technical advancements in recent years that permit the examination of cellular mechanisms underpinning the effects of lithium-along with the reuptake of lithium in clinical practice...
October 2016: CNS Drugs
Matthew R Cribbet, Ryan W Logan, Mathew D Edwards, Erin Hanlon, Clara Bien Peek, Jeremy J Stubblefield, Sridhar Vasudevan, Fiona Ritchey, Ellen Frank
This paper focuses on the relationship between the circadian system and glucose metabolism. Research across the translational spectrum confirms the importance of the circadian system for glucose metabolism and offers promising clues as to when and why these systems go awry. In particular, basic research has started to clarify the molecular and genetic mechanisms through which the circadian system regulates metabolism. The study of human behavior, especially in the context of psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder and major depression, forces us to see how inextricably linked mental health and metabolic health are...
September 2, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Chul-Hyun Cho, Joung-Ho Moon, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Seung-Gul Kang, Dongho Geum, Gi-Hoon Son, Jong-Min Lim, Leen Kim, Eun-Il Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee
This study examined the link between circadian rhythm changes due to bright light exposure and subthreshold bipolarity. Molecular circadian rhythms, polysomnography, and actigraphy data were studied in 25 young, healthy male subjects, divided into high and low mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ) score groups. During the first 2 days of the study, the subjects were exposed to daily-living light (150 lux) for 4 hours before bedtime. Saliva and buccal cells were collected 5 times a day for 2 consecutive days. During the subsequent 5 days, the subjects were exposed to bright light (1,000 lux), and saliva and buccal cell samples were collected in the same way...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joung-Ho Moon, Chul-Hyun Cho, Gi Hoon Son, Dongho Geum, Sooyoung Chung, Hyun Kim, Seung-Gul Kang, Young-Min Park, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Leen Kim, Hee-Jung Jee, Hyonggin An, Daniel F Kripke, Heon-Jeong Lee
Disturbances in circadian rhythms have been suggested as a possible cause of bipolar disorder (BD). Included in this study were 31 mood episodes of 26 BD patients, and 18 controls. Circadian rhythms of BD were evaluated at admission, at 2-week intervals during hospitalization, and at discharge. All participants wore wrist actigraphs during the studies. Saliva and buccal cells were obtained at 8:00, 11:00, 15:00, 19:00, and 23:00 for two consecutive days. Collected saliva and buccal cells were used for analysis of the cortisol and gene circadian rhythm, respectively...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
Matias C A Melo, Rafael L C Abreu, Vicente B Linhares Neto, Pedro F C de Bruin, Veralice M S de Bruin
Despite a complex relationship between mood, sleep and rhythm, the impact of circadian disruptions on bipolar disorder (BD) has not been clarified. The purpose of this systematic review was to define current evidence regarding chronotype and circadian rhythm patterns in BD patients. 42 studies were included, involving 3432 BD patients. Disruption of the biological rhythm was identified, even in drug-naïve BD patients and independently of mood status. Daily profiles of melatonin levels and cortisol indicated a delayed phase...
July 1, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Tomoko Yoshikawa, Sato Honma
Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the mechanisms how lithium exerts its mood stabilizing effects remain to be studied. The disorder in circadian pacemaking has been suggested as an underlying mechanism of the characteristic mood instability of the BD. Lithium is also known to lengthen the circadian periods. We recently proposed that chronic methamphetamine treatment induced circadian oscillation as a complex oscillator including multiple dopaminergic brain areas, and the complex oscillator regulates behavior rhythm independent from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Yoshikazu Takaesu, Yuichi Inoue, Akiko Murakoshi, Yoko Komada, Ayano Otsuka, Kunihiro Futenma, Takeshi Inoue
Recent studies have suggested that there are certain pathophysiological relationships between bipolar disorder (BD) and circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, apparently no studies have clarified the prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) in patients with BD. This study was set out to investigate the prevalence of CRSWD and associated factors in patients with BD. One hundred four euthymic BD outpatients participated in this study. The subjects were asked to answer questionnaires including demographic variables, clinical course of BD, and family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide...
2016: PloS One
Elaine M Boland, Jonathan P Stange, Denise R Labelle, Benjamin G Shapero, Rachel B Weiss, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
The Behavioral Approach System (BAS)/Reward Hypersensitivity Theory and the Social Zeitgeber Theory are two biopsychosocial theories of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD) that may work together to explain affective dysregulation. The present study examined whether BAS sensitivity is associated with affective symptoms via a) increased social rhythm disruption in response to BAS-relevant life events, or b) greater exposure to BAS events leading to social rhythm disruption and subsequent symptoms. Results indicated that high BAS individuals were more likely to experience social rhythm disruption following BAS-relevant events...
May 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Patricia L Haynes, Devan Gengler, Monica Kelly
Social rhythms are patterns of habitual daily behaviors that may impact the timing of the circadian system directly or indirectly through light exposure. According to the social rhythm hypothesis of depression, depressed individuals possess a vulnerability in the circadian timing system that inhibits natural recovery after disrupting life events. Social rhythm therapies (SRTs) support the implementation of regular, daily patterns of activity in order to facilitate recovery of circadian biological processes and also to improve mood...
August 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
P A Geoffroy, B Etain, M Lajnef, E-H Zerdazi, C Brichant-Petitjean, U Heilbronner, L Hou, F Degenhardt, M Rietschel, F J McMahon, T G Schulze, S Jamain, C Marie-Claire, F Bellivier
Preliminary studies suggest that lithium (Li) response might be associated with some circadian gene polymorphisms, we therefore performed a pharmacogenetic study on the core clock genes in two independent samples suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) and thoroughly characterized for their Li response. Two independent Caucasian samples (165 and 58 bipolar patients) treated with Li were selected from samples recruited in a French multicenter study and assessed for their Li response using the Alda scale. The two samples were genotyped using the Human660 (H660) and OmniExpress (OE) BeadChips and gene-based association analyses of 22 core clock genes were conducted...
September 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Michael H Smolensky, Ramon C Hermida, Alain Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen, Francesco Portaluppi
Biological processes are organized in time as innate rhythms defined by the period (τ), phase (peak [Φ] and trough time), amplitude (A, peak-trough difference) and mean level. The human time structure in its entirety is comprised of ultradian (τ < 20 h), circadian (20 h > τ < 28 h) and infradian (τ > 28 h) bioperiodicities. The circadian time structure (CTS) of human beings, which is more complicated than in lower animals, is orchestrated and staged by a brain central multioscillator system that includes a prominent pacemaker - the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
2016: Chronobiology International
Faye D Banks, Fiona Lobban, Thomas R Fanshawe, Steven H Jones
BACKGROUND: Internal appraisal styles, in addition to circadian and social rhythm instability, have been implicated in the development of mood experiences in bipolar disorder (BD), yet potential interactions between these variables remain under researched. METHODS: This study used online questionnaires to examine relationships between social and circadian rhythm instability, appraisal style and mood within populations at varying vulnerability for BD. RESULTS: Participants with BD (n=51), and those at behavioural high-risk (BHR; n=77), exhibited poor sleep quality and a stronger tendency to form internal appraisals of both positive and negative experiences compared to non-clinical controls (n=498) and participants with fibromyalgia (n=80)...
October 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Harry Pantazopoulos, Jason T Wiseman, Matej Markota, Lucy Ehrenfeld, Sabina Berretta
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence points to a key role for somatostatin (SST) in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). In the amygdala, neurons expressing SST play an important role in the regulation of anxiety, which is often comorbid in these disorders. We tested the hypothesis that SST-immunoreactive (IR) neurons are decreased in the amygdala of subjects with SZ and BD. Evidence for circadian SST expression in the amygdala and disrupted circadian rhythms and rhythmic peaks of anxiety in BD suggest a disruption of rhythmic expression of SST in this disorder...
April 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Rébecca Robillard, Daniel F Hermens, Rico S C Lee, Andrew Jones, Joanne S Carpenter, Django White, Sharon L Naismith, James Southan, Bradley Whitwell, Elizabeth M Scott, Ian B Hickie
Mood disorders are characterized by disabling symptoms and cognitive difficulties which may vary in intensity throughout the course of the illness. Sleep-wake cycles and circadian rhythms influence emotional regulation and cognitive functions. However, the relationships between the sleep-wake disturbances experienced commonly by people with mood disorders and the longitudinal changes in their clinical and cognitive profile are not well characterized. This study investigated associations between initial sleep-wake patterns and longitudinal changes in mood symptoms and cognitive functions in 50 young people (aged 13-33 years) with depression or bipolar disorder...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
J M Bumb, F Enning, J K Mueller, Till van der List, C Rohleder, P Findeisen, I Noelte, E Schwarz, F M Leweke
BACKGROUND: Melatonin, which plays an important role for regulation of circadian rhythms and the sleep/wake cycle has been linked to the pathophysiology of major depressive and bipolar disorder. Here we investigated melatonin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of depression and bipolar patients to elucidate potential differences and commonalities in melatonin alterations across the two disorders. METHODS: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, CSF and serum melatonin levels were measured in 108 subjects (27 healthy volunteers, 44 depressed and 37 bipolar patients)...
July 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Michael J McCarthy, Heather Wei, Dominic Landgraf, Melissa J Le Roux, David K Welsh
UNLABELLED: Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by depression, mania, and circadian rhythm abnormalities. Lithium, a treatment for BD stabilizes mood and increases circadian rhythm amplitude. However, in fibroblasts grown from BD patients, lithium has weak effects on rhythm amplitude compared to healthy controls. To understand the mechanism by which lithium differentially affects rhythm amplitude in BD cells, we investigated the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and related signaling molecules linked to BD and circadian rhythms...
August 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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