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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925102/safety-and-toxicology-of-magnolol-and-honokiol
#1
Andrea Sarrica, Natalja Kirika, Margherita Romeo, Mario Salmona, Luisa Diomede
Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia obovata bark extracts have been used for thousands of years in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicines and are still widely employed as herbal preparations for their sedative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and antispastic effects. Neolignans, particularly magnolol and honokiol, are the main substances responsible for the beneficial properties of the magnolia bark extract (MBE). The content of magnolol and honokiol in MBE depends on different factors, including the Magnolia plant species, the area of origin, the part of the plant employed, and the method used to prepare the extract...
June 20, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925101/the-difference-between-white-and-red-ginseng-variations-in-ginsenosides-and-immunomodulation
#2
Min He, Xin Huang, Shuying Liu, Chunsheng Guo, Yufei Xie, Annemarie H Meijer, Mei Wang
Ginseng Radix ( Panax ginseng ) is one of the most commonly used herbs worldwide for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases among others, supported by ancient historical records. Throughout this long history, the large-scale cultivation of ginseng created an increasing demand for long-term storage of the harvested plant material, accelerating the development of post-harvesting procedures. Dried white ginseng and processed (steamed) red ginseng are the products of the two most common traditional post-harvest processes...
June 20, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925069/vasopressin-and-diabetic-kidney-disease
#3
Ray El Boustany
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite the progress accomplished in therapy, the prevalence of renal disorders remains high. Some modifiable factors driving the increase in incidence of CKD, in diabetes and other settings, might have been overlooked. Consistent evidence supports a role for vasopressin, hydration state, and urine concentration in kidney health. SUMMARY: Plasma vasopressin is elevated in diabetes, even if metabolic control is good...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925029/force-spectrum-microscopy-using-mitochondrial-fluctuations-of-control-and-atp-depleted-cells
#4
Wenlong Xu, Elaheh Alizadeh, Ashok Prasad
A single-cell assay of active and passive intracellular mechanical properties of mammalian cells could give significant insight into cellular processes. Force spectrum microscopy (FSM) is one such technique, which combines the spontaneous motion of probe particles and the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton measured by active microrheology using optical tweezers to determine the force spectrum of the cytoskeleton. A simpler and noninvasive method to perform FSM would be very useful, enabling its widespread adoption...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925002/an-hsp20-fbxo4-axis-regulates-adipocyte-function-through-modulating-ppar%C3%AE-ubiquitination
#5
Jiangtong Peng, Yutian Li, Xiaohong Wang, Shan Deng, Jenna Holland, Emily Yates, Jing Chen, Haitao Gu, Kobina Essandoh, Xingjiang Mu, Boyu Wang, Robert K McNamara, Tianqing Peng, Anil G Jegga, Tiemin Liu, Takahisa Nakamura, Kai Huang, Diego Perez-Tilve, Guo-Chang Fan
Exposure to cold temperature is well known to upregulate heat shock protein (Hsp) expression and recruit and/or activate brown adipose tissue and beige adipocytes in humans and animals. However, whether and how Hsps regulate adipocyte function for energy homeostatic responses is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of Hsp20 as a negative regulator of adipocyte function. Deletion of Hsp20 enhances non-shivering thermogenesis and suppresses inflammatory responses, leading to improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism under both chow diet and high-fat diet conditions...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924981/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-and-antivenom-study-revealing-that-neurotoxic-phospholipase-a-2-enzymes-the-major-toxin-class-of-russell-s-viper-venom-from-southern-india-shows-the-least-immuno-recognition-and-neutralization-by-commercial-polyvalent-antivenom
#6
Bhargab Kalita, Sudeepa Singh, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of Russell's viper venom (RVV) from southern India (SI) was investigated by 1D-SDS-PAGE of venom followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis of protein bands. A total of 66 proteins belonging to 14 snake venom protein families were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis against Viperidae (taxid 8689) protein entries from the non-redundant NCBI database. Phospholipase A2 (43.25%) and snaclec (14.57%) represented the most abundant enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins, respectively. SI RVV was characterized as containing a higher quantity of PLA2 and a lower amount of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, in comparison to RVV from other regions of the Indian subcontinent...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924980/behavioral-and-neurochemical-responses-derived-from-dopaminergic-intrastriatal-grafts-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats-engaged-in-a-novel-motor-task
#7
Parnit K Bhupal, Kevin A Anderson, Gabrielle P Shall, Jonathan D Lynn, Katrina S Hoolsema, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar, Michael I Sandstrom
BACKGROUND: Putative treatments derived from in-vivo stem cell transplant derived dopamine (DA) assessed with hemiparkinsonian rats have been assessed via DA-agonist-induced rotations involving imbalanced intra-hemispheric striatal DA receptor stimulation. However, such tests obscure the natural responses of grafts to sensory stimuli, and drug-induced plasticity can modify the circuit being tested. Thus, we propose an alternative testing strategy using a novel water tank swimming apparatus...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924941/therapeutic-targeting-of-vascular-remodeling-and-right-heart-failure-in-pah-with-hif-2%C3%AE-inhibitor
#8
Zhiyu Dai, Maggie M Zhu, Yi Peng, Narsa Machireddy, Colin E Evans, Roberto Machado, Xianming Zhang, You-Yang Zhao
RATIONALE: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by progressive vasoconstriction and obliterative vascular remodeling that leads to right heart failure (RHF) and death. Current therapies do not target vascular remodeling and RHF, and only result in modest improvement of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether targeting HIF-2α with a HIF-2α-selective inhibitor could reverse PAH and RHF in different rodent PAH models...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924904/neuroinformatics-and-computational-modelling-as-complementary-tools-for-neurotoxicology-studies
#9
Marja-Leena Linne
Neuroinformatics is an area of science that aims to integrate neuroscience data and develop modern computational tools to increase our understanding of the functions of the nervous system in health and disease. Neuroinformatics tools include, among others, databases for storing and sharing data, repositories for managing documents and source code, and software tools for analysing, modelling and simulating signals and images. This MiniReview aims to present the state-of-the-art in neuroinformatics and computational in silico modelling of neurobiological processes and neuroscientific phenomena as well as to discuss the use of in silico models in neurotoxicology research...
June 20, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924777/-vascular-stents-approaches-used-to-increase-their-clinical-efficacy
#10
K A Kuznetsov, M V Khar'kova, A A Karpenko, P P Laktionov
Using stents for endovascular restoration of blood flow made a revolution in vascular surgery, however, despite numerous variants of stents presented on the pharmacological market, there are no stents which would completely solve the problem of restenosis in the area of stent placement. In order to decrease growth of the neointima of the stented portions of vessels, stents coated with cytostatic and cytotoxic agents were worked out. To optimize the rate of drug release it was suggested to apply them in a mixture with biodegradable or biostable polymers...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924486/monitoring-the-effects-of-pharmacological-reagents-on-mitochondrial-morphology
#11
Dong Fu, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
This protocol describes how to apply appropriate pharmacological controls to induce mitochondrial fusion or fission in studies of mitochondria morphology for four different mammalian cell types, HepG2 human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells, MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells, and collagen sandwich culture of primary rat hepatocytes. The protocol provides methods of treating cells with these pharmacological controls, staining mitochondria with commercially available MitoTracker Green and TMRE dyes, and imaging the mitochondrial morphology in live cells using a confocal fluorescent microscope...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924137/strontium-ranelate-as-a-possible-disease-modifying-osteoarthritis-drug-a-systematic-review
#12
T A Rodrigues, A O Freire, B F Bonfim, M S S Cartágenes, J B S Garcia
Considering that osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease worldwide, multiple pharmacological treatments have been proposed to alter the articular structure with potential benefit in the progression of the disease. The so-called disease-modifying OA drugs have been frequently investigated but conclusive findings are rare. Strontium ranelate (SrRan) is a drug usually prescribed to treat osteoporosis, with proven effects in decreasing the risk of fractures and possible effect in reducing the progression of OA...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924135/exenatide-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-and-attenuates-fat-mass-and-fto-gene-expression-through-pi3k-signaling-pathway-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Shan Li, Xiaoman Wang, Jielei Zhang, Jingyi Li, Xiaogang Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Chao Han, Lixia Zhang, Lili Zheng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with metabolic syndrome and can lead to life-threatening complications like hepatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist antidiabetic drug, has the capacity to overcome insulin resistance and attenuate hepatic steatosis but the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exenatide therapy on NAFLD. We used in vivo and in vitro techniques to investigate the protective effects of exenatide on fatty liver via fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced NAFLD animal model and related cell culture model...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924011/clinical-inertia-in-the-pharmacological-management-of-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Tal Milman, Raed A Joundi, Naif M Alotaibi, Gustavo Saposnik
BACKGROUND: Clinical Inertia is defined as "failure of health care providers to initiate or intensify therapy according to current guidelines". This phenomenon is gaining increasing attention as a major cause of clinicians' failure to adequately manage hypertension, thus leading to an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine whether interventions aimed at reducing clinical inertia in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension improve blood pressure (BP) control...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924010/effect-of-led-photobiomodulation-on-analgesia-during-labor-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Maria Aparecida Dos Santos Traverzim, Sergio Makabe, Daniela Fátima Teixeira Silva, Christiane Pavani, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Kristianne Santos Porta Fernandes, Lara Jansiski Motta
BACKGROUND: Labor pain is one of the most intense pains experienced by women, which leads to an increase in the number of women opting to undergo a cesarean delivery. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological analgesia methods are used to control labor pain. Epidural analgesia is the most commonly used pharmacological analgesia method. However, it may have side effects on the fetus and the mother. Light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation is an effective and noninvasive alternative to pharmacological methods...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923887/comparative-pharmacokinetic-and-electrocardiographic-effects-of-intratracheal-and-intravenous-administration-of-flecainide-in-anesthetized-pigs
#16
Fernando G Stocco, Ederson Evaristo, Anderson C Silva, Victor Zandona de Antonio, Juergen Pfeiffer, Narasimhan Rangachari, Luiz Belardinelli, Richard L Verrier
We compared the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in response to intratracheal instillation of flecainide acetate into the left atrium and ventricle with intravenous (IV) flecainide acetate administration. In 12 closed-chest anesthetized Yorkshire pigs, we monitored QRS complex and PR, JTc, and QTc intervals during sinus rhythm and correlated changes with venous plasma drug concentrations before and at 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min after drug administration. Intratracheal instillation of flecainide (0...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923826/a-synthetic-peptide-that-prevents-camp-regulation-in-mammalian-hyperpolarization-activated-cyclic-nucleotide-regulated-hcn-channels
#17
Andrea Saponaro, Francesca Cantini, Alessandro Porro, Annalisa Bucchi, Dario DiFrancesco, Vincenzo Maione, Chiara Donadoni, Bianca Introini, Pietro Mesirca, Matteo Elia Mangoni, Gerhard Thiel, Lucia Banci, Bina Santoro, Anna Moroni
Binding of TRIP8b to the cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) of mammalian HCN channels prevents their regulation by cAMP. Since TRIP8b is expressed exclusively in the brain, we envisage that it can be used for orthogonal control of HCN channels beyond the central nervous system. To this end, we have identified by rational design a 40-aa long peptide (TRIP8bnano ) that recapitulates affinity and gating effects of TRIP8b in HCN isoforms (human hHCN1, mHCn2, rbHCN4) and in the cardiac current If in rabbit and mouse sinoatrial node cardiomyocytes...
June 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923767/the-protective-role-of-trpc6-knockout-in-the-progression-of-diabetic-kidney-disease
#18
Denisha Spires, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Vladislav Levchenko, Paula E North, Aron M Geurts, Oleg Palygin, Alexander Staruschenko
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a chronic kidney pathology that leads to end stage renal disease. Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that there is an association between the development of DKD and the TRPC6 channel. Trpc6 expression and activity was increased in the streptozotocin (STZ)-treated Dahl Salt-sensitive (SS) rat, an established model of type 1 diabetes. Here, using a Trpc6 knock-out created on the SS rat background (SSTRPC6-/- ), we test the hypothesis that the absence of Trpc6 will protect podocytes and kidney function during the development of DKD...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923650/cholinergic-control-of-striatal-neurons-to-modulate-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesias
#19
Tanuja Bordia, Xiomara Perez
L-dopa induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are a disabling motor complication of L-dopa therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) management. Treatment options remain limited and the underlying network mechanisms remain unclear due to a complex pathophysiology. What is well-known, however, is that aberrant striatal signaling plays a key role in LIDs development. Here, we discuss the specific contribution of striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) and GABAergic medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) with a particular focus on how cholinergic signaling may integrate multiple striatal systems to modulate LIDs expression...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923644/picking-one-out-of-three-selective-single-c-f-activation-in-trifluoromethyl-groups
#20
Florian Jaroschik
The introduction of a trifluoromethyl (CF3) group into an organic molecule can modify its chemical behavior and lead to changes in its physicochemical and pharmacological properties. The CF3 group is often chosen for its chemical inertness and stability, which are related to the strong C-F bonds. In recent years, the potential of gaining straightforward access to difluorinated compounds through selective single C-F activation in CF3 groups has been unveiled. This review describes the latest methodologies for the synthesis of difluoromethylated arenes, difluoroalkenes and difluorinated Aldol products of potential synthetic and/or biological interest, employing low-valent metals, transition metal catalysis, FLP and Lewis acid mediated transformations as well as photoredox catalysis...
June 20, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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