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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238338/the-serum-uric-acid-concentration-is-not-causally-linked-to-diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-1-diabetes
#1
Aila J Ahola, Niina Sandholm, Carol Forsblom, Valma Harjutsalo, Emma Dahlström, Per-Henrik Groop
Previous studies have shown a relationship between uric acid concentration and progression of renal disease. Here we studied causality between the serum uric acid concentration and progression of diabetic nephropathy in 3895 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the FinnDiane Study. The renal status was assessed with the urinary albumin excretion rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and at the end of the follow-up. Based on previous genomewide association studies on serum uric acid concentration, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with good imputation quality were selected for the SNP score...
February 18, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223818/an-evidence-based-review-on-urate-lowering-treatments-implications-for-optimal-treatment-of-chronic-hyperuricemia
#2
REVIEW
Marilisa Bove, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Maddalena Veronesi, Claudio Borghi
Several studies suggest that chronic hyperuricemia, the main precursor of gout, is involved in the pathogenesis of different systemic disorders that affect cardiovascular and renal systems, such as hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, chronic heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Recent epidemiological evidence has shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in the Western world: a number of population-based studies estimate a prevalence of up to 21% for hyperuricemia and 1%-4% for gout...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221144/-may-renal-lithiasis-be-really-prevented-new-trends-and-therapeutic-tools
#3
Félix Grases, Antonia Costa-Bauzá, Rafael M Prieto
Renal calculi are generally formed as a result of the combination of certain factors, some related to urine composition (concentration of lithogenic substances, deficiency of crystallization inhibitors, presence of heterogeneous nucleants) and others with renal morphology and anatomy (urinary tract stasis, low urodynamic efficiency cavities, morpho-anatomic deformations, renal papillary tissue lesions). In fact, the composition, macrostructure and microstructure of the calculus will clearly depend on the factors that have induced it...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221141/-etiopathogenic-factors-of-the-different-types-of-urinary-litiasis
#4
Miguel Arrabal-Martín, María Carmen Cano-García, Miguel Ángel Arrabal-Polo, Alejandro Domínguez-Amillo, Nelson Canales-Casco, Javier de la Torre-Trillo, José Manuel Cózar-Olmo
In this review, we analyze the etiopathogenic principles of urinary lithiasis formation. In the kidney, calcifications that may cause renal lithiasis are produced as a consequence of processes that injury the urothelium at the papilla and Bellini's ducts. With the improvement of imaging techniques, mainly micro CT scan, it is possible to detect them and we may be able to anticipate to the formation of lithiasis. As we well know, there are different factors that influence the formation of the calculi depending on their composition...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194018/protective-role-of-fructokinase-blockade-in-the-pathogenesis-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-mice
#5
Ana Andres-Hernando, Nanxing Li, Christina Cicerchi, Shinichiro Inaba, Wei Chen, Carlos Roncal-Jimenez, Myphuong T Le, Michael F Wempe, Tamara Milagres, Takuji Ishimoto, Mehdi Fini, Takahiko Nakagawa, Richard J Johnson, Miguel A Lanaspa
Acute kidney injury is associated with high mortality, especially in intensive care unit patients. The polyol pathway is a metabolic route able to convert glucose into fructose. Here we show the detrimental role of endogenous fructose production by the polyol pathway and its metabolism through fructokinase in the pathogenesis of ischaemic acute kidney injury (iAKI). Consistent with elevated urinary fructose in AKI patients, mice undergoing iAKI show significant polyol pathway activation in the kidney cortex characterized by high levels of aldose reductase, sorbitol and endogenous fructose...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183204/serum-uric-acid-to-creatinine-ratio-a-predictor-of-incident-chronic-kidney-disease-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-with-preserved-kidney-function
#6
Liubao Gu, Liji Huang, Haidi Wu, Qinglin Lou, Rongwen Bian
BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid has shown to be a predictor of renal disease progression in most but not all studies. This study aims to test whether renal function-normalized serum uric acid is superior to serum uric acid as the predictor of incident chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. METHODS: In this study, 1339 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate ⩾60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and normouricemia were included...
February 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141910/the-mechanism-of-valproic-acid-induced-fanconi-syndrome-involves-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-rat-kidney
#7
Reza Heidari, Faezeh Jafari, Forouzan Khodaei, Babak Shirazi Yeganeh, Hossein Niknahad
AIM: Drug-induced kidney proximal tubular injury and renal failure (Fanconi syndrome; FS) is a clinical complication. Valproic acid (VPA) is among the FS-inducing drugs. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in VPA-induced renal injury. METHODS: Animals received VPA (250 and 500 mg/kg, i.p., 15 consecutive days). Serum biomarkers of kidney injury and markers of oxidative stress were assessed...
January 31, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116659/effect-of-rhizoma-polygoni-cuspidati-and-ramulus-cinnamomi-compatibility-on-uric-acid-metabolism-and-urinary-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-and-kidney-injury-molecule-1-in-rats-with-hyperuricemia
#8
Bin Han, Chun-Xia Zhu, Wan Shi, Hui-Zhu Huang, Xu-Guang Hu, Xiao-Ming Zhou, Ming Lei, Zhong Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati and Ramulus Cinnamomi compatibility (PR) on uric acid metabolism and the expression of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in rats with hyperuricemia. METHODS: Seventy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups with 10 rats per group, including the normal group, model group, allopurinol group, benzbromarone group and PR groups at 3 doses (3...
January 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115647/urinary-time-or-dose-dependent-metabolic-biomarkers-of-aristolochic-acid-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#9
Xueqing Hu, Jiaying Shen, Xueyan Pu, Ningning Zheng, Zhongping Deng, Zean Zhang, Houkai Li
The metabolic mechanisms underlying aristolochic acid (AA)-induced nephrotoxicity are inconclusive. A GC-MS-based metabolomic study was performed to analyze urinary metabolites in AA-treated rats at different dosages (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) and time points (2, 4, and 6 days). Serum BUN, creatinine and kidney injury were significantly changed only on the 6(th) day in 40 mg/kg AA group, whereas metabolic alternation appeared even on the 2(nd) day in 10 mg/kg AA group. A total of 84 differential metabolites were identified in 40 mg/kg AA groups time-dependently and 81 in 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg AA groups dose-dependently (6 days) compared to control group...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107415/serum-uric-acid-and-progression-of-kidney-disease-a-longitudinal-analysis-and-mini-review
#10
Ching-Wei Tsai, Shih-Yi Lin, Chin-Chi Kuo, Chiu-Ching Huang
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports the association between hyperuricemia and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, there are conflicting data regarding the role of hyperuricemia in the progression of CKD. This study retrospectively assessed the longitudinal association between uric acid (UA) level and CKD progression in a Chinese population lived in Taiwan. METHODS: Patients with physician diagnosis of hyperuricemia or receiving urate-lowering therapy between 2003 and 2005 were identified in the electronic medical records (EMR) of a tertiary medical center and were followed up until December 31, 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099783/ketosis-and-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-response-to-sglt2-inhibitors-basic-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Hongyu Qiu, Aleksandra Novikov, Volker Vallon
Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 are a new class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs that have been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These drugs inhibit glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the kidney thereby enhancing glucosuria and lowering blood glucose levels. Additional consequences and benefits include a reduction in body weight, uric acid levels, and blood pressure. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibition can have protective effects on the kidney and cardiovascular system in patients with T2DM and high cardiovascular risk...
January 18, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095822/hyperuricemia-increases-the-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Xialian Xu, Jiachang Hu, Nana Song, Rongyi Chen, Ting Zhang, Xiaoqiang Ding
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicated that the elevated serum uric acid level was associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Our goal was to systematically evaluate the correlation of serum uric acid (SUA) level and incidence of AKI by longitudinal cohort studies. METHODS: We searched electronic databases and the reference lists of relevant articles. 18 cohort studies with 75,200 patients were analyzed in this random-effect meta-analysis. Hyperuricemia was defined as SUA levels greater than 360-420 μmol/L (6-7 mg/dl), which was various according to different studies...
January 17, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095793/genetic-variation-underlying-renal-uric-acid-excretion-in-hispanic-children-the-viva-la-familia-study
#13
Geetha Chittoor, Karin Haack, Nitesh R Mehta, Sandra Laston, Shelley A Cole, Anthony G Comuzzie, Nancy F Butte, V Saroja Voruganti
BACKGROUND: Reduced renal excretion of uric acid plays a significant role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout in adults. Hyperuricemia has been associated with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. There are limited genome-wide association studies associating genetic polymorphisms with renal urate excretion measures. Therefore, we investigated the genetic factors that influence the excretion of uric acid and related indices in 768 Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study...
January 17, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088910/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2i-their-role-in-cardiometabolic-risk-management
#14
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin. METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074335/clinical-effects-of-topiroxostat-on-renal-and-endothelial-function-in-a-patient-with-chronic-kidney-disease-and-hyperuricemic-arteriolopathy-a-case-report
#15
Atsushi Tanaka, Tsukasa Nakamura, Eiichi Sato, Koichi Node
Hyperuricemia is associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases. Topiroxostat, a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, effectively reduces serum uric acid (UA) levels and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in CKD patients. A 50-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital due to albuminuria and hyperuricemia, and renal biopsy showed a typical hyperuricemic arteriolopathy. Treatment with topiroxostat decreased serum UA levels (9.2 mg/dL at baseline to 6.4 mg/dL after 6 months), UAE (388 to 88 mg/g...
January 10, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056516/assessment-of-renal-function-and-risk-factors-for-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease
#16
Xi-Bei Jia, Xi-Hua Hou, Qiu-Bo Ma, Xiao-Wen Cai, Yi-Ran Li, Su-Hong Mu, Shi-Ping Na, Ru-Juan Xie, Yu-Shi Bao
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) share common risk factors. We assessed renal function and the prevalence of CKD in patients with PAD and investigated the characteristics of the risk factors for CKD in this population. Renal function of 421 patients with PAD was evaluated. Among the participants, 194 (46.1%) patients had decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The prevalence of CKD was much higher among patients with PAD. Hypertension (odds ratios [ORs] 2.156, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039937/quantitative-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-urinary-stone-composition-and-size-on-color-doppler-twinkling-artifact-a-phantom-study
#17
Mengmeng Shang, Xiao Sun, Qing Liu, Jie Li, Dandan Shi, Song Ning, Lin Cheng
OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the influence of urinary stone composition and size on color Doppler twinkling artifact. METHODS: Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), apatite, L-cystine, and uric acid (UA) stone phantoms with 10 different sizes were prepared artificially and embedded in the renal sinus of porcine kidneys in vitro. Color Doppler ultrasound scanning was performed on the phantoms and TA pictures were recorded. The length of the twinkling artifact (TAL) and width of twinkling artifact (TAW) were measured...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039413/urat1-inhibition-by-alpk1-is-associated-with-uric-acid-homeostasis-alpk1-and-slc22a12-in-uric-acid-homeostasis
#18
Tzer-Min Kuo, Chung-Ming Huang, Hung-Pin Tu, Albert Min-Shan Ko, Shu-Jung Wang, Chi-Pin Lee, Ying-Chin Ko
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify a protein for urate transporter 1 (URAT1) regulation. METHODS: The clinical dataset consisted of 492 case-control samples of Han Chinese (104 gout and 388 controls). Three alpha kinase 1 (ALPK1) and SLC22A12 loci associated with high gout risk and uric acid levels were genotyped. The overexpression of ALPK1 on URAT1 protein expression was evaluated in vivo in hALPK1 transgenic mice. The in vitro protein levels of ALPK1 and URAT1 in ALPK1 small interfering RNA-transfected human kidney-2 cells with MSU crystal stimulation were examined...
December 30, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031169/the-hypoxanthine-xanthine-oxidase-axis-is-not-involved-in-the-initial-phase-of-clinical-transplantation-related-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#19
Leonie G M Wijermars, Jaap A Bakker, Dorottya K de Vries, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Jorgen Bierau, Sarantos Kostidis, Oleg A Mayboroda, Dimitrios Tsikas, Alexander F Schaapherder, Jan H N Lindeman
The hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (XO) axis is considered to be a key driver of transplantation related ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Whereas interference with this axis effectively quenches I/R injury in preclinical models, there is limited efficacy of XO inhibitors in clinical trials. In this context, we considered clinical evaluation of a role for the hypoxanthine-XO axis in human I/R to be relevant. Patients undergoing renal allograft transplantation were included (n=40) and classified based on duration of ischemia (short; intermediate; prolonged)...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008953/glycosuria-and-renal-outcomes-in-patients-with-nondiabetic-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Chi-Chih Hung, Hugo You-Hsien Lin, Jia-Jung Lee, Lee Moay Lim, Yi-Wen Chiu, Heng-Pin Chiang, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Hung-Chun Chen
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have shown a potential for renoprotection beyond blood glucose lowering. Glycosuria in nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is sometimes noted. Whether glycosuria in CKD implies a channelopathy or proximal tubulopathy is not known. The consequence of glycosuria in CKD is also not studied. We performed a cross-sectional study for the association between glycosuria and urine electrolyte excretion in 208 nondiabetic patients. Fractional excretion (FE) of glucose >4% was 3...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
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