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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989728/walking-with-wider-steps-changes-foot-placement-control-increases-kinematic-variability-and-does-not-improve-linear-stability
#1
Jennifer A Perry, Manoj Srinivasan
Walking humans respond to pulls or pushes on their upper body by changing where they place their foot on the next step. Usually, they place their foot further along the direction of the upper body perturbation. Here, we examine how this foot placement response is affected by the average step width during walking. We performed experiments with humans walking on a treadmill, both normally and at five different prescribed step widths. We prescribed step widths by requiring subjects to step on lines drawn on the treadmill belt...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861752/ground-reaction-forces-during-walking-with-different-load-and-slope-combinations-in-rats
#2
N Bravenboer, B T T M van Rens, H W van Essen, J H van Dieën, P Lips
BACKGROUND: Treadmill animal models are commonly used to study effects of exercise on bone. Since mechanical loading induces bone strain, resulting in bone formation, exercise that induces higher strains is likely to cause more bone formation. Our aim was to investigate the effect of slope and additional load on limb bone strain. METHODS: Horizontal and vertical ground reaction forces on left fore-limb (FL) and hind-limb (HL) of twenty 23-week old female Wistar rats (weight 279 ± 26 g) were measured for six combinations of SLOPE (-10°, 0°, +10°) and LOAD (0 to 23% of body mass)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840787/altering-plant-defenses-herbivore-associated-molecular-patterns-and-effector-arsenal-of-chewing-herbivores
#3
Saumik Basu, Suresh Varsani, Joe Louis
Chewing herbivores, such as caterpillars and beetles, while feeding on the host plant, cause extensive tissue damage and release a wide array of cues to alter plant defenses. Consequently, the cues can have both beneficial and detrimental impacts on the chewing herbivores. Herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs) are molecules produced by herbivorous insects that aid them to elicit plant defenses leading to impairment of insect growth, while effectors suppress plant defenses and contribute to increased susceptibility to subsequent feeding by chewing herbivores...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780186/dynamic-forces-over-the-interface-between-a-seated-human-body-and-a-rigid-seat-during-vertical-whole-body-vibration
#4
Chi Liu, Yi Qiu, Michael J Griffin
Biodynamic responses of the seated human body are usually measured and modelled assuming a single point of vibration excitation. With vertical vibration excitation, this study investigated how forces are distributed over the body-seat interface. Vertical and fore-and-aft forces were measured beneath the ischial tuberosities, middle thighs, and front thighs of 14 subjects sitting on a rigid flat seat in three postures with different thigh contact while exposed to random vertical vibration at three magnitudes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762876/constraints-on-stance-phase-force-production-during-overground-walking-in-persons-with-chronic-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Denise M Peters, Yann Thibaudier, Joan Deffeyes, Gila Baer, Heather B Hayes, Randy D Trumbower
Persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) face ongoing struggles with walking, including reduced speed and increased reliance on assistive devices (ADs). The forces underlying body weight support and gait, as measured by ground reaction forces (GRFs), are likely altered following iSCI due to weakness and AD dependence but have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine GRF production during overground walking after iSCI, as greater insight into GRF constraints is important for refining therapeutic interventions...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754717/role-of-outstretched-fore-legs-of-flying-beetles-revealed-and-demonstrated-by-remote-leg-stimulation-in-free-flight
#6
Yao Li, Feng Cao, Tat Thang Vo Doan, Hirotaka Sato
In flight, many insects fold their forelegs tightly close to the body, which naturally decreases drag or air resistance. However, flying beetles stretch out their forelegs for some reason. Why do they adopt this posture in flight? Here, we show the role of the stretched forelegs in beetle Mecynorrhina torquata flight. Using leg motion tracking and electromyography in flight, we found that the forelegs were voluntarily swung clockwise in yaw to induce counter-clockwise rotation of the body for turning left, and vice versa...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693568/anorexia-nervosa-and-cancer-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#7
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Jane A Driver, Manuel Ridao, José M Valderas, Ricard Gènova-Maleras, Jaume Forés-Martos, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a severe restriction of caloric intake, low body weight, fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat, and disturbance of body image. Pathogenesis of the disorder may include genetic predisposition, hormonal changes and a combination of environmental, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. At present, no systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693445/older-persons-existential-loneliness-as-interpreted-by-their-significant-others-an-interview-study
#8
Helena Larsson, Margareta Rämgård, Ingrid Bolmsjö
BACKGROUND: In order to better understand people in demanding medical situations, an awareness of existential concerns is important. Studies performed over the last twenty years conclude that when dying and death come closer, as in the case with older people who are stricken by infirmity and diseases, existential concerns will come to the fore. However, studies concerning experiences of existential loneliness (EL) are sparse and, in addition, there is no clear definition of EL. EL is described as a complex phenomenon and referred to as a condition of life, an experience, and a process of inner growth...
July 10, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655302/a-qualitative-understanding-of-the-effects-of-reusable-sanitary-pads-and-puberty-education-implications-for-future-research-and-practice
#9
Julie Hennegan, Catherine Dolan, Laurel Steinfield, Paul Montgomery
BACKGROUND: The management of menstruation has come to the fore as a barrier to girls' education attainment in low income contexts. Interventions have been proposed and piloted, but the emerging nature of the field means limited evidence is available to understand their pathways of effect. METHODS: This study describes and compares schoolgirls' experiences of menstruation in rural Uganda at the conclusion of a controlled trial of puberty education and sanitary pad provision to elucidate pathways of effect in the interventions...
June 27, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649932/a-web-of-gaps-a-discussion-of-research-strands-concerning-global-south-families-with-a-disabled-child
#10
Xanthe Hunt, Brian Watermeyer
BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), limited access to a range of supports means that families often carry primary responsibility for the care of a disabled child. The impact of this responsibility is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To present a selective review, critique, and comparison of the prominent areas of research aimed at understanding families with disabled children in the Global South. DESIGN: We compare and critically discuss prominent bodies of literature concerning the family-disability-poverty nexus in LMICs...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622929/catarrhine-hallucal-metatarsals-from-the-early-miocene-site-of-songhor-kenya
#11
Biren A Patel, Gabriel S Yapuncich, Cassandra Tran, Isaiah O Nengo
Songhor is an early Miocene fossil locality in Kenya known for its diverse primate assemblage that includes catarrhine species belonging to the genera Kalepithecus, Limnopithecus, Dendropithecus, Rangwapithecus, and Proconsul. Expeditions to Songhor since the 1930s have recovered unassociated catarrhine postcranial remains from both the fore- and hindlimbs, including multiple elements from the feet. In this study, we describe KNM-SO 31233, a complete left hallucal metatarsal (Mt1), along with several other fragmentary Mt1 specimens (KNM-SO 1080, 5129, 5141, 22235)...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610752/age-ascription-as-a-resource-and-a-source-of-resistance-an-interactional-study-of-health-professionals-castings-of-patients-into-the-category-old
#12
Shirley Näslund
This case study aims to give an understanding of what actions health professionals' castings of patients into the category 'old' perform on a medical and social level as well as what actions patients' interactional management of these castings perform. Particularly, this study aims to bring to the fore the negotiability of health professionals' perspectivating age ascriptions. This is done with the conversation analytic method (CA) according to which altercasting is a mutual construction performed turn by turn and shaped by the reactions of the interlocutor who can approve, resist, or modify the identity in question...
April 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610317/a-new-species-of-limnonectes-amphibia-anura-dicroglossidae-from-vietnam
#13
Cuong The Pham, Minh Duc Le, Tao Thien Nguyen, Thomas Ziegler, Zheng Jun Wu, Truong Quang Nguyen
A new species of Limnonectes is described from northeastern Vietnam based on morphological and molecular differences. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: Large size (SVL 50.1-68.9 in males, 45.5-63.0 mm in females); males with moderately enlarged head (HL/SVL 0.48), head longer than wide; vomerine teeth present; external vocal sacs absent; rostral length short (RL/SVL 0.16 in males, 0.15 in females); tympanum distinct (TD/ED 0...
May 24, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609888/a-new-karst-dwelling-species-of-the-gekko-japonicus-group-squamata-gekkonidae-from-central-laos
#14
Vinh Quang Luu, Truong Quang Nguyen, Minh Duc Le, Michael Bonkowski, Thomas Ziegler
A new species of the Gekko japonicus group is described from Khammouane Province, central Laos, based on morphological characters and molecular data. Morphologically, Gekko nadenensis sp. nov. is differentiated from the remaining congeners by a combination of the following characters: size moderate (SVL 61.0-77.1 mm); nares bordered with rostral; internasals absent; postmentals enlarged; interorbital scales between anterior corners of the eyes 28-30; dorsal tubercles absent; ventral scales between mental and cloacal slit 175-185; midbody scale rows 123-140; ventral scale rows 38-40; subdigital lamellae on first toes 13-15, on fourth toes 14-16; finger and toe webbing present at base; tubercles on dorsal surface of fore and hind limbs absent; precloacal pores six (3+3 or 5+1) in a discontinuous row in males, absent in the female; postcloacal tubercles 1 or 2; tubercles absent on dorsal surface of tail base; subcaudals distinctly enlarged; dorsal surface of body with greyish brown blotches...
May 8, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603770/embodied-science-and-mixed-reality-how-gesture-and-motion-capture-affect-physics-education
#15
Mina C Johnson-Glenberg, Colleen Megowan-Romanowicz
A mixed design was created using text and game-like multimedia to instruct in the content of physics. The study assessed which variables predicted learning gains after a 1-h lesson on the electric field. The three manipulated variables were: (1) level of embodiment; (2) level of active generativity; and (3) presence of story narrative. Two types of tests were administered: (1) a traditional text-based physics test answered with a keyboard; and (2) a more embodied, transfer test using the Wacom large tablet where learners could use gestures (long swipes) to create vectors and answers...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533965/reappraisal-of-the-extinct-seal-phoca-vitulinoides-from-the-neogene-of-the-north-sea-basin-with-bearing-on-its-geological-age-phylogenetic-affinities-and-locomotion
#16
Leonard Dewaele, Eli Amson, Olivier Lambert, Stephen Louwye
BACKGROUND: Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, "Phoca" vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of "Phoca" vitulinoides is lost. METHODS: "Phoca" vitulinoides is redescribed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439995/scleromyxoedema-in-a-dog
#17
Aurore F Laprais, Petra Bizikova, Erin W Lashnits, Alison Tucker, Keith E Linder
BACKGROUND: In humans, scleromyxoedema is a chronic progressive skin condition traditionally characterized by deposits of mucin, increased number of fibroblasts and fibrosis in the skin, and by systemic disease. Thyroid disease is typically absent. A monoclonal gammopathy is usually present, as are other comorbidities. Descriptions of scleromyxoedema in the veterinary literature are limited to a single feline case. One dog, previously reported as having papular mucinosis, exhibited features that matched the more current diagnostic criteria of scleromyxoedema...
April 24, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374103/a-validation-method-for-near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-tissue-oximeters-for-cerebral-and-somatic-tissue-oxygen-saturation-measurements
#18
Paul B Benni, David MacLeod, Keita Ikeda, Hung-Mo Lin
We describe the validation methodology for the NIRS based FORE-SIGHT ELITE(®) (CAS Medical Systems, Inc., Branford, CT, USA) tissue oximeter for cerebral and somatic tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) measurements for adult subjects submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to obtain clearance for clinical use. This validation methodology evolved from a history of NIRS validations in the literature and FDA recommended use of Deming regression and bootstrapping statistical validation methods...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338892/embodiment-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-implications-and-applications
#19
Wolfgang Tschacher, Anne Giersch, Karl Friston
In recent decades, embodiment has become an influential concept in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Embodiment denotes the study of the reciprocal (causal) relationships between mind and body, with the mind not only affecting the body but also vice versa. Embodied cognition comes to the fore in sensorimotor coupling, predictive coding, and nonverbal behavior. Additionally, the embodiment of the mind constitutes the basis of social interaction and communication, as evident in research on nonverbal synchrony and mimicry...
July 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282814/the-synucleinopathies-twenty-years-on
#20
Michel Goedert, Ross Jakes, Maria Grazia Spillantini
In 2017, it is two hundred years since James Parkinson provided the first complete clinical description of the disease named after him, fifty years since the introduction of high-dose D,L-DOPA treatment and twenty years since α-synuclein aggregation came to the fore. In 1998, multiple system atrophy joined Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies as the third major synucleinopathy. Here we review our work, which led to the identification of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites and Papp-Lantos bodies, as well as what has happened since...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
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