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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665044/comparative-anatomy-and-development-of-pectoral-and-pelvic-girdles-in-hylid-anurans
#1
Mónica C Soliz, María Laura Ponssa, Virginia Abdala
The development of the tetrapod pectoral and pelvic girdles is intimately linked to the proximal segments of the fore- and hindlimbs. Most studies on girdles are osteological and provide little information about soft elements such as muscles and tendons. Moreover, there are few comparative developmental studies. Comparative data gleaned from cleared-and-stained whole mounts and serial histological sections of 10 species of hylid frogs are presented here. Adult skeletal morphology, along with bones, muscles, and connective tissue of both girdles and their association with the proximal portions of the anuran fore- and hindlimbs are described...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614466/comparison-of-segmental-analysis-and-sacral-marker-methods-for-determining-the-center-of-mass-during-level-and-slope-walking
#2
Bora Jeong, Chang-Yong Ko, Yunhee Chang, Jeicheong Ryu, Gyoosuk Kim
BACKGROUND: A human's center of mass (COM) is a widely used parameter in both clinical and practical applications. The segmental analysis method for determining the COM is considered the gold standard but is difficult to apply in a real environment. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to confirm the efficacy of an alternative COM determination method-the sacral marker method-by comparing segmental analysis and sacral marker method results in three dimensions during level or slope walking...
March 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563181/intralimb-and-interlimb-cutaneous-reflexes-during-locomotion-in-the-intact-cat
#3
Marie-France Hurteau, Yann Thibaudier, Charline Dambreville, Simon M Danner, Ilya Rybak, Alain Frigon
When the foot contacts an obstacle during locomotion, cutaneous inputs activate spinal circuits to ensure dynamic balance and forward progression. In quadrupeds, this requires coordinated reflex responses between the four limbs. Here, we investigated the patterns and phasic modulation of cutaneous reflexes in fore- and hindlimb muscles evoked by inputs from all four limbs. Five female cats were implanted to record muscle activity and to stimulate the superficial peroneal and superficial radial nerves during locomotion...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485631/a-comparison-of-surface-infrared-with-rectal-thermometry-in-dogs
#4
T O Omóbòwálé, B N Ogunro, E A Odigie, P I Otuh, B O Olugasa
Accurate determination of temperature is crucial in the diagnosis of febrile conditions. Although fewer techniques have proven as useful and reliable a predictor of core body temperature as the rectal thermometry, the process of obtaining the rectal temperature could be stressful in dogs. The infrared thermometry is a noncontact device used for measuring body temperature, with advantages which include speed, convenience, and reduced stress to the animals and reduced occupational risks to the animal handler...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425475/anthropometry-and-body-composition-of-preterm-neonates-in-the-light-of-metabolic-programming
#5
Elisavet Parlapani, Charalampos Agakidis, Thomais Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi
The improved survival of preterm infants has led to increased interest regarding their health as adults. In the context of metabolic programming, the connection between perinatal and early postnatal nutrition and growth with health in later life has brought to the fore the role of catch-up growth during the first months of preterm infants' lives and its association with body fat and obesity in childhood or puberty. A state-of-the art review was conducted in order to assess the way catch-up is evaluated, in terms of timing and rate...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409658/the-effect-of-a-multi-axis-suspension-on-whole-body-vibration-exposures-and-physical-stress-in-the-neck-and-low-back-in-agricultural-tractor-applications
#6
Jeong Ho Kim, Jack T Dennerlein, Peter W Johnson
Whole body vibration (WBV) exposures are often predominant in the fore-aft (x) or lateral (y) axis among off-road agricultural vehicles. However, as the current industry standard seats are designed to reduce mainly vertical (z) axis WBV exposures, they may be less effective in reducing drivers' exposure to multi-axial WBV. Therefore, this laboratory-based study aimed to determine the differences between a single-axial (vertical) and multi-axial (vertical + lateral) suspension seat in reducing WBV exposures, head acceleration, self-reported discomfort, and muscle activity (electromyography) of the major muscle of the low back, neck and shoulders...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347779/effective-viscosity-of-a-suspension-of-flagellar-beating-microswimmers-three-dimensional-modeling
#7
Levan Jibuti, Walter Zimmermann, Salima Rafaï, Philippe Peyla
Micro-organisms usually can swim in their liquid environment by flagellar or ciliary beating. In this numerical work, we analyze the influence of flagellar beating on the orbits of a swimming cell in a shear flow. We also calculate the effect of the flagellar beating on the rheology of a dilute suspension of microswimmers. A three-dimensional model is proposed for Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii swimming with a breaststroke-like beating of two anterior flagella modeled by two counter-rotating fore beads. The active swimmer model reveals unusual angular orbits in a linear shear flow...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330140/exploring-entertainment-medicine-and-professionalization-of-self-care-interview-study-among-doctors-on-the-potential-effects-of-digital-self-tracking
#8
Katleen Gabriels, Tania Moerenhout
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, digital self-tracking devices offer a plethora of possibilities to both healthy and chronically ill users who want to closely examine their body. This study suggests that self-tracking in a private setting will lead to shifting understandings in professional care. To provide more insight into these shifts, this paper seeks to lay bare the promises and challenges of self-tracking while staying close to the everyday professional experience of the physician. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to (1) offer an analysis of how medical doctors evaluate self-tracking methods in their practice and (2) explore the anticipated shifts that digital self-care will bring about in relation to our findings and those of other studies...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245489/female-polymorphism-in-i-chilothrips-i-i-strobilus-i-thysanoptera-thripidae-with-the-first-description-of-the-male
#9
Yanze Cui, Jinghui Xi, Jun Wang
Polymorphism and sexual dimorphism are common in insects. Thrips have been reported to exhibit intraspecific variation in body size, color and wing length (Mound 2005), also sexual dimorphism in abdominal pore plates, antennal sensoria and fore leg armature (Tyagi et al. 2008). Chilothrips Hood is a small genus that currently comprises seven species (ThripsWiki 2017), three from USA, one from Japan, and three from China. No male has been reported in the three species from China, C. strobilus, C. jiuxiensis and C...
November 28, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194632/endothelial-piezo1-channels-as-sensors-of-exercise
#10
David J Beech
Piezo1 channels are newly discovered ion channels which have come to the fore as players in endothelial biology. They have a key role as sensors of shear stress, a frictional force which arises in vascular biology because of blood flow. Endothelial Piezo1 channels are critical in murine embryonic development, just after the heart starts to beat and drive blood into the nascent endothelial network. In contrast they are not critical at the adult stage but they are important for performance in whole body physical activity where they have a vascular bed-specific effect to cause mesenteric resistance artery vasoconstriction, achieved through opposition to the vasodilatory mechanism of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163196/an-inertial-sensor-based-method-for-estimating-the-athlete-s-relative-joint-center-positions-and-center-of-mass-kinematics-in-alpine-ski-racing
#11
Benedikt Fasel, Jörg Spörri, Pascal Schütz, Silvio Lorenzetti, Kamiar Aminian
For the purpose of gaining a deeper understanding of the relationship between external training load and health in competitive alpine skiing, an accurate and precise estimation of the athlete's kinematics is an essential methodological prerequisite. This study proposes an inertial sensor-based method to estimate the athlete's relative joint center positions and center of mass (CoM) kinematics in alpine skiing. Eleven inertial sensors were fixed to the lower and upper limbs, trunk, and head. The relative positions of the ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint centers, as well as the athlete's CoM kinematics were validated against a marker-based optoelectronic motion capture system during indoor carpet skiing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119326/neurodegeneration-and-the-ordered-assembly-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#12
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Spillantini, Michel Goedert
In 2017, it was 200 years since James Parkinson published 'An Essay on the Shaking Palsy' and 20 years since α-synuclein aggregation came to the fore. In 1998, multiple system atrophy joined Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies as the third major synucleinopathy. Here, we describe the work that led to the identification of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites and Papp-Lantos bodies. We also review some of the findings reported since 1997.
November 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049394/electrical-impedance-myography-detects-age-related-muscle-change-in-mice
#13
W David Arnold, Rebecca S Taylor, Jia Li, Janice A Nagy, Benjamin Sanchez, Seward B Rutkove
Loss of muscle mass and strength represents one of the most significant contributors to impaired function in older adults. Convenient and non-invasive biomarkers are needed that can readily identify and track age-related muscle change. Previous data has suggested electrical impedance myography (EIM) has the potential to serve in this capacity. In this study we investigated how changes in EIM compared with other standard measures of muscle structure and function in aged compared with young mice. A total of 19 male mice aged approximately 25 months and 19 male mice aged 3 months underwent surface multifrequency EIM of the right gastrocnemius muscle using standard methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046377/morphospaces-of-functionally-analogous-traits-show-ecological-separation-between-birds-and-pterosaurs
#14
Nicholas R Chan
Birds originated and radiated in the presence of another group of flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs. Opinion is divided as to whether birds competitively displaced pterosaurs from small-body size niches or whether the two groups coexisted with little competition. Previous studies of Mesozoic birds and pterosaurs compared measurements of homologous limb bones to test these hypotheses. However, these characters probably reflect differing ancestries rather than ecologies. Here, competition and ecological separation were tested for using multivariate analyses of functionally equivalent morphological characters...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031999/analysis-of-biases-in-dynamic-margins-of-stability-introduced-by-the-use-of-simplified-center-of-mass-estimates-during-walking-and-turning
#15
Kathryn L Havens, Tatri Mukherjee, James M Finley
The ability to control the body's center of mass (CoM) is critical for preventing falls, which are a major health concern in aging populations. Control of the CoM has been assessed by characterizing dynamic margins of stability (MoS) which capture the dynamic relationship between the CoM and the base of support. Accurate estimation of CoM dynamics is best accomplished using a full-body marker set. However, a number of simplified estimates have been used throughout literature. Here, we determined the biases and sources of bias when computing MoS using four simplified CoM models, and we characterized how these biases varied in straight walking versus turning...
January 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989728/walking-with-wider-steps-changes-foot-placement-control-increases-kinematic-variability-and-does-not-improve-linear-stability
#16
Jennifer A Perry, Manoj Srinivasan
Walking humans respond to pulls or pushes on their upper body by changing where they place their foot on the next step. Usually, they place their foot further along the direction of the upper body perturbation. Here, we examine how this foot placement response is affected by the average step width during walking. We performed experiments with humans walking on a treadmill, both normally and at five different prescribed step widths. We prescribed step widths by requiring subjects to step on lines drawn on the treadmill belt...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861752/ground-reaction-forces-during-walking-with-different-load-and-slope-combinations-in-rats
#17
N Bravenboer, B T T M van Rens, H W van Essen, J H van Dieën, P Lips
BACKGROUND: Treadmill animal models are commonly used to study effects of exercise on bone. Since mechanical loading induces bone strain, resulting in bone formation, exercise that induces higher strains is likely to cause more bone formation. Our aim was to investigate the effect of slope and additional load on limb bone strain. METHODS: Horizontal and vertical ground reaction forces on left fore-limb (FL) and hind-limb (HL) of twenty 23-week old female Wistar rats (weight 279 ± 26 g) were measured for six combinations of SLOPE (-10°, 0°, +10°) and LOAD (0 to 23% of body mass)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840787/altering-plant-defenses-herbivore-associated-molecular-patterns-and-effector-arsenal-of-chewing-herbivores
#18
Saumik Basu, Suresh Varsani, Joe Louis
Chewing herbivores, such as caterpillars and beetles, while feeding on the host plant, cause extensive tissue damage and release a wide array of cues to alter plant defenses. Consequently, the cues can have both beneficial and detrimental impacts on the chewing herbivores. Herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs) are molecules produced by herbivorous insects that aid them to elicit plant defenses leading to impairment of insect growth, while effectors suppress plant defenses and contribute to increased susceptibility to subsequent feeding by chewing herbivores...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780186/dynamic-forces-over-the-interface-between-a-seated-human-body-and-a-rigid-seat-during-vertical-whole-body-vibration
#19
Chi Liu, Yi Qiu, Michael J Griffin
Biodynamic responses of the seated human body are usually measured and modelled assuming a single point of vibration excitation. With vertical vibration excitation, this study investigated how forces are distributed over the body-seat interface. Vertical and fore-and-aft forces were measured beneath the ischial tuberosities, middle thighs, and front thighs of 14 subjects sitting on a rigid flat seat in three postures with different thigh contact while exposed to random vertical vibration at three magnitudes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762876/constraints-on-stance-phase-force-production-during-overground-walking-in-persons-with-chronic-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Denise M Peters, Yann Thibaudier, Joan E Deffeyes, Gila T Baer, Heather B Hayes, Randy D Trumbower
Persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) face ongoing struggles with walking, including reduced speed and increased reliance on assistive devices (ADs). The forces underlying body weight support and gait, as measured by ground reaction forces (GRFs), are likely altered after iSCI because of weakness and AD dependence but have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine GRF production during overground walking after iSCI, because greater insight into GRF constraints is important for refining therapeutic interventions...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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