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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163879/aerodynamic-evaluation-of-wing-shape-and-wing-orientation-in-four-butterfly-species-using-numerical-simulations-and-a-low-speed-wind-tunnel-and-its-implications-for-the-design-of-flying-micro-robots
#1
Alejandro Ortega Ancel, Rodney Eastwood, Daniel Vogt, Carter Ithier, Michael Smith, Rob Wood, Mirko Kovač
Many insects are well adapted to long-distance migration despite the larger energetic costs of flight for small body sizes. To optimize wing design for next-generation flying micro-robots, we analyse butterfly wing shapes and wing orientations at full scale using numerical simulations and in a low-speed wind tunnel at 2, 3.5 and 5 m s(-1). The results indicate that wing orientations which maximize wing span lead to the highest glide performance, with lift to drag ratios up to 6.28, while spreading the fore-wings forward can increase the maximum lift produced and thus improve versatility...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162265/foreing-body-of-the-rectum
#2
Elena Romera Barba, Rafael González-Costea Martínez, María Inmaculada Navarro García, José Luis Vázquez Rojas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145055/manipulated-changes-in-limb-mass-and-rotational-inertia-in-trotting-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris-and-their-effect-on-limb-kinematics
#3
Brandon M Kilbourne, David R Carrier
While the mass distribution of limbs is known to influence the metabolic energy consumed during locomotion, it remains unknown how the mass distribution of limbs may influence overall limb kinematics and whether the influence of limb mass distribution on limb kinematics differs between fore- and hindlimbs. To examine limb mass distribution's influence upon fore- and hindlimb kinematics, temporal stride parameters and swing phase joint kinematics were recorded from four dogs trotting on a treadmill with 0.5% and 1...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127679/motion-illusion-evidence-towards-human-vestibulo-thalamic-projections
#4
Aasef G Shaikh, Dominik Straumann, Antonella Palla
Contemporary studies speculated that cerebellar network responsible for motion perception projects to the cerebral cortex via vestibulo-thalamus. Here, we sought for the physiological properties of vestibulo-thalamic pathway responsible for the motion perception. Healthy subjects and the patient with focal vestibulo-thalamic lacunar stroke spun a hand-held rheostat to approximate the value of perceived angular velocity during whole-body passive earth-vertical axis rotations in yaw plane. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was simultaneously measured with high-resolution search coils (paradigm 1)...
January 27, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087353/thiolated-polymers-as-mucoadhesive-drug-delivery-systems
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Duggan, Wayne Cummins, Orla O' Donovan, Helen Hughes, Eleanor Owens
Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069392/characterization-and-validation-of-a-split-belt-treadmill-for-measuring-hindlimb-ground-reaction-forces-in-able-bodied-and-spinalized-felines
#6
Marko Dimiskovski, Richard Scheinfield, Dwight Higgin, Alexander Krupka, Michel A Lemay
BACKGROUND: The measurement of ground reaction forces (GRFs) in animals trained to locomote on a treadmill after spinal cord injury (SCI) could prove valuable for evaluating training outcomes; however, quantitative measures of the GRFs in spinal felines are limited. NEW METHOD: A split belt treadmill was designed and constructed to measure the GRFs of feline hindlimbs during stepping. The treadmill consists of two independent treadmill assemblies, each mounted on a force plate...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847346/scene-segmentation-in-early-visual-cortex-during-suppression-of-ventral-stream-regions
#7
Pablo R Grassi, Natalia Zaretskaya, Andreas Bartels
A growing body of literature suggests that feedback modulation of early visual processing is ubiquitous and central to cortical computation. In particular stimuli with high-level content that invariably activate ventral object responsive regions have been shown to suppress early visual cortex. This suppression was typically interpreted in the framework of predictive coding and feedback from ventral regions. Here we examined early visual modulation during perception of a bistable Gestalt illusion that has previously been shown to be mediated by dorsal parietal cortex rather than by ventral regions that were not activated...
November 12, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811299/a-general-relationship-links-gait-mechanics-and-running-ground-reaction-forces
#8
Kenneth P Clark, Laurence J Ryan, Peter G Weyand
The relationship between gait mechanics and running ground reaction forces is widely regarded as complex. This viewpoint has evolved primarily via efforts to explain the rising edge of vertical force-time waveforms observed during slow human running. Existing theoretical models do provide good rising-edge fits, but require more than a dozen input variables to sum the force contributions of four or more vague components of the body's total mass (mb). Here, we hypothesized that the force contributions of two discrete body mass components are sufficient to account for vertical ground reaction force-time waveform patterns in full (stance foot and shank, m1=0...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741569/skin-of-the-red-eye-tree-frog-agalychnis-callidryas-hylidae-phyllomedusinae-contains-lipid-glands-of-the-type-described-in-the-genus-phyllomedusa
#9
Elisa Rota, Gianfranco Tanteri, Gilberto Montori, Filippo Giachi, Giovanni Delfino, David M Sever
Several anuran species of the genus Phyllomedusa are known to possess specialized cutaneous glands producing lipids and exhibit a peculiar wiping behavior. This behavior is a stereotyped repertory of fore and hind limb movements distributing hydrophobic molecules onto the body surface and reducing evaporative water loss. No reports are presently available on the occurrence of lipid glands in other phyllomedusine genera, and data on the structure of the secretory units specialized for the production of cutaneous lipids are still unclear...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704614/variation-in-food-availability-mediate-the-impact-of-density-on-cannibalism-growth-and-survival-in-larval-yellow-spotted-mountain-newts-neurergus-microspilotus-implications-for-captive-breeding-programs
#10
Somaye Vaissi, Mozafar Sharifi
In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701288/a-new-species-of-salamander-of-the-genus-hynobius%C3%A2-amphibia-caudata-hynobiidae-from-south-korea
#11
Mi-Sook Min, Hae-Jun Baek, Jae-Young Song, Min Ho Chang, Nikolay A Jr Poyarkov
We describe a new species of lentic-breeding Hynobius salamander from the Naro Islands, near the village of Bongrae-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do, South Korea, on the basis of results of morphological, ecological and genetic analyses. Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) comparatively small size (adult SVL up to 61 mm; range 38.3-60.3 mm in males and 37.5-59.9 mm in females); (2) relatively slender short limbs; tips of fore- and hindlimbs adpressed on body never meeting, but separated by a large gap (gap of -3...
September 21, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701219/new-species-and-records-of-microveliinae-and-veliinae-hemiptera-heteroptera-veliidae-from-colombia
#12
Fredy Molano, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira, Irina Morales
Euvelia orinoquia sp. nov. and E. meta sp. nov. from eastern Colombia are described, illustrated, and included in an updated identification key to the species of the genus. The former can be diagnosed by body length 2.30-2.50 mm, male fore femur without tufts of setae, longitudinal black stripe of female pronotum almost twice as wide as length of antennomere I, and female connexiva grayish black with silvery pruinosity on mesal portion, reddish on lateral portion. Euvelia meta sp. nov. can be diagnosed by female body length about 1...
September 29, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620557/uncoupling-flight-and-reproduction-in-ants-evolution-of-ergatoid-queens-in-two-lineages-of-megalomyrmex-hymenoptera-formicidae
#13
Christian Peeters, Rachelle M M Adams
Megalomyrmex Forel (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) consists of 44 species with diverse life history strategies. Most species are predatory and may also tend honeydew-producing insects. A morphologically derived group of species are social parasites that consume the brood and fungus garden within fungus-growing ant nests. The reproductive strategies of Megalomyrmex queens are somewhat aligned with these life-style patterns. Predatory species in the leoninus species group are large in body size and have ergatoid (i...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592298/muscle-contributions-to-center-of-mass-excursion-in-ankle-and-hip-strategies-during-forward-body-tilting
#14
Shinya Ogaya, Yusuke Okita, Satoshi Fuchioka
Humans employ two distinct strategies to maintain balance during standing: the ankle and hip strategies. People with a high fall risk tend to alter their motion patterns during forward body tilting from a hip to an ankle strategy. Improved knowledge regarding how muscles control the center of mass (COM) during balancing would facilitate clinical assessment. The present study aimed to investigate individual muscle contributions to COM motion during forward body tilting with both ankle and hip strategies in 16 healthy adults...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557731/spatial-patterns-of-self-recruitment-of-a-coral-reef-fish-in-relation-to-island-scale-retention-mechanisms
#15
Ricardo Beldade, Sally J Holbrook, Russell J Schmitt, Serge Planes, Giacomo Bernardi
Oceanographic features influence the transport and delivery of marine larvae, and physical retention mechanisms, such as eddies, can enhance self-recruitment (i.e. the return of larvae to their natal population). Knowledge of exact locations of hatching (origin) and settlement (arrival) of larvae of reef animals provides a means to compare observed patterns of self-recruitment 'connectivity' with those expected from water circulation patterns. Using parentage inference based on multiple sampling years in Moorea, French Polynesia, we describe spatial and temporal variation in self-recruitment of the anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus, evaluate the consistency of net dispersal distances of self-recruits against the null expectation of passive particle dispersal and test the hypothesis that larvae originating in certain reef habitats (lagoons and passes) would be retained and thus more likely to self-recruit than those originating on the outer (fore) reef...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522425/new-breeding-objectives-and-selection-indices-for-the-australian-dairy-industry
#16
T J Byrne, B F S Santos, P R Amer, D Martin-Collado, J E Pryce, M Axford
This study comprises an update of the economic values for dairy traits for the Australian industry and the formulation of updated selection indices. An economic model, which calculates partial economic values for each trait individually, was developed to determine the economic implications of selective dairy breeding, based on the effect of trait changes on the profit of commercial dairy farms in Australia. Selection indices were developed from economic values, which were transformed into base economic weights by including the discounted genetic expressions coefficients...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501719/biomechanics-and-physiology-of-uphill-and-downhill-running
#17
REVIEW
Gianluca Vernillo, Marlène Giandolini, W Brent Edwards, Jean-Benoît Morin, Pierre Samozino, Nicolas Horvais, Guillaume Y Millet
Most running studies have considered level running (LR), yet the regulation of locomotor behaviour during uphill (UR) and downhill (DR) running is fundamental to increase our understanding of human locomotion. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding biomechanical, neuromuscular and physiological adaptations during graded running. Relative to LR, UR is characterized by a higher step frequency, increased internal mechanical work, shorter swing/aerial phase duration, and greater duty factor, while DR is characterized by increased aerial time, reduced step frequency and decreased duty factor...
August 9, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477715/effects-of-mid-foot-contact-area-ratio-on-lower-body-kinetics-kinematics-in-sagittal-plane-during-stair-descent-in-women
#18
Jinkyu Lee, Yoon No Gregory Hong, Choongsoo S Shin
The mid-foot contact area relative to the total foot contact area can facilitate foot arch structure evaluation. A stair descent motion consistently provides initial fore-foot contact and utilizes the foot arch more actively for energy absorption. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle and knee joint angle, moment, and work in sagittal plane during stair descending between low and high Mid-Foot-Contact-Area (MFCA) ratio group. The twenty-two female subjects were tested and classified into two groups (high MFCA and low MFCA) using their static MFCA ratios...
July 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395885/the-first-micropterous-species-of-the-southern-european-genus-kakothrips%C3%A2-thysanoptera-thripidae
#19
Rita Marullo, Giorgio Ravazzi
The European genus Kakothrips Williams includes seven species (ThripsWiki 2015) that are known to be flower-living mainly on Fabaceae plants. The genus is recorded across Europe from Morocco to England, and eastwards to Syria and Iran (zur Strassen 2003). Only K. pisivorus (Westwood) is known from northern Europe, and this is the senior synonym of the type species K. robustus (Uzel) (Collins 2010). Closely related to Frankliniella, the species share with the members of that genus the character states of ctenidia present on tergite VIII anterolateral to the spiracles, and a complete row of setae on both longitudinal veins of the fore wing...
January 25, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395650/additions-to-philippine-slender-skinks-of-the-brachymeles-bonitae-complex-reptilia-squamata-scincidae-iii-a-new-species-from-tablas-island
#20
Drew R Davis, Aaron D Geheber, Jessa L Watters, Michelle L Penrod, Kathryn D Feller, Alissa Ashford, Josh Kouri, Daniel Nguyen, Kathryn Shauberger, Kyra Sheatsley, Claire Winfrey, Rachel Wong, Marites B Sanguila, Rafe M Brown, Cameron D Siler
Studies of the diversity of Philippine amphibians and reptiles have resulted in the continued description of cryptic species. Species formerly thought to range across multiple recognized faunal regions are now considered to be assemblages of multiple unique species, each restricted to a single faunal region. This pattern continues to hold true when considering Philippine skinks of the genus Brachymeles. Recent studies have resulted in the description of numerous unique species with many exhibiting various degrees of digit loss or limb reduction, as well as suggesting that unique lineages are still present in the B...
June 28, 2016: Zootaxa
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