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Sarah Duggan, Wayne Cummins, Orla O' Donovan, Helen Hughes, Eleanor Owens
Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Marko Dimiskovski, Richard Scheinfield, Dwight Higgin, Alexander Krupka, Michel A Lemay
BACKGROUND: The measurement of ground reaction forces (GRFs) in animals trained to locomote on a treadmill after spinal cord injury (SCI) could prove valuable for evaluating training outcomes; however, quantitative measures of the GRFs in spinal felines are limited. NEW METHOD: A split belt treadmill was designed and constructed to measure the GRFs of feline hindlimbs during stepping. The treadmill consists of two independent treadmill assemblies, each mounted on a force plate...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Pablo R Grassi, Natalia Zaretskaya, Andreas Bartels
A growing body of literature suggests that feedback modulation of early visual processing is ubiquitous and central to cortical computation. In particular stimuli with high-level content that invariably activate ventral object responsive regions have been shown to suppress early visual cortex. This suppression was typically interpreted in the framework of predictive coding and feedback from ventral regions. Here we examined early visual modulation during perception of a bistable Gestalt illusion that has previously been shown to be mediated by dorsal parietal cortex rather than by ventral regions that were not activated...
November 12, 2016: NeuroImage
Kenneth P Clark, Laurence J Ryan, Peter G Weyand
The relationship between gait mechanics and running ground reaction forces is widely regarded as complex. This viewpoint has evolved primarily via efforts to explain the rising edge of vertical force-time waveforms observed during slow human running. Existing theoretical models do provide good rising-edge fits, but require more than a dozen input variables to sum the force contributions of four or more vague components of the body's total mass (mb). Here, we hypothesized that the force contributions of two discrete body mass components are sufficient to account for vertical ground reaction force-time waveform patterns in full (stance foot and shank, m1=0...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Elisa Rota, Gianfranco Tanteri, Gilberto Montori, Filippo Giachi, Giovanni Delfino, David M Sever
Several anuran species of the genus Phyllomedusa are known to possess specialized cutaneous glands producing lipids and exhibit a peculiar wiping behavior. This behavior is a stereotyped repertory of fore and hind limb movements distributing hydrophobic molecules onto the body surface and reducing evaporative water loss. No reports are presently available on the occurrence of lipid glands in other phyllomedusine genera, and data on the structure of the secretory units specialized for the production of cutaneous lipids are still unclear...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Somaye Vaissi, Mozafar Sharifi
In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
Mi-Sook Min, Hae-Jun Baek, Jae-Young Song, Min Ho Chang, Nikolay A Jr Poyarkov
We describe a new species of lentic-breeding Hynobius salamander from the Naro Islands, near the village of Bongrae-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do, South Korea, on the basis of results of morphological, ecological and genetic analyses. Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) comparatively small size (adult SVL up to 61 mm; range 38.3-60.3 mm in males and 37.5-59.9 mm in females); (2) relatively slender short limbs; tips of fore- and hindlimbs adpressed on body never meeting, but separated by a large gap (gap of -3...
September 21, 2016: Zootaxa
Fredy Molano, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira, Irina Morales
Euvelia orinoquia sp. nov. and E. meta sp. nov. from eastern Colombia are described, illustrated, and included in an updated identification key to the species of the genus. The former can be diagnosed by body length 2.30-2.50 mm, male fore femur without tufts of setae, longitudinal black stripe of female pronotum almost twice as wide as length of antennomere I, and female connexiva grayish black with silvery pruinosity on mesal portion, reddish on lateral portion. Euvelia meta sp. nov. can be diagnosed by female body length about 1...
September 29, 2016: Zootaxa
Christian Peeters, Rachelle M M Adams
Megalomyrmex Forel (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) consists of 44 species with diverse life history strategies. Most species are predatory and may also tend honeydew-producing insects. A morphologically derived group of species are social parasites that consume the brood and fungus garden within fungus-growing ant nests. The reproductive strategies of Megalomyrmex queens are somewhat aligned with these life-style patterns. Predatory species in the leoninus species group are large in body size and have ergatoid (i...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Shinya Ogaya, Yusuke Okita, Satoshi Fuchioka
Humans employ two distinct strategies to maintain balance during standing: the ankle and hip strategies. People with a high fall risk tend to alter their motion patterns during forward body tilting from a hip to an ankle strategy. Improved knowledge regarding how muscles control the center of mass (COM) during balancing would facilitate clinical assessment. The present study aimed to investigate individual muscle contributions to COM motion during forward body tilting with both ankle and hip strategies in 16 healthy adults...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Ricardo Beldade, Sally J Holbrook, Russell J Schmitt, Serge Planes, Giacomo Bernardi
Oceanographic features influence the transport and delivery of marine larvae, and physical retention mechanisms, such as eddies, can enhance self-recruitment (i.e. the return of larvae to their natal population). Knowledge of exact locations of hatching (origin) and settlement (arrival) of larvae of reef animals provides a means to compare observed patterns of self-recruitment 'connectivity' with those expected from water circulation patterns. Using parentage inference based on multiple sampling years in Moorea, French Polynesia, we describe spatial and temporal variation in self-recruitment of the anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus, evaluate the consistency of net dispersal distances of self-recruits against the null expectation of passive particle dispersal and test the hypothesis that larvae originating in certain reef habitats (lagoons and passes) would be retained and thus more likely to self-recruit than those originating on the outer (fore) reef...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
T J Byrne, B F S Santos, P R Amer, D Martin-Collado, J E Pryce, M Axford
This study comprises an update of the economic values for dairy traits for the Australian industry and the formulation of updated selection indices. An economic model, which calculates partial economic values for each trait individually, was developed to determine the economic implications of selective dairy breeding, based on the effect of trait changes on the profit of commercial dairy farms in Australia. Selection indices were developed from economic values, which were transformed into base economic weights by including the discounted genetic expressions coefficients...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Gianluca Vernillo, Marlène Giandolini, W Brent Edwards, Jean-Benoît Morin, Pierre Samozino, Nicolas Horvais, Guillaume Y Millet
Most running studies have considered level running (LR), yet the regulation of locomotor behaviour during uphill (UR) and downhill (DR) running is fundamental to increase our understanding of human locomotion. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding biomechanical, neuromuscular and physiological adaptations during graded running. Relative to LR, UR is characterized by a higher step frequency, increased internal mechanical work, shorter swing/aerial phase duration, and greater duty factor, while DR is characterized by increased aerial time, reduced step frequency and decreased duty factor...
August 9, 2016: Sports Medicine
Jinkyu Lee, Yoon No Gregory Hong, Choongsoo S Shin
The mid-foot contact area relative to the total foot contact area can facilitate foot arch structure evaluation. A stair descent motion consistently provides initial fore-foot contact and utilizes the foot arch more actively for energy absorption. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle and knee joint angle, moment, and work in sagittal plane during stair descending between low and high Mid-Foot-Contact-Area (MFCA) ratio group. The twenty-two female subjects were tested and classified into two groups (high MFCA and low MFCA) using their static MFCA ratios...
July 2016: Gait & Posture
Rita Marullo, Giorgio Ravazzi
The European genus Kakothrips Williams includes seven species (ThripsWiki 2015) that are known to be flower-living mainly on Fabaceae plants. The genus is recorded across Europe from Morocco to England, and eastwards to Syria and Iran (zur Strassen 2003). Only K. pisivorus (Westwood) is known from northern Europe, and this is the senior synonym of the type species K. robustus (Uzel) (Collins 2010). Closely related to Frankliniella, the species share with the members of that genus the character states of ctenidia present on tergite VIII anterolateral to the spiracles, and a complete row of setae on both longitudinal veins of the fore wing...
January 25, 2016: Zootaxa
Drew R Davis, Aaron D Geheber, Jessa L Watters, Michelle L Penrod, Kathryn D Feller, Alissa Ashford, Josh Kouri, Daniel Nguyen, Kathryn Shauberger, Kyra Sheatsley, Claire Winfrey, Rachel Wong, Marites B Sanguila, Rafe M Brown, Cameron D Siler
Studies of the diversity of Philippine amphibians and reptiles have resulted in the continued description of cryptic species. Species formerly thought to range across multiple recognized faunal regions are now considered to be assemblages of multiple unique species, each restricted to a single faunal region. This pattern continues to hold true when considering Philippine skinks of the genus Brachymeles. Recent studies have resulted in the description of numerous unique species with many exhibiting various degrees of digit loss or limb reduction, as well as suggesting that unique lineages are still present in the B...
June 28, 2016: Zootaxa
Aaron D Geheber, Drew R Davis, Jessa L Watters, Michelle L Penrod, Kathryn D Feller, Conner S Davey, Elyse D Ellsworth, Rachel L Flanagan, Brendan B Heitz, Tana Moore, Marie D C Nguyen, Austyn Roberts, John Sutton, Marites B Sanguila, Charles W Linkem, Rafe M Brown, Cameron D Siler
A new species of slender skink is described from the Philippines. The species is endemic to Lubang Island, and is assigned to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex based on phenotypic and genetic data. Specimens were collected from Lubang Island between 1991 and 2012, and were examined based on morphological data (qualitative traits, meristic counts, and mensural measurements). Published genetic sequence data from phylogenetic studies of the genus reveal the new species to be highly divergent from congeners. Brachymeles ligtas sp...
June 28, 2016: Zootaxa
Jian-Ping Shi, Zhi-Wei Liu, Bao-Ping Li
Two new species of the genus Mongolotettix Rehn, 1928 from China, i.e. Mongolotettix wulingyuanensis sp. nov. and Mongolotettix. shaanxiensis sp. nov. are described herein. M. wulingyuanensis sp. nov. is similar to M. angustiseptus Wan, Ren & Zhang, 1998, but differs from the latter by body larger, length of body ♂ 25.6 mm, ♀ 39.1mm; tegmina of male without a white stripe on the fore margin at base; subgenital plate of male conical, sides concave, apex acute; both outer sides of epiphallus without acute projection in the middle...
June 1, 2016: Zootaxa
Ying-Yong Wang, Jian Wang, Zu-Yao Liu
A new species of the Parachute Gecko, Ptychozoon bannaense sp. nov., is described on the basis of two specimens from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from eight known congeners by the following combination of morphological characters: body size moderate, SVL 83.2-87.5 mm; rostral with a short dorsomedian groove; dorsal head and body covered with granular scales without enlarged tubercles, but male with several enlarged tubercles on the occipital region; two supranasals separated from each other by a large internasal; the absence of a predigital notch in the preantebrachial cutaneous flap; male possesses 17 preanofemoral pores in a continuous scale row; tail tubercle absent, 24 pairs of lateral denticulate cutaneous lobes of the tail; width of tail and caudal lobes progressively decreasing posteriorly; the terminal caudal flap short, semicircle, not expanded; lack of lobe fusion at the terminal caudal flap border; the presence of four dark dorsal bands between fore- and hind limbs insertions, the third and fourth dorsal bands fused into a X-shaped mark...
February 26, 2016: Zootaxa
Anni Rava, Anu Pihlak, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva, Tatjana Kums, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe, Mati Pääsuke
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance and mobility in healthy regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n=22) and inactive (n=10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength and rapid fore development, power output and mobility indices were assessed...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
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