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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622929/catarrhine-hallucal-metatarsals-from-the-early-miocene-site-of-songhor-kenya
#1
Biren A Patel, Gabriel S Yapuncich, Cassandra Tran, Isaiah O Nengo
Songhor is an early Miocene fossil locality in Kenya known for its diverse primate assemblage that includes catarrhine species belonging to the genera Kalepithecus, Limnopithecus, Dendropithecus, Rangwapithecus, and Proconsul. Expeditions to Songhor since the 1930s have recovered unassociated catarrhine postcranial remains from both the fore- and hindlimbs, including multiple elements from the feet. In this study, we describe KNM-SO 31233, a complete left hallucal metatarsal (Mt1), along with several other fragmentary Mt1 specimens (KNM-SO 1080, 5129, 5141, 22235)...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610752/age-ascription-as-a-resource-and-a-source-of-resistance-an-interactional-study-of-health-professionals-castings-of-patients-into-the-category-old
#2
Shirley Näslund
This case study aims to give an understanding of what actions health professionals' castings of patients into the category 'old' perform on a medical and social level as well as what actions patients' interactional management of these castings perform. Particularly, this study aims to bring to the fore the negotiability of health professionals' perspectivating age ascriptions. This is done with the conversation analytic method (CA) according to which altercasting is a mutual construction performed turn by turn and shaped by the reactions of the interlocutor who can approve, resist, or modify the identity in question...
April 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610317/a-new-species-of-limnonectes-amphibia-anura-dicroglossidae-from-vietnam
#3
Cuong The Pham, Minh Duc Le, Tao Thien Nguyen, Thomas Ziegler, Zheng Jun Wu, Truong Quang Nguyen
A new species of Limnonectes is described from northeastern Vietnam based on morphological and molecular differences. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: Large size (SVL 50.1-68.9 in males, 45.5-63.0 mm in females); males with moderately enlarged head (HL/SVL 0.48), head longer than wide; vomerine teeth present; external vocal sacs absent; rostral length short (RL/SVL 0.16 in males, 0.15 in females); tympanum distinct (TD/ED 0...
May 24, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609888/a-new-karst-dwelling-species-of-the-gekko-japonicus-group-squamata-gekkonidae-from-central-laos
#4
Vinh Quang Luu, Truong Quang Nguyen, Minh Duc Le, Michael Bonkowski, Thomas Ziegler
A new species of the Gekko japonicus group is described from Khammouane Province, central Laos, based on morphological characters and molecular data. Morphologically, Gekko nadenensis sp. nov. is differentiated from the remaining congeners by a combination of the following characters: size moderate (SVL 61.0-77.1 mm); nares bordered with rostral; internasals absent; postmentals enlarged; interorbital scales between anterior corners of the eyes 28-30; dorsal tubercles absent; ventral scales between mental and cloacal slit 175-185; midbody scale rows 123-140; ventral scale rows 38-40; subdigital lamellae on first toes 13-15, on fourth toes 14-16; finger and toe webbing present at base; tubercles on dorsal surface of fore and hind limbs absent; precloacal pores six (3+3 or 5+1) in a discontinuous row in males, absent in the female; postcloacal tubercles 1 or 2; tubercles absent on dorsal surface of tail base; subcaudals distinctly enlarged; dorsal surface of body with greyish brown blotches...
May 8, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603770/embodied-science-and-mixed-reality-how-gesture-and-motion-capture-affect-physics-education
#5
Mina C Johnson-Glenberg, Colleen Megowan-Romanowicz
A mixed design was created using text and game-like multimedia to instruct in the content of physics. The study assessed which variables predicted learning gains after a 1-h lesson on the electric field. The three manipulated variables were: (1) level of embodiment; (2) level of active generativity; and (3) presence of story narrative. Two types of tests were administered: (1) a traditional text-based physics test answered with a keyboard; and (2) a more embodied, transfer test using the Wacom large tablet where learners could use gestures (long swipes) to create vectors and answers...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533965/reappraisal-of-the-extinct-seal-phoca-vitulinoides-from-the-neogene-of-the-north-sea-basin-with-bearing-on-its-geological-age-phylogenetic-affinities-and-locomotion
#6
Leonard Dewaele, Eli Amson, Olivier Lambert, Stephen Louwye
BACKGROUND: Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, "Phoca" vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of "Phoca" vitulinoides is lost. METHODS: "Phoca" vitulinoides is redescribed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439995/scleromyxoedema-in-a-dog
#7
Aurore F Laprais, Petra Bizikova, Erin W Lashnits, Alison Tucker, Keith E Linder
BACKGROUND: In humans, scleromyxoedema is a chronic progressive skin condition traditionally characterized by deposits of mucin, increased number of fibroblasts and fibrosis in the skin, and by systemic disease. Thyroid disease is typically absent. A monoclonal gammopathy is usually present, as are other comorbidities. Descriptions of scleromyxoedema in the veterinary literature are limited to a single feline case. One dog, previously reported as having papular mucinosis, exhibited features that matched the more current diagnostic criteria of scleromyxoedema...
April 24, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374103/a-validation-method-for-near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-tissue-oximeters-for-cerebral-and-somatic-tissue-oxygen-saturation-measurements
#8
Paul B Benni, David MacLeod, Keita Ikeda, Hung-Mo Lin
We describe the validation methodology for the NIRS based FORE-SIGHT ELITE(®) (CAS Medical Systems, Inc., Branford, CT, USA) tissue oximeter for cerebral and somatic tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) measurements for adult subjects submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to obtain clearance for clinical use. This validation methodology evolved from a history of NIRS validations in the literature and FDA recommended use of Deming regression and bootstrapping statistical validation methods...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338892/embodiment-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-implications-and-applications
#9
Wolfgang Tschacher, Anne Giersch, Karl Friston
In recent decades, embodiment has become an influential concept in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Embodiment denotes the study of the reciprocal (causal) relationships between mind and body, with the mind not only affecting the body but also vice versa. Embodied cognition comes to the fore in sensorimotor coupling, predictive coding, and nonverbal behavior. Additionally, the embodiment of the mind constitutes the basis of social interaction and communication, as evident in research on nonverbal synchrony and mimicry...
March 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282814/the-synucleinopathies-twenty-years-on
#10
Michel Goedert, Ross Jakes, Maria Grazia Spillantini
In 2017, it is two hundred years since James Parkinson provided the first complete clinical description of the disease named after him, fifty years since the introduction of high-dose D,L-DOPA treatment and twenty years since α-synuclein aggregation came to the fore. In 1998, multiple system atrophy joined Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies as the third major synucleinopathy. Here we review our work, which led to the identification of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites and Papp-Lantos bodies, as well as what has happened since...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280581/cultural-factors-that-affected-the-spatial-and-temporal-epidemiology-of-kuru
#11
J T Whitfield, W H Pako, J Collinge, M P Alpers
Kuru is a prion disease which became epidemic among the Fore and surrounding linguistic groups in Papua New Guinea, peaking in the late 1950s. It was transmitted during the transumption (endocannibalism) of dead family members at mortuary feasts. In this study, we aimed to explain the historical spread and the changing epidemiological patterns of kuru by analysing factors that affected its transmission. We also examined what cultural group principally determined a family's behaviour during mortuary rituals...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254458/the-cortical-spatiotemporal-correlate-of-otolith-stimulation-vestibular-evoked-potentials-by-body-translations
#12
M Ertl, M Moser, R Boegle, J Conrad, P Zu Eulenburg, M Dieterich
The vestibular organ senses linear and rotational acceleration of the head during active and passive motion. These signals are necessary for bipedal locomotion, navigation, the coordination of eye and head movements in 3D space. The temporal dynamics of vestibular processing in cortical structures have hardly been studied in humans, let alone with natural stimulation. The aim was to investigate the cortical vestibular network related to natural otolith stimulation using a hexapod motion platform. We conducted two experiments, 1...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246443/study-of-the-dairy-characters-of-lactating-murrah-buffaloes-on-the-basis-of-body-parts-measurements
#13
Sandeep Dhillod, Dipankar Kar, C S Patil, Subhasish Sahu, Narender Singh
AIM: The aim of the study was to correlate the milk yield of Murrah buffaloes with certain body parts measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 70 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected from Buffalo Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Hisar and were randomly selected in a range from first to fifth parity. Traits studied were 305 days milk yield (MY), body weight (BW), body length (BL), muzzle width (MW), height at wither (HW), abdominal girth (AG), chest girth (CG), body depth fore, body depth rear, hip bone distance (HBD), pin bone distance (PBD), skin thickness (STK), and tail length (TL)...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243533/gait-changes-in-a-line-of-mice-artificially-selected-for-longer-limbs
#14
Leah M Sparrow, Emily Pellatt, Sabrina S Yu, David A Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Campbell Rolian
In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate, is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These relationships are well documented at the interspecific level, across a broad range of body sizes and travel speeds. However, such relationships are harder to evaluate within species (i.e., where natural selection operates), largely for practical reasons, including low population variance in limb length, and the presence of confounding factors such as body mass, or training...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163879/aerodynamic-evaluation-of-wing-shape-and-wing-orientation-in-four-butterfly-species-using-numerical-simulations-and-a-low-speed-wind-tunnel-and-its-implications-for-the-design-of-flying-micro-robots
#15
Alejandro Ortega Ancel, Rodney Eastwood, Daniel Vogt, Carter Ithier, Michael Smith, Rob Wood, Mirko Kovač
Many insects are well adapted to long-distance migration despite the larger energetic costs of flight for small body sizes. To optimize wing design for next-generation flying micro-robots, we analyse butterfly wing shapes and wing orientations at full scale using numerical simulations and in a low-speed wind tunnel at 2, 3.5 and 5 m s(-1). The results indicate that wing orientations which maximize wing span lead to the highest glide performance, with lift to drag ratios up to 6.28, while spreading the fore-wings forward can increase the maximum lift produced and thus improve versatility...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162265/foreing-body-of-the-rectum
#16
Elena Romera Barba, Rafael González-Costea Martínez, María Inmaculada Navarro García, José Luis Vázquez Rojas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145055/manipulated-changes-in-limb-mass-and-rotational-inertia-in-trotting-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris-and-their-effect-on-limb-kinematics
#17
Brandon M Kilbourne, David R Carrier
While the mass distribution of limbs is known to influence the metabolic energy consumed during locomotion, it remains unknown how the mass distribution of limbs may influence overall limb kinematics and whether the influence of limb mass distribution on limb kinematics differs between fore- and hindlimbs. To examine limb mass distribution's influence upon fore- and hindlimb kinematics, temporal stride parameters and swing phase joint kinematics were recorded from four dogs trotting on a treadmill with 0.5% and 1...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127679/motion-illusion-evidence-towards-human-vestibulo-thalamic-projections
#18
Aasef G Shaikh, Dominik Straumann, Antonella Palla
Contemporary studies speculated that cerebellar network responsible for motion perception projects to the cerebral cortex via vestibulo-thalamus. Here, we sought for the physiological properties of vestibulo-thalamic pathway responsible for the motion perception. Healthy subjects and the patient with focal vestibulo-thalamic lacunar stroke spun a hand-held rheostat to approximate the value of perceived angular velocity during whole-body passive earth-vertical axis rotations in yaw plane. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was simultaneously measured with high-resolution search coils (paradigm 1)...
June 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087353/thiolated-polymers-as-mucoadhesive-drug-delivery-systems
#19
REVIEW
Sarah Duggan, Wayne Cummins, Orla O' Donovan, Helen Hughes, Eleanor Owens
Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069392/characterization-and-validation-of-a-split-belt-treadmill-for-measuring-hindlimb-ground-reaction-forces-in-able-bodied-and-spinalized-felines
#20
Marko Dimiskovski, Richard Scheinfield, Dwight Higgin, Alexander Krupka, Michel A Lemay
BACKGROUND: The measurement of ground reaction forces (GRFs) in animals trained to locomote on a treadmill after spinal cord injury (SCI) could prove valuable for evaluating training outcomes; however, quantitative measures of the GRFs in spinal felines are limited. NEW METHOD: A split belt treadmill was designed and constructed to measure the GRFs of feline hindlimbs during stepping. The treadmill consists of two independent treadmill assemblies, each mounted on a force plate...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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