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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#1
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N=1375) received HB vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of three batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4-6 months of age, co-administered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719399/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#2
Kulandaipalayam Natarajan Chella Sindhu, Sudhir Babji, Santhosh Kumar Ganesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rotavirus vaccines are playing a pivotal role in improving lives of infants and young children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many of these countries have adopted the vaccine into their routine immunization, whereas others are considering introduction. This article provides an update on the impact of rotavirus vaccines in LMICs on morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years, and their cost-effectiveness. RECENT FINDINGS: The WHO, in 2013, updated its recommendation to prioritize introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the routine immunization schedule, without age restrictions...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719278/evaluation-of-the-field-performance-of-immunocard-stat-%C3%A2-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-rotavirus-in-dadaab-refugee-camp-and-at-the-kenya-somalia-border
#3
Maurice Ope, Raymond Nyoka, Ahmed Unshur, Fredrick O Oyier, Shafe A Mowlid, Brian Owino, Steve B Ochieng, Charles I Okello, Joel M Montgomery, Burton Wagacha, Aleksandar Galev, Abdikadir Abdow, Mathew D Esona, Jacqueline Tate, David Fitter, Susan T Cookson, Balajee Arunmozhi, Nina Marano
AbstractRotavirus commonly causes diarrhea in children, leading to hospitalization and even death. Rapid diagnostic tests are feasible alternatives for determining rotavirus outbreaks in refugee camps that have inadequate laboratory capacity. We evaluated the field performance of ImmunoCard STAT!(®) Rotavirus (ICS-RV) in Dadaab Refugee Camp and at the Kenya-Somalia border. From May to December 2014, we prospectively enrolled children aged < 5 years hospitalized with acute diarrhea, defined as ≥ 3 episodes of loose stool in 24 hours for < 7 days...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717574/detection-of-rotavirus-in-clinical-specimens-using-an-immunosensor-prototype-based-on-the-photon-burst-counting-technique
#4
Makoto Hasegawa, Ernest Apondi Wandera, Yuka Inoue, Nanami Kimura, Ryuzo Sasaki, Tamio Mizukami, Mohammad Monir Shah, Nobuaki Shirai, Osamu Takei, Hironori Shindo, Yoshio Ichinose
In this study, a sensitive fluorescence sensor was developed for the detection of small, fluorescence-labeled particles dispersed in a solution. The prototype system comprises of a laser confocal optical system and a mechanical sample stage to detect photon bursting of fluorescence-labeled small particles in sample volumes less than 5 μL within 3 minutes. To examine the feasibility of the prototype system as a diagnostic tool, assemblages of rotavirus and fluorescence-labeled antibody were analyzed. The detection sensitivity for rotavirus was 1 × 10(4) pfu/mL...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716388/identification-of-co-infection-by-rotavirus-and-parvovirus-in-dogs-with-gastroenteritis-in-mexico
#5
Ariadna Flores Ortega, José Simón Martínez-Castañeda, Linda G Bautista-Gómez, Raúl Fajardo Muñoz, Israel Quijano Hernández
This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe.
June 24, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716138/prevalence-of-enteric-infections-among-hospitalized-patients-in-two-referral-hospitals-in-ghana
#6
R Akuffo, G Armah, M Clemens, K C Kronmann, A H Jones, P Agbenohevi, K Sagoe, N Puplampu, N Talla Nzussouo, W Ampofo, K Koram, C Duplessis, E Dueger
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Africa and Ghana in particular, it is estimated to contribute directly to 19 and 25% of pediatric mortality among children under 5 years, respectively. METHODS: Surveillance for hospitalized acute diarrheal illness was initiated in November 2010 through October 2012 in a referral hospital in southern Ghana, and a teaching hospital in northern Ghana. Consenting hospitalized patients who met a standardized case definition for acute diarrheal illness provided demographic and epidemiologic data...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716067/molecular-characterization-of-group-a-rotaviruses-in-mukuru-slums-kenya-detection-of-novel-strains-circulating-in-children-below-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#7
Joshua Ndung'u Gikonyo, James Nyangao, Cecilia Mbae, Carlene Sang, Eliud Njagi, Joseph Ngeranwa, Mathew Esona, Mapaseka L Seheri, Grace W Gitau, Kedra Raini, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a public health concern due to high morbidity and mortality among children. Rotaviruses are the leading etiological agents of severe gastroenteritis in children and accounts for more than half a million deaths per year in Africa. The study aimed at investigating the rotavirus genotypes that were circulating in children aged 5 years and below in and around Mukuru slums in Nairobi County Kenya. METHODS: A purposive cross sectional sampling method was applied where 166 samples were collected from children below 5 years of age and taken to Kenya Medical Research Institute virology laboratory...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713375/interferon-lambda-a-potent-regulator-of-intestinal-viral-infections
#8
REVIEW
Sanghyun Lee, Megan T Baldridge
Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713095/rotavirus-infection-in-children-as-of-today-literature-review
#9
Kateryna V Pikul, Lyudmyla E Bobyreva, Tatiana V Kushnereva, Valentina I Il'chenko, Konstantin Yu Priluckiy
INTRODUCTION: Urgency of the issue of rotavirus infection (RV) is stipulated by a special place in the structure of morbidity and mortality among young children. According to the data provided by WHO, 180 million diarrheal diseases with rotavirus etiology are registered every year. The aim of this article is to examine of current views on diagnosis and management of rotavirus infection in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of scientific literatures with the use of bibliosemantic method of study became the material for research...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710858/identification-of-group-b-rotavirus-as-an-etiological-agent-in-the-gastroenteritis-outbreak-in-maharashtra-india
#10
M S Joshi, N N Ganorkar, S S Ranshing, A Basu, N A Chavan, V Gopalkrishna
Acute gastroenteritis outbreak occurred at Pargaon, Maharashtra, India in 1789 cases with an attack rate of 32.5% between November to December 2015. The stool specimens (n = 32) were investigated for different enteric viral agents using conventional methods. Transmission electron microscopy and RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis respectively identified morphologically distinct rotavirus particles in 28% and RNA migration pattern of Group B Rotavirus (GBR) in 72% of the specimens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing confirmed presence of GBR in 97% of the samples analyzed...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710013/murine-bone-marrow-derived-dcs-activated-by-porcine-rotavirus-stimulate-the-th1-subtype-response-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Liping Ye, Yanlong Jiang, Guilian Yang, Wentao Yang, Jingtao Hu, Yulin Cui, Chunwei Shi, Jing Liu, Chunfeng Wang
Rotavirus (RV) infection causes acute, watery dehydrating diarrhea and even death in infants and other young animals, resulting in a severe economic burden; however, little is known about the innate immune mechanisms associated with RV infection. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), serve as a bridge connecting the innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, the interaction between murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and porcine rotavirus (PRV) was investigated in vitro...
July 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709556/intussusception-among-children-less-than-2years-of-age-findings-from-pre-vaccine-introduction-surveillance-in-pakistan
#12
Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rozina Thobani, Saqib Hamid Qazi, Nasir Saddal, Catherine Yen, Negar Aliabadi, Syed Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination introduction in routine immunization is under consideration in Pakistan. Data on the baseline epidemiology of intussusception will inform surveillance strategies for intussusception after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Pakistan. We describe the epidemiology of intussusception-associated hospitalizations among children <2years of age in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review for July 01, 2012 through June 30, 2015 at the National Institute of Child Health (NICH) and Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) Karachi...
July 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708249/the-impact-of-anthropogenic-pressure-on-the-virological-quality-of-water-from-the-tiber-river-italy
#13
G La Rosa, I Sanseverino, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, V E V Ferrero, A Barra Caracciolo, T Lettieri
The objective of the present study was to assess the occurrence of major waterborne enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis A and E virus) along the Tiber River in Italy, in areas affected by different kinds of anthropogenic pressure (agricultural, urban, industrial, and pristine). Moreover, in light of the recent abundant detection of human bocavirus in urban wastewater samples in Italy, the occurrence of this virus was also assessed. Virus detection was based on nested PCR followed by sequencing, and on Real Time PCR...
July 14, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702101/rotavirus-genotypes-in-children-with-gastroenteritis-in-erzurum-first-detection-of-g12p-6-and-g12p-8-genotypes-in-turkey
#14
Hakan Aydin, Osman Aktaş
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is one of the leading pathogens which cause acute gastroenteritis in children and is responsible for a substantial proportion of childhood deaths worldwide. AIM: To determine the group A rotavirus (RVA) prevalence and genotypes of circulating RVA strains in 0-5-year-old children with complaints of vomiting and diarrhoea in Eastern Anatolia in Turkey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: RNA extracted from stool specimens of 329 children aged 0-5 years with acute diarrhoea was subjected to reverse transcription polymerase reaction (RT-PCR) and multiplex-nested PCR...
2017: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701394/single-particle-detection-of-transcription-following-rotavirus-entry
#15
Eric N Salgado, Srigokul Upadhyayula, Stephen C Harrison
Infectious rotavirus particles are triple-layered, icosahedral assemblies. The outer layer proteins, VP4 (cleaved to VP8* and VP5*) and VP7, surround a transcriptionally competent, double-layer particle (DLP), which they deliver into the cytosol. During entry of rhesus rotavirus, VP8* interacts with cell-surface gangliosides, allowing engulfment into a membrane vesicle by a clathrin-independent process. Escape into the cytosol and outer-layer shedding depend on interaction of a hydrophobic surface on VP5* with the membrane bilayer and on a large-scale conformational change...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696303/intestinal-virome-changes-precede-autoimmunity-in-type-i-diabetes-susceptible-children
#16
Guoyan Zhao, Tommi Vatanen, Lindsay Droit, Arnold Park, Aleksandar D Kostic, Tiffany W Poon, Hera Vlamakis, Heli Siljander, Taina Härkönen, Anu-Maaria Hämäläinen, Aleksandr Peet, Vallo Tillmann, Jorma Ilonen, David Wang, Mikael Knip, Ramnik J Xavier, Herbert W Virgin
Viruses have long been considered potential triggers of autoimmune diseases. Here we defined the intestinal virome from birth to the development of autoimmunity in children at risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D). A total of 220 virus-enriched preparations from serially collected fecal samples from 11 children (cases) who developed serum autoantibodies associated with T1D (of whom five developed clinical T1D) were compared with samples from controls. Intestinal viromes of case subjects were less diverse than those of controls...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696017/reassortant-ds-1-like-g1p-4-rotavirus-a-strains-generated-from-co-circulating-strains-in-vietnam-2012-2013
#17
Chantal Ama Agbemabiese, Toyoko Nakagomi, Minh Quang Nguyen, Punita Gauchan, Osamu Nakagomi
One major mechanism by which Rotavirus A (RVA) evolves is genetic reassortment between strains possessing different genotype constellations. The parental strains of the reassortants generated are however seldom identified. Here, we examined the whole genome of two suspected reassortants RVA/Human-wt/VNM/SP127/2013/G1P[4] and RVA/Human-wt/VNM/SP193/2013/G1P[4] with short RNA electropherotypes by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and reconstructed their ancestral phylogenies. Their genotype constellation - G1-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 indicated that they were G1 VP7 mono-reassortants possessing DS-1-like genetic backbones...
July 11, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693616/microbial-pathogens-associated-with-acute-childhood-diarrhoea-in-kumasi-ghana
#18
Gilbert Kotei Ashie, Mohamed Mutocheluh, Michael Owusu, Theophilus Benjamine Kwofie, Samuel Akonor, Patrick Williams Narkwa, Samuel Blay Nguah, Joslin Dogbe
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoeal diseases are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This case-control study was conducted to investigate the bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens associated with acute diarrhoea among children attending three health facilities in Kumasi, Ghana. METHODS: Stool specimens were collected from 240 children under 5 years of age visiting hospitals in Kumasi, Ghana due to acute diarrhoea and from 107 healthy controls of similar age...
July 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693503/effectiveness-of-rotavirus-vaccines-against-hospitalisations-in-japan
#19
Yoshiyuki Fujii, Atsuko Noguchi, Shinobu Miura, Haruka Ishii, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi, Tsutomu Takahashi
BACKGROUND: In Japan, rotavirus hospitalisation occurs at a rate from 2.8 to 13.7 per 1000 child-years among children age less than 5 years, and it imposes a substantial burden to the healthcare system in the country. While both monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines are licensed in Japan, neither has been incorporated in the national infant immunization programme. In this study, we estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Japan. METHODS: This study was conducted in Yuri-Kumiai General Hospital located in a city in the north-western part of Japan...
July 11, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693095/analysis-of-nsp4-gene-and-its-association-with-genotyping-of-rotavirus-group-a-in-stool-samples
#20
Ali Teimoori, Mehrab Nejati, Saeedeh Ebrahimi, Manoochehr Makvandi, Milad Zandi, Azarakhsh Azaran
Background: Non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) is a critical protein for rotavirus (RV) replication and assembly. This protein has multiple domains and motifs that predispose its function and activity. NSP4 has a sequence divergence in human and animal RVs. Recently, 14 genotypes (E1-E14) of NSP4 have been identified, and E1 and E2 have been shown to be the most common genotypes in human. Methods: The gene and protein sequence of NSP4 in RV-positive samples were inspected with the aim of NSP4 genotyping and variation analysis in viroporin and other domains...
July 11, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
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