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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090561/diversity-in-rotavirus-host-glycan-interactions-a-sweet-spectrum
#1
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Liya Hu, B V Venkataram Prasad, Mary K Estes
Interaction with cellular glycans is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many infectious agents. Technological advances in glycobiology have expanded the repertoire of studies delineating host glycan-pathogen interactions. For rotavirus, the VP8* domain of the outer capsid spike protein VP4 is known to interact with cellular glycans. Sialic acid was considered the key cellular attachment factor for rotaviruses for decades. Although this is true for many rotavirus strains causing infections in animals, glycan array screens show that many human rotavirus strains bind nonsialylated glycoconjugates, called histo-blood group antigens, in a strain-specific manner...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088400/hospitalizations-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-vaccine-preventable-infections-in-the-first-2-years-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#2
Amy G Feldman, Shikha S Sundaram, Brenda L Beaty, Allison Kempe
OBJECTIVES: To examine in liver transplant recipients at centers participating in the Pediatric Health Information System dataset the number of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccine-preventable infections (VPIs) in the first 2 years after transplantation, morbidity and mortality associated with these hospitalizations, and costs associated with these hospitalizations. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients <18 years of age who underwent liver transplantation at a Pediatric Health Information System center between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087494/porcine-kobuvirus-1-in-healthy-and-diarrheic-pigs-genetic-detection-and-characterization-of-virus-and-co-infection-with-rotavirus-a
#3
Anna Jackova, Ivan Sliz, Rene Mandelik, Slavomira Salamunova, Jaroslav Novotny, Mariana Kolesarova, Michaela Vlasakova, Stefan Vilcek
The porcine kobuvirus 1 (PKV-1) is believed to be an enteric virus. To investigate the prevalence of PKV-1 in pigs, virus was detected by RT-PCR in rectal swabs originating from 414 healthy and diarrheic pigs of different age categories on farms in Slovakia. Among all ages of animals, PKV-1 was detected equally in diarrheic (63.8%) and clinically healthy (62.9%) pigs. PKV-1 was more often detected in diarrheic (74.6%) than in healthy (64.4%) suckling piglets (<28days) but data was not statistically significant...
January 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086819/efficacy-safety-and-effectiveness-of-licensed-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#4
Raúl F Velázquez, Alexandre C Linhares, Sergio Muñoz, Pamela Seron, Pedro Lorca, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
BACKGROUND: RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077655/expression-of-ifnlr1-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-critical-to-the-antiviral-effects-of-ifn-lambda-against-norovirus-and-reovirus
#5
Megan T Baldridge, Sanghyun Lee, Judy J Brown, Nicole McAllister, Kelly Urbanek, Terence S Dermody, Timothy J Nice, Herbert W Virgin
: Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) has potent antiviral effects against multiple enteric viral pathogens, including norovirus and rotavirus, in both preventing and curing infection. Because the intestine includes a diverse array of cell types, however, the cell(s) upon which IFN-λ acts to exert its antiviral effects are unclear. Here, we sought to identify IFN-λ responsive cells by generation of mice with lineage-specific deletion of the receptor for IFN-λ, Ifnlr1 We found that expression of IFNLR1 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the small intestine and colon is required for enteric IFN-λ antiviral activity...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075671/hospitalization-rates-for-intussusception-in-children-aged-0-59%C3%A2-months-from-2009-to-2014-in-italy
#6
Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Fabio Tramuto, Francesco Vitale
The real cause of intussusception is not fully understood and a variety of conditions have been associated with it (Meckel diverticulum, polyps, duplication cysts, parasites, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, cystic fibrosis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and infectious gastroenteritis). Furthermore few European countries, following WHO recommendation to monitor baseline incidence of intussusception before implementation of immunization program for rotavirus, used intussusception rate as a baseline value to compare the same figures in the period before and after introduction of vaccination...
January 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070453/comparative-analysis-of-the-rotarix%C3%A2-vaccine-strain-and-g1p-8-rotaviruses-detected-before-and-after-vaccine-introduction-in-belgium
#7
Mark Zeller, Elisabeth Heylen, Sana Tamim, John K McAllen, Ewen F Kirkness, Asmik Akopov, Sarah De Coster, Marc Van Ranst, Jelle Matthijnssens
G1P[8] rotaviruses are responsible for the majority of human rotavirus infections worldwide. The effect of universal mass vaccination with rotavirus vaccines on circulating G1P[8] rotaviruses is still poorly understood. Therefore we analyzed the complete genomes of the Rotarix™ vaccine strain, and 70 G1P[8] rotaviruses, detected between 1999 and 2010 in Belgium (36 before and 34 after vaccine introduction) to investigate the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on circulating G1P[8] strains. All rotaviruses possessed a complete Wa-like genotype constellation, but frequent intra-genogroup reassortments were observed as well as multiple different cluster constellations circulating in a single season...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069942/a-paradox-of-transcriptional-and-functional-innate-interferon-responses-of-human-intestinal-enteroids-to-enteric-virus-infection
#8
Kapil Saxena, Lukas M Simon, Xi-Lei Zeng, Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Narayan P Sastri, Umesh C Karandikar, Nadim J Ajami, Nicholas C Zachos, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Mark Donowitz, Margaret E Conner, Chad A Shaw, Mary K Estes
The intestinal epithelium can limit enteric pathogens by producing antiviral cytokines, such as IFNs. Type I IFN (IFN-α/β) and type III IFN (IFN-λ) function at the epithelial level, and their respective efficacies depend on the specific pathogen and site of infection. However, the roles of type I and type III IFN in restricting human enteric viruses are poorly characterized as a result of the difficulties in cultivating these viruses in vitro and directly obtaining control and infected small intestinal human tissue...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067936/unparalleled-patterns-of-intussusception-and-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-hospitalization-rates-among-children-younger-than-six-years-in-italy
#9
A Mattei, F Fiasca, M Mazzei, M Sbarbati
BACKGROUND: No nationwide studies are available so far in Italy to analyze the annual trend of hospitalizations for intussusception (IS) comparing it with that of rotavirus gastroenteritis (GARV), therefore a survey was undertaken to assess the incidence rates of IS and GARV in children hospitalized between 2005 and 2014 in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective observational study was conducted analyzing the Italian Hospital Discharge Database (HDD), including a study on all hospitalizations bearing a primary or secondary diagnoses coded as 560...
January 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067093/rotavirus-epidemiology-5-6-years-after-universal-rotavirus-vaccination-persistent-rotavirus-activity-in-older-children-and-elderly
#10
Jukka Markkula, Maria Hemming-Harlo, Marjo T Salminen, Carita Savolainen-Kopra, Jaana Pirhonen, Haider Al-Hello, Timo Vesikari
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) vaccination using RotaTeq(®) vaccine exclusively was introduced into Finnish National Immunization Program (NIP) in 2009, and soon reached high (≥90%) coverage. Since mid-2013, all stool samples from laboratory diagnosed cases of RV gastroenteritis in the entire country have been typed. METHODS: 364 RV positive stool samples collected from clinical laboratories over a 2-year period were G- and P-typed using RT-PCR, and the results were confirmed by sequencing...
January 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063924/diversity-in-vp3-nsp3-and-nsp4-of-rotavirus-b-detected-from-japanese-cattle
#11
Michiko Hayashi-Miyamoto, Toshiaki Murakami, Fujiko Minami-Fukuda, Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Mai Kishimoto, Kaori Sano, Yuki Naoi, Keigo Asano, Toru Ichimaru, Kei Haga, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Mami Oba, Hiroshi Aoki, Junsuke Shirai, Motohiko Ishida, Kazuhiko Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Makoto Nagai
Bovine rotavirus B (RVB) is an etiological agent of diarrhea mostly in adult cattle. Currently, a few sequences of viral protein (VP)1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 and nonstructural protein (NSP)1, 2, and 5 of bovine RVB are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases, and none have been reported for VP3, NSP3, and NSP4. In order to fill this gap in the genetic characterization of bovine RVB strains, we used a metagenomics approach and sequenced and analyzed the complete coding sequences (CDS) of VP3, NSP3, and NSP4 genes, as well as the partial or complete CDS of other genes of RVBs detected from Japanese cattle...
January 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059619/comparison-of-iatrogenic-pain-between-rotavirus-vaccination-before-and-after-vaccine-injection-in-2-month-old-infants
#12
Hui-Chu Yin, Whei-Mei Shih, Hsiu-Lan Lee, Huei-Jing Yang, Yu-Li Chen, Shao-Wen Cheng, Chun-Yuh Yang, Ya-Wen Chiu, Yi-Hao Weng
Oral rotavirus vaccine (RV) administration in conjunction with other injectable vaccines has been used worldwide. However, whether the sequence of RV administration is associated with the reduction of injection-induced pain remains unclear. In this randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 6-12-wk-old healthy infants. The pain response of the infants was scored on the basis of their crying, irritability, facial expression, gagging and distress. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to compare the pain response after adjustment for possible confounders...
January 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059609/rotavirus-specific-maternal-antibodies-and-immune-response-to-rv3-bb-neonatal-rotavirus-vaccine-in-new-zealand
#13
Mee-Yew Chen, Carl D Kirkwood, Julie Bines, Daniel Cowley, Daniel Pavlic, Katherine J Lee, Francesca Orsini, Emma Watts, Graeme Barnes, Margaret Danchin
Background Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccine observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident...
January 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057906/analysis-of-porcine-rotavirus-a-enterotoxin-gene-for-structure-function-relationship
#14
Sharad Saurabh, Shubhankar Sircar, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Souvik Ghosh, N Kobayashi, Krisztian Banyai, O R Vinod Kumar, Ujjawal De, Nihar Ranjan Sahoo, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
Rotavirus (RV) infected piglets are presumed to be the latent sources of heterologous RV infection to humans and other animals. In RVs, non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) is the major virulence factor with pleiotropic properties. In this study, we analyzed nsp4 gene from porcine RVs, isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic cases, at different levels of protein folding to explore any correlation with their diarrhea inducing capabilities and evolution of nsp4 in porcine population. The full length nsp4 genes were amplified, cloned, sequenced and analyzed for antigenic epitopes, RotaC classification, homology, genetic relationship, modeling of NSP4 protein and prediction for post translational modification...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057385/evaluating-the-first-introduction-of-rotavirus-vaccine-in-thailand-moving-from-evidence-to-policy
#15
Piyanit Tharmaphornpilas, Suchada Jiamsiri, Somchit Boonchaiya, Onwipa Rochanathimoke, Wiravan Thinyounyong, Sumana Tuntiwitayapun, Ratigorn Guntapong, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Aim-On Rasdjarmrearnsook, Roger I Glass
BACKGROUND: We assessed the effectiveness and possible impact of introducing rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization program. METHODS: Two provinces were selected for an observational study, one where vaccine was introduced and another where vaccine was not available. In these areas, two sub-studies were linked. The prospective cohort study enrolled children 2month old and followed them to the age of 18months to detect all diarrhea episodes. The hospital surveillance study enrolled all children up to age 5 hospitalized with diarrhea whose fecal samples were tested for rotavirus...
January 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057113/-monitoring-and-research-on-pathogen-spectrum-in-patients-with-acute-diarrhea-from-sentinel-hospital-of-zhejiang-province-during-2009-to-2014
#16
S F Zheng, F Yu, X Chen, D W Cui, X Z Yang, G L Xie, Y Y Wang, J X Yu, Z J Li, Y Chen
Objective: To explore pathogen spectrum constitution of acute diarrhea in outpatient and emergency of Zhejiang Province, and provide basis for treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Methods: During January 2009 to December 2014, we selected seven sentinel hospitals in different regions of Zhejiang, monitored and researched on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from outpatient and emergency. We recorded patients' personal basic information, the main symptoms and signs, and collected stool samples (5 g)...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056278/-analysis-of-genetics-and-phylogenetics-of-g-and-p-genotype-of-rotavirus-a-group-in-sentinel-hospitals-of-hubei-province-2013-2014
#17
J Li, X H Guan, T Zhang, X S Xing, Y R Zhao, J Huang, J Q Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056276/-infection-status-clinical-symptoms-and-gene-type-transition-of-group-a-rotavirus-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-with-diarrhea-in-sentinel-hospitals-of-henan-province-china
#18
J Y Zhao, X J Shen, S L Xia, B F Zhang, Y J Mu, X Y Huang, B L Xu
Objective: To investigate the infectious status, gene type transition and epidemiological features of rotavirus A isolated from infants and children (<59 months-of-age) in sentinel hospitals from 2008 to 2015 in Henan province, China. Methods: In total, 2 541 stool samples (each 3- 5 ml) were collected from infants and children aged less than five years in two sentinel hospitals and group A rotavirus was detected by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. Viral RNA was extracted from positive samples and G/P gene typing was performed using a two-step nested multiplex RT-PCR...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054332/prevalence-of-foodborne-viruses-in-mussels-in-southern-italy
#19
Giovanna Fusco, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Barbara Cioffi, Giovanni Ianiro, Pierpaolo Palermo, Marina Monini, Maria Grazia Amoroso
In this study, the prevalence of various enteric viruses in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) belonging to class A and class B mollusc-harvesting areas in the Campania region in southern Italy was evaluated. One hundred and eight mussels were analysed using real-time reverse transcription PCR during a 2-year collection period (2014-2015) to detect the following viruses: human norovirus (genogroups I and II), rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, aichivirus, hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus...
January 4, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053934/rotavirus-vaccine-demand-in-pakistan
#20
Aamir Hussain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
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