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Madhu Gupta, Ravi Kanojia, Ritesh Singha, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Kamlesh Mahajan, Akshay Saxena, Arun Bansal, Jeyashree Muralidharan, Rajesh Kumar
Background: Baseline data on intussusception are needed to compare the intussusception rates following introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Methods: A hospital-based bidirectional surveillance (retrospective from 2009 to 2012; and prospective from 2013 to 2015) was set up in a tertiary care hospital in Chandigarh, India, to enrol children <5 years of age admitted with intussusception as per Brighton's classification, to estimate the hospital admission rate. Incidence of intussusception among infants and children <5 years of age was also estimated...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Tohru Suzuki, Ayako Hasebe
Rotaviruses C (RVCs) have been detected in pigs, humans, cows, ferrets and dogs. Despite their zoonotic impact and pathogenicity, the genetic characterization of RVCs is incomplete, unlike rotaviruses A (RVAs), whose genetics are well studied. Several studies reported partial and complete genomic sequences for multiple porcine and canine RVCs. We aimed to establish a complete genome-based genotyping system for RVCs, by analysing complete genome data from 22 porcine RVCs identified in Japan from 2002 to 2010, along with those from multiple human, bovine, porcine, canine and ferret RVCs reported in several previous studies...
October 17, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Susanna Esposito, Lorenza Pugni, Fabio Mosca, Nicola Principi
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (GE) in infants worldwide. Several vaccines against RV were developed to reduce disease burden, hospitalization rates and health utilization costs. RV GE is a serious disease in preterm (PT) infants, and the administration of RV vaccine to these at-risk subjects at the proper time could have great clinical relevance. However, most data on the efficacy and safety of RV vaccinations were collected in healthy full-term infants, and few studies investigated PT infants...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
Rita Reyburn, Devina Nand, Cattram Nguyen, Shivnay Naidu, Arishma Bali, Miriama Rokovutoro, Tupou Ratu, Simon Kumar, Donald Lewis, Varanisese Smith, Fiona Russell
OBJECTIVES: Post-licensure studies to evaluate vaccine impact are an important component of introducing new vaccines. Such studies often rely on routinely collected data but the limitations to these data must be understood. To validate administrative data for use in 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccine impact evaluations we have audited the two electronic database capturing hospital admissions in Fiji for completeness and consistency. METHODS: Hospital admission data for one week per year between 2007-2011 and 2014-2015 was collected from ward registers for selected hospitals...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
Wan-Ju Yu, Shih-Yen Chen, Chi-Neu Tsai, Hsun-Ching Chao, Man-Shan Kong, Yi-Jung Chang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Rotavirus vaccines were launched in Taiwan since early 2006. Our study was aimed to figure out long-term extended molecular epidemiology in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized young children after rotavirus vaccination in Taiwan. METHODS: During the 10-year period from January 2007 to December 2016, fecal samples from children under 5 years old with AGE hospitalized in Chang Gung Children's Hospital (CGCH) were examined for enteric pathogens and they were divided into two time intervals: early post-vaccine (Jan...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Evan O'Brien, Joyce Nakyazze, Huiyun Wu, Noah Kiwanuka, William Cunningham, John B Kaneene, Irene Xagoraraki
Waterborne viruses are a significant cause of human disease, especially in developing countries such as Uganda. A total of 15 virus-selective samples were collected at five sites (Bugolobi Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) influent and effluent, Nakivubo Channel upstream and downstream of the WWTP, and Nakivubo Swamp) in July and August 2016. Quantitative PCR and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to determine the concentrations of four human viruses (adenovirus, enterovirus, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus) in the samples...
October 6, 2017: Water Research
Julia M Baker, Wladimir J Alonso
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the previously unknown long-term spatio-temporal patterns in diarrheal morbidity and mortality across age groups and geography in Brazil under the light of evolving socioeconomic factors and interventions. METHODS: Nationwide mortality (1979-2014) and hospitalization (1998-2014) data were obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Analyses of long-term secular trends and seasonality of diarrheal morbidity and mortality were performed in EPIPOI (www...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Infection
Andrej Steyer, Tina Naglič, Urška Jamnikar-Ciglenečki, Urška Kuhar
The group A rotavirus strain SI-2987/09 was detected in a child with severe diarrhea. The whole-genome analysis revealed the G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3 genome constellation, which reflects the zoonotic transmission of the strain most probably from the ungulate group. This was also confirmed by the high nucleotide identity to those animal rotavirus strains.
October 12, 2017: Genome Announcements
D Ouermi, D Soubeiga, W M C Nadembega, P M Sawadogo, T M Zohoncon, D Obiri-Yeboah, F W Djigma, J Nordgren, J Simpore
Group A human rotaviruses (RVA) are the most common causes of severe viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The available vaccines, while effective in Europe and North America have shown a reduced efficacy in Africa. One issue raised is the genetic variability of RVA. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review of molecular epidemiology to determine the prevalence of RVA genotypes circulating in Africa so as to establish a mapping of reliable data on these various genotypes...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
H-C Huang, A N Vlasova, A Kumar, S Kandasamy, D D Fischer, L Deblais, F C Paim, S N Langel, M A Alhamo, A Rauf, L Shao, L J Saif, G Rajashekara
We developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model colonised with defined commensal microbiota (DMF) to provide a simplified and controlled system to study the interactions between intestinal commensals, antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, CIP), probiotics (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) and virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV). The DMF included seven gut commensal species of porcine origin that mimic the predominant species in the infant gut. Gn piglets were divided into four groups: DMF control (non-treated), DMF+CIP (CIP treated), DMF+CIP+EcN (CIP/EcN treated), DMF+EcN (EcN treated) and inoculated orally with 10(5) cfu of each DMF strain...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
Yan Zhou, Panpan Geng, Yalin Liu, Jinyuan Wu, Hongtu Qiao, Yuping Xie, Na Yin, Linlin Chen, Xiaochen Lin, Yang Liu, Shan Yi, Guangming Zhang, Hongjun Li, Maosheng Sun
Rotaviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses that are a major cause of viral diarrhea in infants. Examining virus-host cell interaction is important for elucidating mechanisms of virus proliferation in host cells. Viruses can create an environment that promotes their survival and self-proliferation by encoding miRNAs or miRNA-like molecules that target various host cell. However, it remains unclear whether RNA viruses encode viral miRNAs, and their regulation mechanisms are largely unknown. We previously performed deep sequencing analysis to investigate rotavirus-encoded miRNAs, and identified the small RNA molecule Chr17_1755, which we named RV-vsRNA1755...
October 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Eyal Leshem, Jacqueline E Tate, Claudia A Steiner, Aaron T Curns, Ben A Lopman, Umesh D Parashar
We compared acute gastroenteritis (AGE)-related hospitalization rates among children <5 years of age during the pre-rotavirus vaccine (2000-2006) and post-rotavirus vaccine (2008-2013) periods to estimate national reductions in AGE-related hospitalizations and associated costs. We estimate that between 2008 and 2013, AGE-related hospitalizations declined by 382000, and $1.228 billion in medical costs were averted.
August 10, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
P Gaspard, P Pothier, C Roth, S Larocca, B Heck, K Ambert-Balay
OBJECTIVES: Viruses are recognized as important agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks in institutions caring for dependent people. We aimed to define norovirus (NoV) and rotavirus (RV) immunochromatographic tests (ICT) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) used in gastroenteritis investigations. METHODS: Fourteen sites were monitored from 2010 to 2015, with 360 laboratory investigations. Twenty-two outbreaks and 44 sporadic case patients were investigated with ICTs (114 NoVs and 80 RVs) and RT-PCRs (114 NoVs and 52 RVs)...
October 4, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Hassan Zaraket, Rana Charide, Khalil Kreidieh, Ghassan Dbaibo, Nada M Melhem
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Consequently, we conducted a systematic literature review on articles studying RV in the 25 countries of the MENA region during the past 15years (2000-2015). The methods and reporting were set according to the 2015 preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) and based on the elements from the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). Our literature search identified 169 studies meeting our predefined inclusion criteria...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
Abdulaziz A Alsaedi, Ayman A Bakkar, Naglaa M Kamal, Jwaher M Althobiti
RATIONALE: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy that can cause permanent brain damage. Consequently, optimal management is extremely important. Current pharmacologic and surgical treatment were available that included diazoxide and octreotides. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 4 month old Saudi male patient diagnosed at our hospital as CHI, treated with near total pancreatectomy and octreotide therapy of 30 mcg/kg/day presented with severe abdominal distension, vomiting and bloody diarrhea...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Onwipa Rochanathimoke, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Maarten J Postma, Wirawan Thinyounyong, Montarat Thavorncharoensap
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus diarrhea is a major health problem among young children worldwide with potential negative impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study assessed the impact of rotavirus diarrhea on HRQoL of children and their caregivers. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among 460 hospitalized children with diarrhea aged under 5 years and their family caregivers at three hospitals in Phetchabun province, Thailand during May 2013 and February 2014...
October 6, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Xue-Yan Zheng, Min Qiu, Wei-Jie Guan, Jin-Ming Li, Shao-Wei Chen, Ming-Ji Cheng, Shu-Ting Huo, Zhong Chen, Yi Wu, Li-Na Jiang, Qing Chen
Accumulating studies have shown that bats could harbor various important pathogenic viruses that could be transmitted to humans and other animals. Extensive metagenomic studies of different organs/tissues from bats have revealed a large number of novel or divergent viruses. To elucidate viral diversity and epidemiological and phylogenetic characteristics, six pooled fecal samples from bats were generated (based on bat species and geographic regions characteristic for virome analysis). These contained 500 fecal samples from six bat species, collected in four geographic regions...
October 5, 2017: Archives of Virology
Erin E Gabriel, Michael C Sachs, M Elizabeth Halloran
An intermediate response measure that accurately predicts efficacy in a new setting at the individual level could be used both for prediction and personalized medical decisions. In this article, we define a predictive individual-level general surrogate (PIGS), which is an individual-level intermediate response that can be used to accurately predict individual efficacy in a new setting. While methods for evaluating trial-level general surrogates, which are predictors of trial-level efficacy, have been developed previously, few, if any, methods have been developed to evaluate individual-level general surrogates, and no methods have formalized the use of cross-validation to quantify the expected prediction error...
September 1, 2017: Biostatistics
Lionel Brazier, Eric Elguero, Claudine Kombila Koumavor, Nicolas Renaud, Franck Prugnolle, Frédéric Thomas, Simon Ategbo, Moyen Engoba, Obengui, Eric M Leroy, Patrick Durand, François Renaud, Pierre Becquart
Few studies have analyzed the gut microbiota of child in unindustrialized countries, but none during the first month of life. Stool samples were collected from healthy newborns in hospitals of Gabon (n = 6) and Republic of the Congo (n = 9) at different time points during the first month of life: meconium, day 2 (D02), day 7 (D07) and day 28 (D28). In addition, one fecal sample was collected from each mother after delivery. Metagenomic sequencing was performed to determine the bacterial communities, and multiplex real-time PCR was used to detect the presence of seven enteric viruses (rotavirus a, adenovirus, norovirus I and II, sapovirus, astrovirus, enterovirus) in these samples...
2017: PloS One
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