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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236304/enterovirus-detection-in-patients-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-switzerland
#1
Rainer Gosert, Ulrich Heininger, Hans H Hirsch
Acute gastroenteritis (GE) has a major impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet comprehensive data regarding infectious agents including enteroviruses are scarce. We hypothesized that enteroviruses constitute a significant cause of acute GE. We analyzed 677 stool samples from 504 patients, which had been submitted for suspected infectious GE. 0.2 ml of stool suspension was extracted using the Abbott m2000 sp robot and analysed by multiplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) using the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) as well as by specific NATs detecting enteroviruses and polioviruses...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236215/phylogenetic-comparison-of-the-vp7-vp4-vp6-and-nsp4-genes-of-rotaviruses-isolated-from-children-in-nizhny-novgorod-russia-2015-2016-with-cogent-genes-of-the-rotarix-and-rotateq-vaccine-strains
#2
O V Morozova, T A Sashina, N V Epifanova, V V Zverev, A U Kashnikov, N A Novikova
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The introduction of universal mass vaccination around the world has contributed to a reduction in hospitalizations and outpatient visits associated with rotavirus infection. Continued surveillance of RVA strains is needed to determine long-term effects of vaccine introduction. In the present work, we carried out the analysis of the genotypic diversity of RVA strains isolated in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia) during the 2015-2016 epidemic season...
December 13, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231855/differences-of-rotavirus-vaccine-effectiveness-by-country-likely-causes-and-contributing-factors
#3
REVIEW
Ulrich Desselberger
Rotaviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide and in many other mammalian and avian host species. Since 2006, two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix® and RotaTeq®, have been licensed in >100 countries and are applied as part of extended program of vaccination (EPI) schemes of childhood vaccinations. Whereas the vaccines have been highly effective in high-income countries, they were shown to be considerably less potent in low- and middle-income countries...
December 12, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231134/plant-made-antibodies-properties-and-therapeutic-applications
#4
Tatianamsu Ru V Komarova, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Yuri L Dorokhov
A cost-effective plant platform for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production is both flexible and scalable. In addition, plant-made antibodies (PMAbs) could be advantageous compared to those produced in animal cells due to the absence of a risk of contamination from nucleic acids or proteins of animal origin. In this review, the various platforms of PMAbs production are described, and the widely used transient expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of genetic material into plant cells is discussed in detail...
December 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228339/thresholds-for-decision-making-informing-the-cost-effectiveness-and-affordability-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-malaysia
#5
Tharani Loganathan, Chiu-Wan Ng, Way-Seah Lee, Raymond C W Hutubessy, Stéphane Verguet, Mark Jit
Cost-effectiveness thresholds (CETs) based on the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) are extensively used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lacking locally defined CETs. These thresholds were originally intended for global and regional prioritization, and do not reflect local context or affordability at the national level, so their value for informing resource allocation decisions has been questioned. Using these thresholds, rotavirus vaccines are widely regarded as cost-effective interventions in LMICs...
December 8, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225758/an-in-vitro-transcription-assay-for-development-of-rotavirus-vp7
#6
Shahram Jalilian, Ali Teimoori, Manoochehr Makvandi, Milad Zandi
Background and Objectives: Human rotavirus (RV) is responsible for most cases of acute gastroenteritis in infants, worldwide. Today, in vitro transcription (IVT) assay is widely used to develop efficient RNA for the biological experiments such as gene function analysis and reverse genetics. The aim of this study was to develop optimal full-length transcripts of the VP7 segment, using in vitro transcription assay. Materials and Methods: Special primers were designed in order to synthesize VP7 sequence of sense RNA in the process of IVT using T7 RNA polymerase...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223486/cost-effectiveness-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-ghana-examining-impacts-from-2012-to-2031
#7
Justice Nonvignon, Deborah Atherly, Clint Pecenka, Moses Aikins, Lauren Gazley, Devin Groman, Clement T Narh, George Armah
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea causes about 10% of all deaths in children under five years globally, with rotavirus causing about 40% of all diarrhea deaths. Ghana introduced rotavirus vaccination as part of routine immunization in 2012 and it has been shown to be effective in reducing disease burden in children under five years. Ghana's transition from low to lower-middle income status in 2010 implies fewer resources from Gavi as well as other major global financing mechanisms. Ghana will soon bear the full cost of vaccines...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217369/influence-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-given-to-infants-in-south-india
#8
Edward P K Parker, Ira Praharaj, Anna Zekavati, Robin P Lazarus, Sidhartha Giri, Darwin J Operario, Jie Liu, Eric Houpt, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Beate Kampmann, Jacob John, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly
Oral rotavirus vaccines have consistently proven to be less immunogenic among infants in developing countries. Discrepancies in the intestinal microbiota, including a greater burden of enteropathogens and an altered commensal community composition, may contribute to this trend by inhibiting the replication of vaccine viruses. To test this possibility, we performed a nested case-control study in Vellore, India, in which we compared the intestinal microbiota of infants who responded serologically or not after two doses of Rotarix delivered at 6 and 10 weeks of age as part of a clinical trial (CTRI/2012/05/002677)...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215357/new-technique-for-direct-fluoroimmunomagnetic-detection-of-rotavirus-in-water-samples
#9
Raquel A Villamizar-Gallardo, Johann F Osma, Oscar Orlando Ortíz
A new rapid, sensitive and selective method for rotavirus detection in water samples is described in this paper. Amino pink magnetic microparticles were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies and used to capture, concentrate, separate and detect infectious rotavirus particles in distilled and drinking water samples. The fluorescence of the microparticles was used to determine the presumptive presence of rotaviruses by using confocal microscopy. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the presence of the anti-rotavirus antibodies attached to the surface of the magnetic microparticles as well as that of viruses attached through the antibody...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214559/virus-type-specific-removal-in-a-full-scale-membrane-bioreactor-treatment-process
#10
Takayuki Miura, Julien Schaeffer, Jean-Claude Le Saux, Philippe Le Mehaute, Françoise S Le Guyader
We investigated removal of noroviruses, sapoviruses, and rotaviruses in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant by monitoring virus concentrations in wastewater samples during two gastroenteritis seasons and evaluating the adsorption of viruses to mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). Sapoviruses and rotaviruses were detected in 25% of MBR effluent samples with log reduction values of 3- and 2-logs in geometric mean concentrations, respectively, while noroviruses were detected in only 6% of the samples...
December 6, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212882/rotavirus-immunization-for-hospitalized-infants-are-we-there-yet
#11
Barbara Pahud, Eugenia K Pallotto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212881/risk-of-rotavirus-nosocomial-spread-after-inpatient-pentavalent-rotavirus-vaccination
#12
Annika M Hofstetter, Kirsten Lacombe, Eileen J Klein, Charla Jones, Bonnie Strelitz, Elizabeth Jacobson, Daksha Ranade, M Leanne Ward, Slavica Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Diana Evans, Mary Wikswo, Michael D Bowen, Umesh D Parashar, Daniel C Payne, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely or with underlying conditions are at increased risk of severe rotavirus disease and associated complications. Given the theoretical risk of nosocomial transmission of vaccine-type rotavirus, rotavirus vaccination is recommended for infants at or after discharge from neonatal care settings. Because the first dose should be administered by 104 days of age, some infants may be age-ineligible for vaccination if delayed until discharge. METHODS: This prospective cohort included infants admitted to an urban academic medical center between birth and 104 days who received care in intensive care settings...
December 6, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211629/report-of-the-fifth-european-expert-meeting-on-rotavirus-vaccination-eerovac-utrecht-the-netherlands-20-22-march-2017
#13
Marieke L A de Hoog, Timo Vesikari, Carlo Giaquinto, Hans-Iko Huppertz, Federico Martinon-Torres, Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen
The Fifth European Expert Meeting on Rotavirus Vaccination was convened in Utrecht, The Netherlands, in March 2017. The 2-day meeting included invited lectures as well as original oral and poster presentations and brought together experts from 21 countries. Summary findings of the meeting include: Rotavirus vaccination programmes in Europe have resulted in reductions of 60-90% in rotavirus outpatient visits and hospitalizations. Long term trends indicate this impact is sustained over the years. Herd effects, protecting unvaccinated children and neonates too young to be vaccinated have been observed in many European countries...
December 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211103/characterisation-of-a-rare-reassortant-human-g10p-14-rotavirus-strain-detected-in-honduras
#14
Osbourne Quaye, Sunando Roy, Kunchala Rungsrisuriyachai, Mathew D Esona, Ziqian Xu, Ka Ian Tam, Dina J Castro Banegas, Gloria Rey-Benito, Michael D Bowen
BACKGROUND: Although first detected in animals, the rare rotavirus strain G10P[14] has been sporadically detected in humans in Slovenia, Thailand, United Kingdom and Australia among other countries. Earlier studies suggest that the strains found in humans resulted from interspecies transmission and reassortment between human and bovine rotavirus strains. OBJECTIVES: In this study, a G10P[14] rotavirus genotype detected in a human stool sample in Honduras during the 2010-2011 rotavirus season, from an unvaccinated 30-month old boy who reported at the hospital with severe diarrhea and vomiting, was characterised to determine the possible evolutionary origin of the rare strain...
January 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210350/rotavirus-vaccine-will-improve-child-survival-by-more-than-just-preventing-diarrhea-evidence-from-bangladesh
#15
Senjuti Saha, Mathuram Santosham, Manzoor Hussain, Robert E Black, Samir K Saha
Despite the high burden of rotavirus diarrhea, uptake of rotavirus vaccines in Asia remains low. This primarily stems from a perception of rotavirus as a non-life-threatening pathogen amidst a background of competing health priorities and limited resources. In the largest pediatric hospital of Bangladesh, where there is a fierce competition for beds, we found that between November 2015 and October 2016, 12% of 23,064 admissions were due to gastrointestinal infections, 54% of which were caused by rotavirus. One in four cases requiring hospitalization, or 5,879 cases, was refused because of unavailability of beds...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207506/longitudinal-surveillance-of-porcine-rotavirus-b-strains-from-the-united-states-and-canada-and-in-silico-identification-of-antigenically-important-sites
#16
Frances K Shepherd, Michael P Murtaugh, Fangzhou Chen, Marie R Culhane, Douglas G Marthaler
Rotavirus B (RVB) is an important swine pathogen, but control and prevention strategies are limited without an available vaccine. To develop a subunit RVB vaccine with maximal effect, we characterized the amino acid sequence variability and predicted antigenicity of RVB viral protein 7 (VP7), a major neutralizing antibody target, from clinically infected pigs in the United States and Canada. We identified genotype-specific antigenic sites that may be antibody neutralization targets. While some antigenic sites had high amino acid functional group diversity, nine antigenic sites were completely conserved...
December 3, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203935/viral-enteritis-in-calves
#17
REVIEW
Diego E Gomez, J Scott Weese
A complex community of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of calves and play important roles in gut health and disease. The viral component of the microbiome (the virome) is receiving increasing attention for its role in neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). Rotavirus and coronavirus have for a long time been associated with NCD and commercial vaccines have been produced against these agents. Recently, several other viruses which may play a role in diarrhea have been discovered in calf fecal samples, mostly by sequence-based methods...
December 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203181/rotavirus-strain-diversity-in-eastern-and-southern-african-countries-before-and-after-vaccine-introduction
#18
L M Seheri, N B Magagula, I Peenze, K Rakau, A Ndadza, J M Mwenda, G Weldegebriel, A D Steele, M J Mphahlele
BACKGROUND: The African Rotavirus Surveillance Network has been detecting and documenting rotavirus genotypes in the African sub-continent since 1998 in anticipation of the rollout of rotavirus vaccination in routine Expanded Programme on Immunisation. This paper reports distribution of the rotavirus strains circulating in 15 Eastern and Southern African (ESA) countries from 2010-2015 as part of active World Health Organization (WHO) rotavirus surveillance, and investigates possibility of emergence of non-vaccine or unusual strains in six selected countries post-vaccine introduction...
December 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202798/intention-to-vaccinate-universally-against-varicella-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-meningococcal-b-disease-and-seasonal-influenza-among-parents-in-the-netherlands-an-internet-survey
#19
Alies van Lier, José A Ferreira, Liesbeth Mollema, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Hester E de Melker
OBJECTIVE: For the decision-making process regarding introduction of new vaccines into the National Immunisation Programme (NIP), advance insight into the potential acceptance among the population is relevant. We studied the intention of parents to have their child vaccinated against four diseases not currently covered by the NIP in the Netherlands. The results on varicella have been published before; this article adds the results on vaccination against rotavirus gastroenteritis, meningococcal B disease, and seasonal influenza...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199044/intussusception-hospitalizations-before-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-retrospective-data-from-two-referral-hospitals-in-tamil-nadu-india
#20
Rajan Srinivasan, C P Girish Kumar, Sridevi A Naaraayan, Susan Jehangir, Jeromie W V Thangaraj, S Venkatasubramanian, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: The indigenous oral rotavirus vaccine Rotavac® was introduced into the public immunization system in India in 2016 and will be expanded in phases. This data will describe the epidemiology of intussusception in India in absence of rotavirus vaccination and will help in setting up or designing a safety monitoring system. METHODS: Medical records of intussusception cases between 2013 and 2016 in two major referral hospitals in Tamil Nadu, India were reviewed, and data on clinical presentation and management and outcome were collated...
November 30, 2017: Vaccine
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