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Aditi Apte, Sudipto Roy, Ashish Bavdekar, Sanjay Juvekar, Siddhivinayak Hirve
BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review to evaluate factors affecting uptake of rotavirus vaccine amongst physicians, parents and health system. METHODS: We identified 15 studies that met the inclusion criteria from 790 screened studies published between Jan 2005 to Jan 2016. RESULTS: Perceived severity of rotavirus disease, efficacy of vaccine and recommendation by health authorities positively influenced uptake of vaccine amongst health care providers...
June 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Talia Pindyck, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Prior to 2006, nearly every U.S child was infected with rotavirus by 5 years of age, and rotavirus was the leading cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. In February 2006 and June 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a live attenuated pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1), respectively, for routine vaccination of infants in the U.S. Areas covered: We reviewed U.S. data on coverage, vaccine effectiveness (VE), and vaccine impact from 2006-2017...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Giovanni Ianiro, Claudia Recanatini, Marcello M D'Errico, Marina Monini
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are one of the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children, being responsible for up to 250.000 deaths worldwide, mostly in developing countries. The two outer capsid proteins VP7 (glycoprotein, G-genotype) and VP4 (protease-sensitive protein, P-genotype) are the basis for the binary RVA nomenclature. Although at least 36 G-types and 51 P-types of rotavirus are presently known, most RVA infections in humans, worldwide as well as in Italy, are related to six major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8] and G12P[8]...
June 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yue Wu, Tingzheng Liu, Yuhang Yuan, Zhibo Zhang
PURPOSE: To identify genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of bile duct obstruction in biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: We used rhesus rotavirus (RRV) Balb/c mouse BA model to study BA. Liver and serum samples were harvested from BA and normal control (NC) groups at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days postinoculation. Serum total bilirubin (STB) and conjugated bilirubin (CB) were measured. Livers of each group at day 7 were used for a genome-wide expression analysis...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eduardo López-Medina, Beatriz Parra, Diana M Dávalos, Pio López, Eder Villamarín, Melissa Pelaez
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, there is little epidemiological data resulting from highly sensitive molecular techniques for the study of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the post-rotavirus vaccine era. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was performed between March 15, 2015 to March 19, 2016 in two Municipal Health Networks (MHN) from Cali, Colombia to detect AGE in children <5years. Consecutive sampling was performed simultaneously in all health facilities belonging to both MHN until completion of the required sample size...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
J C Simwaka, Evans M Mpabalwani, Mapaseka Seheri, Ina Peenze, Mwaka Monze, Belem Matapo, Umesh D Parashar, Jacob Mufunda, Jeffrey M Mphahlele, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda
BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization schedule, the burden of rotavirus disease has significantly reduced in Zambia. Although rotavirus vaccines appear to confer good cross-protection against both vaccine and non-vaccine strains, concerns about strain replacement following vaccine implementation remain. We describe the diversity of the circulating rotavirus strains before and after the Rotarix® vaccine was introduced in Lusaka from January 2012...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
Sumit Sharma, Marie Hagbom, Johan Nordgren, Jonas Frodlund, Jorma Hinkula, Torbjörn Ledin, Lennart Svensson
Since rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, tonsils due to their location within the oropharynx may sample or become infected with these viruses. We investigated if RV and NoV RNA/antigen, or virus specific memory/plasma B cells can be detected in the tonsils. While neither RV/NoV antigen, nor genomic RNA was detected, 90% (27/30) of tonsils tested had RV and NoV specific IgG memory B cells. However, the mechanism explaining how these cells get there (whether due to local induction and homing following induction at other sites) and the role these cells might play during active infection is not yet clear...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
P Olias, I Dettwiler, A Hemphill, P Deplazes, A Steiner, M Meylan
Diarrhea in calves is one of the most important cattle diseases in Switzerland. The diagnosis and treatment of calf diarrhea represent a major challenge. Single-celled Cryptosporidium parasites are the most prevalent causative agents of calf diarrhea besides rotavirus in the first weeks of life, and are responsible for about 50% of diarrheal cases. Cryptosporidium parvum has been described as a cause of diarrhea in one to three weeks old calves since the 1970s. Oral ingestion of persistent environmental oocysts results in severe diarrhea lasting four to six days and shedding of large numbers of infectious oocysts...
June 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Junling Liu, Zhenyu He, Yao Wang, Yan Xiong, Jiansheng Liang
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a continuous monitoring of the physical, chemical microbial indicators and overall biological toxicity for water quality in waterlogged urban areas. METHODS: Monitoring sites were chosen in the waterlogging areas in the NanhuYayuan and Banqiao communities of Hongshan District, and the Xinhu village of Xinzhou District, Wuhan City. The South Lake, Yezhi Lake and Shahe River were selected as the corresponding surface water monitoring sites. Samples were collected in an extended period of time for the examination of physical, chemical microbial indicators and the determination of biological toxicity...
November 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Gabriel Chia, Hanley J Ho, Ching-Ging Ng, Freddy Jun-Xian Neo, Mar-Kyaw Win, Lin Cui, Yee-Sin Leo, Angela Chow
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of gastroenteritis (GE) occurred in community-dwelling adults in the Central Region of urban Singapore, in May 2016. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cause of the outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a case-cohort study on GE patients linked to the outbreak who presented to the emergency department of a tertiary-care hospital near the outbreak area, from 18 May to 11 June 2016. Stools were tested for gastrointestinal pathogens including rotavirus antigen and positive rotavirus samples were subject to genotyping...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Patricia Alejandra Cordoba
La vacunación para rotavirus es obligatoria en Argentina desde enero del 2015. Los genotipos G de rotavirus circulantes previo a la vacunación no fueron estudiados en la Provincia de La Rioja. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar los genotipos G de rotavirus que circulan en La Rioja en niños con diarrea desde 2000 a 2010. Se determinó la presencia de rotavirus del Grupo A por Inmunocromatografía (Biomerieux) en 418 muestras de materias fecales obtenidas en niños con diarrea aguda, hospitalizados y ambulatorios, en ciudad de La Rioja, Argentina...
April 3, 2018: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
Rosario Guadalupe Labastida-Conde, Oscar Ramírez-Pliego, Mercedes Peleteiro-Olmedo, Delia Vanessa Lopez-Guerrero, Oscar Daniel Badillo-Godinez, María de Lourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl, Gabriela Rosas-Salgado, África González-Fernández, Fernando R Esquivel-Guadarrama, M Angélica Santana
Neonates have an increased susceptibility to infections, particularly those caused by intracellular pathogens, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. This is partly because of a poor response of neonatal CD4+ T cells, leading to deficient antibody production and a low production of IFN-γ, resulting in deficient elimination of intracellular pathogens. The poor memory response of human neonates has underpinned the need for improving vaccine formulations. Molecular adjuvants that improve the response of neonatal lymphocytes, such as the ligands of toll-like receptors (TLRs), are attractive candidates...
June 8, 2018: Vaccine
Francois Kiemde, Marc Christian Tahita, Palpouguini Lompo, Toussaint Rouamba, Athanase M Some, Halidou Tinto, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Michael Boele van Hensbroek
BACKGROUND: Fever remains a major public health problem. In Burkina Faso, more than half of febrile children are considered not to be infected by malaria. This study prospectively assessed probable (treatable) causes of fever in Burkinabe children. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among febrile children (≥37.5 °C) under 5 years of age presenting at four health facilities and one referral hospital in rural Burkina Faso. From each participant, blood was collected for malaria microscopy and culture, urine for dipstick testing and culturing if tested positive for leucocytes and nitrite, stool for rotavirus/adenovirus testing, culture and parasitology, and a nasopharyngeal swab for culture...
May 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Maria Isabel S Dinelli, Amélia M N Dos Santos, Lily Y Weckx, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
In utero exposure to immunosuppressive drugs might be a contraindication to rotavirus vaccine, but that may vary according to the immunosuppressive regimen. We evaluated 24 infants born to kidney transplanted mothers exposed to three immunosuppressants during pregnancy (prednisone, azathioprine and tacrolimus or cyclosporine) and 31 control infants not exposed to these medications. No differences in adverse events were detected after rotavirus vaccination at 2 and 4 months. This article is protected by copyright...
June 11, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
A Bennett, L Pollock, K C Jere, V E Pitzer, U Parashar, J E Tate, R S Heyderman, C Mwansambo, N French, O Nakagomi, M Iturriza-Gomara, D Everett, N A Cunliffe, N Bar-Zeev
INTRODUCTION: Despite increased use of vaccine in routine immunisation, rotavirus remains a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in low-income countries. We describe rotavirus prevalence and hospitalisation in Malawi pre and four years post vaccine introduction; provide updated vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates; and assess rotavirus vaccine indirect effects. METHODS: Children under five years of age presenting to a referral hospital in Blantyre with AGE were recruited...
June 7, 2018: Vaccine
Li Yang, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Pranavkumar Shivakumar, Reena Mourya, Zhenhua Luo, Sridevi Gutta, Jorge A Bezerra
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biliary atresia (BA) results from a neonatal inflammatory and fibrosing obstruction of bile ducts of unknown etiology. Although the innate immune system has been linked to virus-induced mechanism of disease, the role of the inflammasome-mediated epithelial injury remains largely undefined. Here, we hypothesized that disruption of the inflammasome suppresses the neonatal proinflammatory response and prevents experimental BA. METHODS: We determined the expression of key inflammasome-related genes in livers from infants at diagnosis of BA and in extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDs) of neonatal mice after infection with rotavirus (RRV) immediately after birth...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Eileena Mohanty, Budheswar Dehury, Ashok Kumar Satapathy, Bhagirathi Dwibedi
Rotavirus infection of young children particularly below five years of age resulting in severe diarhoea, is the cause of a large number of infant deaths all over the world, more so in developing countries like India. Vaccines developed against this infection in the last two decades have shown mixed results with some of them leading to complications. Oral vaccines have not been very effective in India. Significant diversity has been found in circulating virus strains in India. Development of a vaccine against diverse genetic variants of the different strains would go a long way in reducing the incidence of infection in developing countries...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Courtney Briggs-Steinberg, Shetal Shah
Rotavirus is the most common nonseasonal vaccine preventable illness. Despite increased severity of rotaviral illness in early infancy, most neonatal intensive care units (NICU) do not administer rotavirus vaccination either during the NICU stay at age of eligibility or at discharge as the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends. In this commentary, we review the rationale for the administration of rotavirus vaccination to premature infants. Further, we outline data supporting vaccine administration at chronologic age while still admitted to the NICU...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Shabihah Shahrudin, Cheng Chen, Shannon C David, Eve V Singleton, Justin Davies, Carl D Kirkwood, Timothy R Hirst, Michael Beard, Mohammed Alsharifi
Rotavirus (RV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries, where children and infants are highly susceptible to severe disease symptoms. While live attenuated vaccines are available, reduced vaccine efficacy in developing countries illustrates the need for highly immunogenic alternative vaccines. Here, we studied the possible inactivation of RV using gamma(γ)-irradiation, and assessed the sterility and immunogenicity of γ-irradiated RV (γ-RV) as a novel vaccine candidate. Interestingly, the inactivation curve of RV did not show a log-linear regression following exposure to increased doses of γ-rays, and consequently the radiation dose required to achieve the internationally accepted Sterility Assurance Level could not be calculated...
2018: PloS One
S J Symes, J L Allen, P D Mansell, K L Woodward, K E Bailey, J R Gilkerson, G F Browning
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Noroviruses have been recognised as a significant cause of neonatal enteritis in calves in many countries, but there has been no investigation of their occurrence in Australian cattle. This study aimed to establish whether bovine noroviruses could be detected in faecal samples from Australian dairy cattle. It also sought to determine whether bovine coronaviruses, also associated with neonatal enteritis in calves, could be detected in the same faecal samples. METHODS: A selection of faecal samples that were negative for rotaviruses from dairy farms located in three geographically distinct regions of Victoria were pooled and tested by reverse transcription-PCR for the presence of noroviruses (genogroup III), neboviruses and bovine coronaviruses...
June 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
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