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Zimei Dong, Yibo Yang, Guangwen Chen, Dezeng Liu
The runt family genes play important roles in physiological processes in eukaryotic organisms by regulation of protein transcription, such as hematopoietic system, proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and neural development. However, it remains unclear about the specific functions of these genes. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of two runt genes are first cloned from Dugesia japonica, and their roles are investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results show that: (1) the Djrunts are conserved during evolution; (2) the Djrunts mRNA are widely expressed in intact and regenerative worms, and their expression levels are up-regulated significantly on day 1 after amputation; (3) loss of Djrunts function lead to lysis or regeneration failure in the intact and regenerating worms...
April 9, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Divya A Shiroor, Tisha E Bohr, Carolyn E Adler
Planarians are flatworms that are extremely efficient at regeneration. They owe this ability to a large number of stem cells that can rapidly respond to any type of injury. Common injury models in these animals remove large amounts of tissue, which damages multiple organs. To overcome this broad tissue damage, we describe here a method to selectively remove a single organ, the pharynx, in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We achieve this by soaking animals in a solution containing the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor sodium azide...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Leonardo Rossi, Lucia Cassella, Paola Iacopetti, Claudio Ghezzani, Luigi Tana, Gregory Gimenez, Eric Ghigo, Alessandra Salvetti
Despite the significant advances in the comprehension of stem cell control network, the nature of extrinsic signals regulating their dynamic remains to be understood. In this paper, we take advantage of the stem cell repopulation process that follows low-dose X-ray treatment in planarians to identify genes, preferentially enriched in differentiated cells, whose expression is activated during the process. Genetic silencing of some of them impaired the stem cell repopulation, suggesting a tight extrinsic control of stem cell activity...
April 5, 2018: Gene
Zimei Dong, Gengbo Chu, Yingxu Sima, Guangwen Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Junsong Yuan, Zhihong Wang, Zhihong Wang, Di Zou, Quekun Peng, Rui Peng, Fangdong Zou
Most animals hold the ability to regenerate damaged cells, tissues, and even any lost part of their bodies. To date, there is little known about the precise regulatory mechanism of regeneration and many fundamental questions remain unanswered. To further understand the precise regulatory mechanism of regeneration, we used planarian Dugesia japonica as a model and sequenced the transcriptomes of their regenerated tissues at different regeneration stages. Through de novo assembly and expression profiling, we found that Heat shock protein and MAPK pathway were involved into early response of regeneration in D...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Xiao-Shuai Han, Chen Wang, Fang-Hao Guo, Shuang Huang, Yong-Wen Qin, Xian-Xian Zhao, Qing Jing
Regeneration, relying mainly on resident adult stem cells, is widespread. However, the mechanism by which stem cells initiate proliferation during this process in vivo is unclear. Using planarian as a model, we screened 46 transcripts showing potential function in the regulation of local stem cell proliferation following 48 h regeneration. By analyzing the regeneration defects and the mitotic activity of animals under administration of RNA interference (RNAi), we identified factor for initiating regeneration 1 (Fir1) required for local proliferation...
March 20, 2018: Protein & Cell
Zimei Dong, Gengbo Chu, Yingxu Sima, Guangwen Chen
Heat shock protein 90 family members (HSP90s), as molecular chaperones, have conserved roles in the physiological processes of eukaryotes regulating cytoprotection, increasing host resistance and so on. However, whether HSP90s affect regeneration in animals is unclear. Planarians are emerging models for studying regeneration in vivo. Here, the roles of three hsp90 genes from planarian Dugesia japonica are investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results show that: (1) Djhsp90s expressions are induced by heat and cold shock, tissue damage and ionic liquid; (2) Djhsp90s mRNA are mainly distributed each side of the body in intact worms as well as blastemas in regenerative worms; (3) the worms show head regression, lysis, the body curling and the regeneration arrest or even failure after Djhsp90s RNAi; (4) Djhsp90s are involved in autophagy and locomotion of the body...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Maria Emilia Isolani, Renata Batistoni, Chiara Ippolito, Anna Maria Bianucci, Silvia Marracci, Leonardo Rossi
Planarian flatworms possess extraordinary regenerative capability and body plasticity, which rely on a composite population of stem cells, the neoblasts. Despite impressive advances have been recently achieved in the knowledge of neoblast biology, few is still known about factors that are released by differentiated tissues and influence the neoblast fate. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a fundamental component of the stem cell niche and its remodeling affects stem cell fate. Here we provide the characterization of the astacin gene family of metalloproteinases in planarians, good candidate enzymes for generating dynamicity in the ECM...
March 13, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Eric M Hill, Christian P Petersen
Most animals undergo homeostatic tissue maintenance, yet those capable of robust regeneration in adulthood use mechanisms significantly overlapping with homeostasis. Here we show in planarians that modulations to body-wide patterning systems shift the target site for eye regeneration while still enabling homeostasis of eyes outside this region. The uncoupling of homeostasis and regeneration, which can occur during normal positional rescaling after axis truncation, is not due to altered injury signaling or stem cell activity, nor specific to eye tissue...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Kutay Deniz Atabay, Samuel A LoCascio, Thom de Hoog, Peter W Reddien
During animal regeneration cells must organize into discrete and functional systems. We show that self-organization, along with patterning cues, govern progenitor behavior in planarian regeneration. Surgical paradigms allowed manipulation of planarian eye regeneration in predictable locations and numbers, generating alternative stable neuroanatomical states for wild-type animals with multiple functional ectopic eyes. We utilized animals with multiple ectopic eyes and eye transplantation to demonstrate that broad progenitor specification, combined with self-organization, allows anatomy maintenance during regeneration...
March 15, 2018: Science
Leonardo Rossi, Alessandra Salvetti
Stem cell fate depends on surrounding microenvironment, the so called niche. For this reason, understanding stem cell niche is one of the most challenging target in cell biology field and need to be unraveled with in vivo studies. Planarians offer this unique opportunity, as their stem cells, the neoblasts, are abundant, highly characterized and genetically modifiable by RNA interference in alive animals. However, despite impressive advances have been done in the understanding planarian stem cells and regeneration, only a few information is available in defining signals from differentiated tissues, which affect neoblast stemness and fate...
March 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Eugene Mamontov
Living planarian flatworms were probed using quasielastic neutron scattering to measure, on the pico-to-nanosecond time scale and nanometer length scale, microscopic diffusion of water and cell constituents in the planarians. Measurable microscopic diffusivities were surprisingly well defined in such a complex system as living animals. The overall variation in the microscopic diffusivity of cell constituents was found to be far lower than the variation in the microscopic diffusivity of water in planarians in a temperature range of 284...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Serli Önlü, Melek Türker Saçan
Freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a critical ecological importance owing to its unique properties. This study presents for the first time an in silico approach to determine a priori the acute toxicity of contaminants of emerging concern towards D. japonica. Quantitative structure-toxicity/toxicity-toxicity relationship (QSTR/QTTR) models provided here allow producing reliable information using the existing data, thus, reducing the demand of in vivo and in vitro experiments, and contributing to the need for a more holistic approach to environmental safety assessment...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Longhua Guo, Alice Accorsi, Shuonan He, Carlos Guerrero-Hernández, Shamilene Sivagnanam, Sean McKinney, Matthew Gibson, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
BACKGROUND: The ability to efficiently visualize and manipulate chromosomes is fundamental to understanding the genome architecture of organisms. Conventional chromosome preparation protocols developed for mammalian cells and those relying on species-specific conditions are not suitable for many invertebrates. Hence, a simple and inexpensive chromosome preparation protocol, adaptable to multiple invertebrate species, is needed. RESULTS: We optimized a chromosome preparation protocol and applied it to several planarian species (phylum Platyhelminthes), the freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (phylum Mollusca), and the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum Cnidaria)...
February 26, 2018: BMC Biology
Sabarinath Subramanian Peruvemba, Ponnusamy Babu, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Ramaswamy Subramanian
Cell surface-associated glycans mediate many cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, signaling, and extracellular matrix organization. The galactosylation of core fucose (GalFuc epitope) in paucimannose and complex-type N-glycans is characteristic of protostome organisms, including flatworms (planarians). Though uninvestigated, the structures of these glycans may play a role in planarian regeneration. Whole-organism MALDI-MS analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea were found to contain multiple isomeric high mannose and paucimannose structures with unusual mono-, di- and poly-galactosylated(n=3-5) core fucose structures - the latter structures unreported in other systems...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Althiéris S Saraiva, Renato A Sarmento, Oksana Golovko, Tomas Randak, João L T Pestana, Amadeu M V M Soares
The fungicide cyproconazole (CPZ) inhibits the biosynthesis of ergosterol, an essential sterol component in fungal cell membrane and can also affect non-target organisms by its inhibitory effects on P450 monooxygenases. The predicted environmental concentration of CPZ is up to 49.05 μg/L and 145.89 μg/kg in surface waters and sediments, respectively, and information about CPZ toxicity towards non-target aquatic organisms is still limited. This study aimed to address the lack of ecotoxicological data for CPZ, and thus, an evaluation of the lethal and sub-lethal effects of CPZ was performed using two freshwater invertebrates (the midge Chironomus riparius and the planarian Dugesia tigrina)...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Magda Grudniewska, Stijn Mouton, Margriet Grelling, Anouk H G Wolters, Jeroen Kuipers, Ben N G Giepmans, Eugene Berezikov
Free-living flatworms, such as the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, are extensively used as model organisms to study stem cells and regeneration. The majority of flatworm studies so far focused on broadly conserved genes. However, investigating what makes these animals different is equally informative for understanding its biology and might have biomedical value. We re-analyzed the neoblast and germline transcriptional signatures of the flatworm M. lignano using an improved transcriptome assembly and show that germline-enriched genes have a high fraction of flatworm-specific genes...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun Aruga
Lophotrochozoa is a sister taxon of Ecdysozoa in the Protostomia that includes mollusks, annelids, brachiopods, and platyhelminths. Recent studies have clarified the structure, expression, and roles of lophotrochozoan Zic family genes. Zic genes in oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex (freshwater sludge worm) and polychaete annelid Capitella teleta (bristle worm) are commonly expressed in a subset of developing brain and mesoderm derivatives. The latter includes the naïve mesoderm and the associated chaetal sacs in each body segment, although the segmentation processes differ between the two species...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Md Shahanoor Alam, Hideaki Moriyama, Midori Matsumoto
The DUT gene encodes Deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase), which is involved in nucleotide metabolism. dUTPase prevents uracil misincorporation in DNA by balancing the intracellular ratio between dUTP and dTTP. This study aimed to investigate the role of Dr-dut gene in the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis by assessing the consequences of Dr-dut silencing on known phenomena, including regeneration following amputation and radiation damage. We functionally disrupted planarian Dr-dut mRNA by feeding RNAi-containing food to animals...
February 5, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Markus Alexander Grohme, Siegfried Schloissnig, Andrei Rozanski, Martin Pippel, George Robert Young, Sylke Winkler, Holger Brandl, Ian Henry, Andreas Dahl, Sean Powell, Michael Hiller, Eugene Myers, Jochen Christian Rink
The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is an important model for stem cell research and regeneration, but adequate genome resources for this species have been lacking. Here we report a highly contiguous genome assembly of S. mediterranea, using long-read sequencing and a de novo assembler (MARVEL) enhanced for low-complexity reads. The S. mediterranea genome is highly polymorphic and repetitive, and harbours a novel class of giant retroelements. Furthermore, the genome assembly lacks a number of highly conserved genes, including critical components of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint, but planarians maintain checkpoint function...
February 1, 2018: Nature
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