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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818620/secrets-from-immortal-worms-what-can-we-learn-about-biological-ageing-from-the-planarian-model-system
#1
REVIEW
Sounak Sahu, Anish Dattani, A Aziz Aboobaker
Understanding how some animals are immortal and avoid the ageing process is important. We currently know very little about how they achieve this. While research in genetic model systems has revealed the existence of conserved genetic pathways and molecular processes that affect longevity. Most of these studies have been performed in established model organisms, amenable to both classical and molecular genetic approaches, with relatively short lifespans. Here we consider the use of planarians, with an immortal life-history that is able to entirely avoid the ageing process...
August 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812561/widespread-maintenance-of-genome-heterozygosity-in-schmidtea%C3%A2-mediterranea
#2
Longhua Guo, Shasha Zhang, Boris Rubinstein, Eric Ross, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Loss of heterozygosity through inbreeding or mitotic errors leads to reductions in progeny survival and fertility. Loss of heterozygosity is particularly exacerbated in geographically isolated populations, which are prone to inbreeding depression and faster rates of extinction. The regenerative capacities of the hermaphroditic biotype of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea allowed us to perform a systematic genetic test of Mendelian segregation and study the loss of heterozygosity in the Spiralian superclade in general and planarians in particular...
December 5, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807897/cytoplasmic-poly-a-binding-protein-pabpc2-critically-regulates-epidermal-maintenance-and-turnover-in-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#3
Dhiru Bansal, Jahnavi Kulkarni, Kavana Nadahalli, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Srikar Krishna, Vidyanand Sasidharan, Jini Geo, Shilpa Dilipkumar, Renu Pasricha, Akash Gulyani, Srikala Raghavan, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Identifying key cellular events that facilitate stem cell function and tissue organization is critical for understanding the process of regeneration. Planarians are powerful model system to study regeneration and stem cell (neoblast) function. Here, using planaria, we show that the initial events of regeneration, such as epithelialization and epidermal organization are critically regulated by a novel cytoplasmic Poly A binding protein, SMED-PABPC2. Knockdown (KD) of Smed-pabpc2 leads to defects in epidermal lineage specification, disorganization of epidermis and ECM, and deregulated wound healing resulting in the selective failure of neoblast proliferation near the wound region...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807895/the-mir-124-family-of-micrornas-is-critical-for-regeneration-of-the-brain-and-visual-system-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#4
Sasidharan Vidyanand, Srujan Marepally, Sarah A Elliott, Srishti Baid, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Nishtha Nayyar, Dhiru Bansal, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado, Praveen Kumar Vemula, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Brain regeneration in planarians is mediated by precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression and is critical for multiple aspects of neurogenesis. However, the mechanisms underpinning the gene regulation essential for brain regeneration are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the miR-124 family of microRNAs in planarian brain regeneration. The miR-124 family (miR-124) is highly conserved in animals and it regulates neurogenesis by facilitating neural differentiation. Yet, its role in neural wiring and brain organization is not known...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800531/changes-on-lipid-peroxidation-enzymatic-activities-and-gene-expression-in-planarian-dugesia-japonica-following-exposure-to-perfluorooctanoic-acid
#5
Zuoqing Yuan, Zili Miao, Xiaoning Gong, Baoying Zhao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongdou Ma, Jianyong Zhang, Bosheng Zhao
We investigated perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced stress response in planarians. We administered different concentrations of PFOA to planarians for up to 10 d. PFOA exposure resulted in significant concentration-dependent elevations in lipid peroxidation, glutathione S-transferase and caspase-3 protease activities, and a significant decline in glutathione peroxidase activities compared with control groups. Exposure to PFOA significantly up-regulated the heat shock proteins hsp70 and hsp90, and p53, and down-regulated hsp40 compared with controls...
August 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782018/hierarchies-in-light-sensing-and-dynamic-interactions-between-ocular-and-extraocular-sensory-networks-in-a-flatworm
#6
Nishan Shettigar, Asawari Joshi, Rimple Dalmeida, Rohini Gopalkrishna, Anirudh Chakravarthy, Siddharth Patnaik, Manoj Mathew, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Akash Gulyani
Light sensing has independently evolved multiple times under diverse selective pressures but has been examined only in a handful among the millions of light-responsive organisms. Unsurprisingly, mechanistic insights into how differential light processing can cause distinct behavioral outputs are limited. We show how an organism can achieve complex light processing with a simple "eye" while also having independent but mutually interacting light sensing networks. Although planarian flatworms lack wavelength-specific eye photoreceptors, a 25 nm change in light wavelength is sufficient to completely switch their phototactic behavior...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774726/girardia-dorotocephala-transcriptome-sequence-assembly-and-validation-through-characterization-of-piwi-homologs-and-stem-cell-progeny-markers
#7
Eugene Matthew P Almazan, Sydney L Lesko, Michael P Markey, Labib Rouhana
Planarian flatworms are popular models for the study of regeneration and stem cell biology in vivo. Technical advances and increased availability of genetic information have fueled the discovery of molecules responsible for stem cell pluripotency and regeneration in flatworms. Unfortunately, most of the planarian research performed worldwide utilizes species that are not natural habitants of North America, which limits their availability to newcomer laboratories and impedes their distribution for educational activities...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757112/the-abrogation-of-condensin-function-provides-independent-evidence-for-defining-the-self-renewing-population-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Alvina G Lai, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Prasad Abnave, Sounak Sahu, A Aziz Aboobaker
Heterogeneity of planarian stem cells has been categorised on the basis of single cell expression analyses and subsequent experiments to demonstrate lineage relationships. Some data suggest that despite heterogeneity in gene expression amongst cells in the cell cycle, in fact only one sub-population, known as sigma neoblasts, can self-renew. Without the tools to perform live in vivo lineage analysis, we instead took an alternative approach to provide independent evidence for defining the self-renewing stem cell population...
July 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708059/a-tunable-refractive-index-matching-medium-for-live-imaging-cells-tissues-and-model-organisms
#9
Tobias Boothe, Lennart Hilbert, Michael Heide, Lea Berninger, Wieland B Huttner, Vasily Zaburdaev, Nadine L Vastenhouw, Eugene W Myers, David N Drechsel, Jochen C Rink
In light microscopy, refractive index mismatches between media and sample cause spherical aberrations that often limit penetration depth and resolution. Optical clearing techniques can alleviate these mismatches, but they are so far limited to fixed samples. We present Iodixanol as a non-toxic medium supplement that allows refractive index matching in live specimens and thus a substantial improvement of the live-imaging of primary cell cultures, planarians, zebrafish and human cerebral organoids.
July 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686611/yorkie-is-required-to-restrict-the-injury-responses-in-planarians
#10
Alexander Y T Lin, Bret J Pearson
Regeneration requires the precise integration of cues that initiate proliferation, direct differentiation, and ultimately re-pattern tissues to the proper size and scale. Yet how these processes are integrated with wounding responses remains relatively unknown. The freshwater planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, is an ideal model to study the stereotyped proliferative and transcriptional responses to injury due to its high capacity for regeneration. Here, we characterize the effector of the Hippo signalling cascade, yorkie, during planarian regeneration and its role in restricting early injury responses...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682786/application-of-computational-methods-in-planaria-research-a-current-update
#11
Shyamasree Ghosh
Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653810/the-piwi-pirna-pathway-road-to-immortality
#12
Ádám Sturm, András Perczel, Zoltán Ivics, Tibor Vellai
Despite its medical, social, and economic significance, understanding what primarily causes aging, that is, the mechanisms of the aging process, remains a fundamental and fascinating problem in biology. Accumulating evidence indicates that a small RNA-based gene regulatory machinery, the Piwi-piRNA pathway, represents a shared feature of nonaging (potentially immortal) biological systems, including the germline, somatic cancer stem cells, and certain 'lower' eukaryotic organisms like the planarian flatworm and freshwater hydra...
June 27, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626759/sertraline-induces-toxicity-and-behavioral-alterations-in-planarians
#13
Isabela Salvador Thumé, Marcos Emílio Frizzo
Toxicity attributed to sertraline has been demonstrated recently in different cell types and also in some organisms. We investigated the effect of sertraline on planarians, which are considered suitable for investigations in neurotoxicology and currently are widely used as an animal model in neuropharmacological studies. Planarians treated with 10 µM sertraline showed a rapid reduction in their spontaneous movement until they became completely motionless and then showed a series of asynchronous paroxysms (seizures) followed by progressive tissue damage, beginning 48 h after the sertraline treatment, and died approximately 72 h later...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616247/planarian-regeneration-in-space-persistent-anatomical-behavioral-and-bacteriological-changes-induced-by-space-travel
#14
Junji Morokuma, Fallon Durant, Katherine B Williams, Joshua M Finkelstein, Douglas J Blackiston, Twyman Clements, David W Reed, Michael Roberts, Mahendra Jain, Kris Kimel, Sunia A Trauger, Benjamin E Wolfe, Michael Levin
Regeneration is regulated not only by chemical signals but also by physical processes, such as bioelectric gradients. How these may change in the absence of the normal gravitational and geomagnetic fields is largely unknown. Planarian flatworms were moved to the International Space Station for 5 weeks, immediately after removing their heads and tails. A control group in spring water remained on Earth. No manipulation of the planaria occurred while they were in orbit, and space-exposed worms were returned to our laboratory for analysis...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614425/polyploidy-as-a-chromosomal-component-of-stochastic-noise-variable-scalar-multiples-of-the-diploid-chromosome-complement-in-the-invertebrate-species-girardia-schubarti-from-brazil
#15
E G F Benya, A M Leal-Zanchet, J Hauser
Chromosome stoichiometry, a form of genetic plasticity, specifically refers to variation in the standard diploid genomic composition of an individual or species. In the present work, freshwater planarians (Girardia schubarti) were analyzed to recognize variations in chromosomal stoichiometry especially of complete ploidal change between specimens, within specimens and between cells within specimens and any relations they might have with selected components of phenotypic plasticity. Homoploid polyploids for the group reached rational scalar multiples (e...
June 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588444/a-brain-unfixed-unlimited-neurogenesis-and-regeneration-of-the-adult-planarian-nervous-system
#16
David D R Brown, Bret J Pearson
Powerful genetic tools in classical laboratory models have been fundamental to our understanding of how stem cells give rise to complex neural tissues during embryonic development. In contrast, adult neurogenesis in our model systems, if present, is typically constrained to one or a few zones of the adult brain to produce a limited subset of neurons leading to the dogma that the brain is primarily fixed post-development. The freshwater planarian (flatworm) is an invertebrate model system that challenges this dogma...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538159/long-term-stochastic-editing-of-regenerative-anatomy-via-targeting-endogenous-bioelectric-gradients
#17
Fallon Durant, Junji Morokuma, Christopher Fields, Katherine Williams, Dany Spencer Adams, Michael Levin
We show that regenerating planarians' normal anterior-posterior pattern can be permanently rewritten by a brief perturbation of endogenous bioelectrical networks. Temporary modulation of regenerative bioelectric dynamics in amputated trunk fragments of planaria stochastically results in a constant ratio of regenerates with two heads to regenerates with normal morphology. Remarkably, this is shown to be due not to partial penetrance of treatment, but a profound yet hidden alteration to the animals' patterning circuitry...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495872/the-planarian-trpa1-homolog-mediates-extraocular-behavioral-responses-to-near-ultraviolet-light
#18
Taylor R Birkholz, Wendy S Beane
Although light is most commonly thought of as a visual cue, many animals possess mechanisms to detect light outside of the eye for various functions, including predator avoidance, circadian rhythms, phototaxis, and migration. Similar to C. elegans, leeches, and Drosophila larvae, we confirmed that planarians are also capable of detecting and responding to light using extraocular photoreception. We found that when either eyeless or decapitated worms were exposed to near ultraviolet (UV) light, intense wildtype photophobic behaviors were still observed...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487051/planarians-set-new-paths-for-innate-immune-memory
#19
Samuel T Keating, Niels P Riksen, Mihai G Netea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482323/planarians-as-models-of-cadmium-induced-neoplasia-provide-measurable-benchmarks-for-mechanistic-studies
#20
Evelyn B Voura, Melissa J Montalvo, Kevin T Dela Roca, Julia M Fisher, Virginie Defamie, Swami R Narala, Rama Khokha, Margaret E Mulligan, Colleen A Evans
Bioassays of planarian neoplasia highlight the potential of these organisms as useful standards to assess whether environmental toxins such as cadmium promote tumorigenesis. These studies complement other investigations into the exceptional healing and regeneration of planarians - processes that are driven by a population of active stem cells, or neoblasts, which are likely transformed during planarian tumor growth. Our goal was to determine if planarian tumorigenesis assays are amenable to mechanistic studies of cadmium carcinogenesis...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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