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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400424/increased-taxon-sampling-reveals-thousands-of-hidden-orthologs-in-flatworms
#1
Jose M Martin-Duran, Joseph F Ryan, Bruno Vellutini, Kevin Pang, Andreas Hejnol
Gains and losses shape the gene complement of animal lineages and are a fundamental aspect of genomic evolution. Acquiring a comprehensive view of the evolution of gene repertoires is limited by the intrinsic limitations of common sequence similarity searches and available databases. Thus, a subset of the gene complement of an organism consists of hidden orthologs, i.e., those with no apparent homology to sequenced animal lineages - mistakenly considered new genes - but actually representing rapidly evolving orthologs or undetected paralogs...
April 11, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376328/platyhelminthes
#2
James J Collins
Platyhelminthes (flatworms) have captivated the imagination of biologists for centuries. Indeed, planarian flatworms were used as experimental models decades before Caenorhabditis elegans became known as 'the worm'. Although planarians experienced a brief fall from grace, with the advent of molecular tools, planarians, such as Schmidtea mediterranea, have emerged in recent years as powerful models to study the basis of stem cell regulation and tissue regeneration. Flatworms are not just everyone's favorite experimental subjects from high school biology - they also include some of nature's most successful parasites, many of which have plagued humans throughout our history...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338057/the-identification-of-%C3%A1-tryptophan-as-a-bioactive-substance-for-postembryonic-ovarian-development-in-the-planarian-dugesia-ryukyuensis
#3
Kazuya Kobayashi, Takanobu Maezawa, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Hiroyuki Onuki, Yurie Horiguchi, Hiroshi Hirota, Tetsuo Ishida, Kihachiro Horiike, Yasutoshi Agata, Manabu Aoki, Motonori Hoshi, Midori Matsumoto
Many metazoans start germ cell development during embryogenesis, while some metazoans possessing pluripotent stem cells undergo postembryonic germ cell development. The latter reproduce asexually but develop germ cells from pluripotent stem cells or dormant primordial germ cells when they reproduce sexually. Sexual induction of the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis is an important model for postembryonic germ cell development. In this experimental system, hermaphroditic reproductive organs are differentiated in presumptive gonadal regions by the administration of a crude extract from sexual planarians to asexual ones...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331971/an-integrated-view-of-asteroid-regeneration-tissues-cells-and-molecules
#4
REVIEW
Yousra Ben Khadra, Michela Sugni, Cinzia Ferrario, Francesco Bonasoro, Ana Varela Coelho, Pedro Martinez, Maria Daniela Candia Carnevali
The potential for repairing and replacing cells, tissues, organs and body parts is considered a primitive attribute of life shared by all the organisms, even though it may be expressed to a different extent and which is essential for the survival of both individual and whole species. The ability to regenerate is particularly evident and widespread within invertebrates. In spite of the wide availability of experimental models, regeneration has been comprehensively explored in only a few animal systems (i.e., hydrozoans, planarians, urodeles) leaving many other animal groups unexplored...
March 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#5
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324191/planarian-homolog-of-puromycin-sensitive-aminopeptidase-djpsa-is-required-for-brain-regeneration
#6
Suge Wu, Bin Liu, Zuoqing Yuan, Xiufang Zhang, Hong Liu, Qiuxiang Pang, Bosheng Zhao
Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) belongs to the M1 zinc metallopeptidase family. PSA is the most abundant aminopeptidase in the brain and plays a role in the metabolism of neuropeptides including those involved in neurodegeneration. A cDNA DjPsa was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It contains a 639-bp open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 212 amino acids. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that DjPsa is expressed in the brain and ventral nerve cords of intact and regenerating animals and demonstrates a tissue and stage-specific expression pattern of DjPsa in developing embryos and larvae...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322998/14-3-3-%C3%AE-and-14-3-3-%C3%AE-contribute-to-immune-responses-in-planarian-dugesia-japonica
#7
Qingqing Lu, Suge Wu, Hui Zhen, Hongkuan Deng, Qian Song, Kaifu Ma, Zhonghong Cao, Qiuxiang Pang, Bosheng Zhao
14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved acidic proteins that regulate cellular processes. They act as a kind of important signaling molecules taking part in many crucial decisions throughout the development process. We have isolated and characterized two members of the 14-3-3 family, namely, Dj14-3-3 α and Dj14-3-3 ζ in the planarian Dugesia japonica. The Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes encode polypeptides of 260 and 255 amino acids respectively. We have proved that the Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes were especially expressed in the pharynx in adult and regenerating planarians by in situ hybridization and they were not involved in regeneration process...
June 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318417/itfish-enhanced-staining-by-iterative-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization
#8
Richard H Row, Benjamin L Martin
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is an important tool for zebrafish research, particularly when observing the expression of two different genes in the same embryo. Peroxidase-catalyzed deposition of tyramide-conjugated dyes is a widely used and cost-effective approach to performing FISH. A major limitation of the technique is that it does not work well for weakly expressed genes. Here we present a method adapted from planarian research for use in zebrafish that provides a dramatic enhancement of weak staining...
March 20, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302668/sulphated-glycosaminoglycans-support-an-assortment-of-planarian-rhabdite-structures
#9
Matthew J Hayes
Planaria are soft-bodied, bilateral flatworms of the phylum Playhelminthes. They are covered in cilia and use ciliary-gliding to traverse the substratum while hunting. Their body surface is covered in a layer of viscous slime primarily derived from specialised secretory granules known as rhabdites. The slime must somehow stay associated with the surface of the animal in aqueous environments whilst also lubricating the interface of the animal and the surfaces over which the animal moves. The slime prevents damage to the animal's soft body and also contributes to adhesion to the substratum...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292427/planarian-epidermal-stem-cells-respond-to-positional-cues-to-promote-cell-type-diversity
#10
Omri Wurtzel, Isaac M Oderberg, Peter W Reddien
Successful regeneration requires that progenitors of different lineages form the appropriate missing cell types. However, simply generating lineages is not enough. Cells produced by a particular lineage often have distinct functions depending on their position within the organism. How this occurs in regeneration is largely unexplored. In planarian regeneration, new cells arise from a proliferative cell population (neoblasts). We used the planarian epidermal lineage to study how the location of adult progenitor cells results in their acquisition of distinct functional identities...
March 13, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287248/the-pioneer-factor-smed-gata456-1-is-required-for-gut-cell-differentiation-and-maintenance-in-planarians
#11
Alejandro González-Sastre, Nídia De Sousa, Teresa Adell, Emili Saló
How adult stem cells differentiate into different cell types remains one of the most intriguing questions in regenerative medicine. Pioneer factors are transcription factors that can bind to and open chromatin, and are among the first elements involved in cell differentiation. We used the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model system to study the role of the gata456 family of pioneer factors in gut cell differentiation during both regeneration and maintenance of the digestive system. Our findings reveal the presence of two members of the gata456 family in the Schmidtea mediterranea genome; Smed-gata456-1 and Smed-gata456-2...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287246/the-natural-compound-sanguinarine-perturbs-the-regenerative-capabilities-of-planarians
#12
Linda Balestrini, Alessia Di Donfrancesco, Leonardo Rossi, Silvia Marracci, Maria E Isolani, Anna M Bianucci, Renata Batistoni
The natural alkaloid sanguinarine has remarkable therapeutic properties and has been used for centuries as a folk remedy. This compound exhibits interesting anticancer properties and is currently receiving attention as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. Nevertheless, limited information exists regarding its safety for developing organisms. Planarians are an animal model known for their extraordinary stem cell-based regenerative capabilities and are increasingly used for toxicological and pharmacological studies...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277898/planarian-finds-time-less-to-fight-infection
#13
Óscar Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Daniel A Felix, Cristina González-Estévez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267972/regeneration-organizing-the-blastema-in-planarians
#14
Christian P Petersen
The processes that trigger regeneration after injury and link new and old tissue are not fully understood. New findings indicate that, after decapitation, planarians build an organizing center from stem cells at the old midline that directs head patterning and outgrowth.
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245923/eye-absence-does-not-regulate-planarian-stem-cells-during-eye-regeneration
#15
Samuel A LoCascio, Sylvain W Lapan, Peter W Reddien
Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219778/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-multifunctional-placenta-specific-protein-8-in-dugesia-japonica
#16
Qiuxiang Pang, Lili Gao, Yun Bai, Hongkuan Deng, Yu Han, Wenjing Hu, Yanhui Zhang, Shanhang Yuan, Wenping Sun, Yiqian Lu, Xiufang Zhang, Baohua Liu, Bosheng Zhao
Placenta specific protein 8 (Plac8) has been well studied in vertebrates, yet little is known in invertebrates. In this study, a novel Plac8 from the planarian Dugesia japonica was identified and its functions in immune responses and development were characterized. Our results show that Djplac8 was expressed in the pharynx, epidermis and intestine of intact adult planarian. The expression of DjPlac8 increased significantly upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and inhibited the growth of the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), suggesting the role of Plac8 in immune response...
May 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216315/landmarks-in-existing-tissue-at-wounds-are-utilized-to-generate-pattern-in-regenerating-tissue
#17
Isaac M Oderberg, Dayan J Li, M Lucila Scimone, Michael A Gaviño, Peter W Reddien
Regeneration in many organisms involves the formation of a blastema, which differentiates and organizes into the appropriate missing tissues. How blastema pattern is generated and integrated with pre-existing tissues is a central question in the field of regeneration. Planarians are free-living flatworms capable of rapidly regenerating from small body fragments [1]. A cell cluster at the anterior tip of planarian head blastemas (the anterior pole) is required for anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) blastema patterning [2-4]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210751/genotoxicity-evaluation-of-an-urban-river-on-freshwater-planarian-by-rapd-assay
#18
He-Cai Zhang, Tong-Yi Liu, Chang-Ying Shi, Guang-Wen Chen, De-Zeng Liu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an urban river - the Wei River in Xinxiang, China using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay in planarians. The results showed that the total number of polymorphic bands and varied bands in RAPD patterns of treated planarians decreased with the water sample site far away from the sewage outlet of a factory. In addition, the genome template stability of treated groups decreased and the degree of the decline was negatively related to the distance between the sample site and the sewage outlet, suggesting that the Wei River water had genotoxicity effects on planarians and strengthening the management of the Wei River was necessary...
April 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171748/antagonistic-self-organizing-patterning-systems-control-maintenance-and-regeneration-of-the-anteroposterior-axis-in-planarians
#19
Tom Stückemann, James Patrick Cleland, Steffen Werner, Hanh Thi-Kim Vu, Robert Bayersdorf, Shang-Yun Liu, Benjamin Friedrich, Frank Jülicher, Jochen Christian Rink
Planarian flatworms maintain their body plan in the face of constant internal turnover and can regenerate from arbitrary tissue fragments. Both phenomena require self-maintaining and self-organizing patterning mechanisms, the molecular mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. We show that a morphogenic gradient of canonical Wnt signaling patterns gene expression along the planarian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. Our results demonstrate that gradient formation likely occurs autonomously in the tail and that an autoregulatory module of Wnt-mediated Wnt expression both shapes the gradient at steady state and governs its re-establishment during regeneration...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137894/integrins-are-required-for-tissue-organization-and-restriction-of-neurogenesis-in-regenerating-planarians
#20
Florian Seebeck, Martin März, Anna-Wiebke Meyer, Hanna Reuter, Matthias C Vogg, Martin Stehling, Karina Mildner, Dagmar Zeuschner, Franziska Rabert, Kerstin Bartscherer
Tissue regeneration depends on proliferative cells and on cues that regulate cell division, differentiation, patterning and the restriction of these processes once regeneration is complete. In planarians, flatworms with high regenerative potential, muscle cells express some of these instructive cues. Here, we show that members of the integrin family of adhesion molecules are required for the integrity of regenerating tissues, including the musculature. Remarkably, in regenerating β1-integrin RNAi planarians, we detected increased numbers of mitotic cells and progenitor cell types, as well as a reduced ability of stem cells and lineage-restricted progenitor cells to accumulate at wound sites...
March 1, 2017: Development
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