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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210751/genotoxicity-evaluation-of-an-urban-river-on-freshwater-planarian-by-rapd-assay
#1
He-Cai Zhang, Tong-Yi Liu, Chang-Ying Shi, Guang-Wen Chen, De-Zeng Liu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an urban river - the Wei River in Xinxiang, China using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay in planarians. The results showed that the total number of polymorphic bands and varied bands in RAPD patterns of treated planarians decreased with the water sample site far away from the sewage outlet of a factory. In addition, the genome template stability of treated groups decreased and the degree of the decline was negatively related to the distance between the sample site and the sewage outlet, suggesting that the Wei River water had genotoxicity effects on planarians and strengthening the management of the Wei River was necessary...
February 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171748/antagonistic-self-organizing-patterning-systems-control-maintenance-and-regeneration-of-the-anteroposterior-axis-in-planarians
#2
Tom Stückemann, James Patrick Cleland, Steffen Werner, Hanh Thi-Kim Vu, Robert Bayersdorf, Shang-Yun Liu, Benjamin Friedrich, Frank Jülicher, Jochen Christian Rink
Planarian flatworms maintain their body plan in the face of constant internal turnover and can regenerate from arbitrary tissue fragments. Both phenomena require self-maintaining and self-organizing patterning mechanisms, the molecular mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. We show that a morphogenic gradient of canonical Wnt signaling patterns gene expression along the planarian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. Our results demonstrate that gradient formation likely occurs autonomously in the tail and that an autoregulatory module of Wnt-mediated Wnt expression both shapes the gradient at steady state and governs its re-establishment during regeneration...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137894/integrins-are-required-for-tissue-organization-and-restriction-of-neurogenesis-in-regenerating-planarians
#3
Florian Seebeck, Martin März, Anna-Wiebke Meyer, Hanna Reuter, Matthias C Vogg, Martin Stehling, Karina Mildner, Dagmar Zeuschner, Franziska Rabert, Kerstin Bartscherer
Tissue regeneration depends on proliferative cells and on cues that regulate cell division, differentiation, patterning and the restriction of these processes once regeneration is complete. In planarians, flatworms with high regenerative potential, muscle cells express some of these instructive cues. Here we show that members of the Integrin family of adhesion molecules are required for the integrity of regenerating tissues, including the musculature. Remarkably, in regenerating β1-integrin RNAi planarians, we detected increased numbers of mitotic cells and progenitor cell types, as well as a reduced ability of stem cells and lineage restricted progenitor cells to accumulate at wound sites...
January 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126842/integrin-suppresses-neurogenesis-and-regulates-brain-tissue-assembly-in-planarian-regeneration
#4
Nicolle A Bonar, Christian P Petersen
Animals capable of adult regeneration require specific signaling to control injury-induced cell proliferation, specification and patterning, but comparatively little is known about how the regeneration blastema assembles differentiating cells into well-structured functional tissues. Using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model, we identify β1-integrin as a critical regulator of blastema architecture. β1-integrin(RNAi) animals formed small head blastemas with severe tissue disorganization, including ectopic neural spheroids containing differentiated neurons normally found in distinct organs...
January 26, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072387/embryonic-origin-of-adult-stem-cells-required-for-tissue-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#5
Erin L Davies, Kai Lei, Christopher W Seidel, Amanda E Kroesen, Sean A McKinney, Longhua Guo, Sofia Mc Robb, Eric J Ross, Kirsten Gotting, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors that are required for the production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during Schmidtea mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064427/biochemical-and-molecular-study-of-carpobrotus-edulis-bioactive-properties-and-their-effects-on-dugesia-sicula-turbellaria-tricladida-regeneration
#6
Emna Meddeb, Mohamed Charni, Tesnime Ghazouani, Autilia Cozzolino, Florinda Fratianni, Faten Raboudi, Filomena Nazzaro, Sami Fattouch
The traditional medicinal properties of Carpobrotus edulis are well recognized, particularly in Tunisia where it is used for wound healing. Thus, in this study, biochemical and molecular properties of its leaves' bioactive aqueous-acetone extract were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract was estimated to be 184 ± 5 mg/100 g of fresh matter (FM). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic profile was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) and showed that chlorogenic acid was the major compound (43...
January 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051908/antimicrobial-capacity-of-the-freshwater-planarians-against-s-aureus-is-under-the-control-of-timeless
#7
Landry Laure Tsoumtsa, Cedric Torre, Virginie Trouplin, Benjamin Coiffard, Gregory Gimenez, Jean-Louis Mege, Eric Ghigo
Planarians, which are non-parasitic flatworms, are highly resistant to bacterial infections. To better understand the mechanisms underlying this resistance, we investigated the role of the circadian machinery in the anti-bacterial response of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We identified Smed-Tim from S. mediterranea as a homolog of the mammalian clock gene Tim. We showed via RNA interference that Smed-Tim is required for the anti-microbial activities of Schmidtea mediterranea against Staphylococcus aureus infection during the light/dark cycle...
January 4, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997336/transcriptional-signatures-of-somatic-neoblasts-and-germline-cells-in-macrostomum-lignano
#8
Magda Grudniewska, Stijn Mouton, Daniil Simanov, Frank Beltman, Margriet Grelling, Katrien de Mulder, Wibowo Arindrarto, Philipp M Weissert, Stefan van der Elst, Eugene Berezikov
The regeneration-capable flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a powerful model organism to study the biology of stem cells in vivo. As a flatworm amenable to transgenesis, it complements the historically used planarian flatworm models, such as Schmidtea mediterranea. However, information on the transcriptome and markers of stem cells in M. lignano is limited. We generated a de novo transcriptome assembly and performed the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in the proliferating cells of M. lignano, represented by somatic stem cells, called neoblasts, and germline cells...
December 20, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990564/planarian-cholinesterase-in-vitro-characterization-of-an-evolutionarily-ancient-enzyme-to-study-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity-and-reactivation
#9
Danielle Hagstrom, Hideto Hirokawa, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has recently emerged as an animal model for developmental neurotoxicology and found to be sensitive to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. While previous activity staining of D. japonica, which possess a discrete cholinergic nervous system, has shown acylthiocholine catalysis, it is unknown whether this is accomplished through an acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or a hybrid esterase and how OP exposure affects esterase activity. Here, we show that the majority of D...
December 18, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928761/proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-contribution-of-tgf%C3%AE-smad4-signaling-pathway-to-cell-differentiation-during-planarian-tail-regeneration
#10
Xiaoguang Chen, Cunshuan Xu
After planarian tail is cut off, posterior end of the remaining fragment will regenerate a new tail within about 1 week. However, many details of this process remain unclear up to date. For this reason, we performed the dynamic proteomic analysis of the regenerating tail fragments at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h post-amputation (hpa). Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analysis, a total of 1088 peptides were identified as significantly changed between tail-cutting groups and 0-h group, 482 of which have identifiable protein names...
December 7, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924577/analyzing-perk-activation-during-planarian-regeneration
#11
Susanna Fraguas, Yoshihiko Umesono, Kiyokazu Agata, Francesc Cebrià
Planarians are an ideal model in which to study stem cell-based regeneration. After amputation, planarian pluripotent stem cells surrounding the wound proliferate to produce the regenerative blastema, in which they differentiate into the missing tissues and structures. Recent independent studies in planarians have shown that Smed-egfr-3, a gene encoding a homologue of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors, and DjerkA, which encodes an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), may control cell differentiation and blastema growth...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909700/dataset-for-a-dugesia-japonica-de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-utilized-for-defining-the-voltage-gated-like-ion-channel-superfamily
#12
John D Chan, Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Magdalena Z Zarowiecki, Matthew Berriman, Jonathan S Marchant
This data article provides a transcriptomic resource for the free living planarian flatworm Dugesia japonica related to the research article entitled 'Utilizing the planarian voltage-gated ion channel transcriptome to resolve a role for a Ca(2+) channel in neuromuscular function and regeneration (J.D. Chan, D. Zhang, X. Liu, M. Zarowiecki, M. Berriman, J.S. Marchant, 2016) [1]. Data provided in this submission comprise sequence information for the unfiltered de novo assembly, the filtered assembly and a curated analysis of voltage-gated like (VGL) ion channel sequences mined from this resource...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871925/identification-and-characterization-of-a-phospholipid-scramblase-encoded-by-planarian-dugesia-japonica
#13
Yu Han, Ao Li, Lili Gao, Weiwei Wu, Hongkuan Deng, Wenjing Hu, Na Li, Shimin Sun, Xiufang Zhang, Bosheng Zhao, Baohua Liu, Qiuxiang Pang
Phospholipid scramblases (PLSCRs) are the conserved calcium-binding, type II transmembrane proteins synthesized in all eukaryotic organisms. In mammals, these proteins play essential roles in various physiological processes, especially in the immune responses. However, the existence of PLSCRs and their biological functions in planarian are still unknown at present. In this study, a new member of PLSCRs was identified in planarian Dugesia japonica (D. japonica), named DjPLSCR. The sequence analysis revealed that it contains an opening reading frame consisting of 726bp encoding a putative protein of 241 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of ~28...
February 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864883/neuronal-sources-of-hedgehog-modulate-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-planarian-brain
#14
Ko W Currie, Alyssa M Molinaro, Bret J Pearson
The asexual freshwater planarian is a constitutive adult, whose central nervous system (CNS) is in a state of constant homeostatic neurogenesis. However, very little is known about the extrinsic signals that act on planarian stem cells to modulate rates of neurogenesis. We have identified two planarian homeobox transcription factors, Smed-nkx2.1 and Smed-arx, which are required for the maintenance of cholinergic, GABAergic, and octopaminergic neurons in the planarian CNS. These very same neurons also produce the planarian hedgehog ligand (Smed-hh), which appears to communicate with brain-adjacent stem cells to promote normal levels of neurogenesis...
November 19, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845240/behavioral-effects-of-splenda-equal-and-sucrose-clues-from-planarians-on-sweeteners
#15
Kevin Ouyang, Sunil Nayak, Young Lee, Erin Kim, Michael Wu, Christopher S Tallarida, Scott M Rawls
Sweetened diets share commonalities with drugs of abuse, but studies comparing behavioral effects of different sweeteners are lacking. Common table sugar produces rewarding and withdrawal effects in planarians. We postulated that Splenda and Equal would produce similar responses and used a tetrad of behavioral assays to test this hypothesis. Acute exposure to a relatively high concentration (10%) of each sweetener produced stereotyped responses (C-shapes) and reduced motility, with Equal producing greater motor effects than sucrose or Splenda...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801429/regulatory-rnas-in-planarians
#16
REVIEW
Kamila Pawlicka, Patrick M Perrigue, Jan Barciszewski
The full scope of regulatory RNA evolution and function in epigenetic processes is still not well understood. The development of planarian flatworms to be used as a simple model organism for research has shown a great potential to address gaps in the knowledge in this field of study. The genomes of planarians encode a wide array of regulatory RNAs that function in gene regulation. Here, we review planarians as a suitable model organism for the identification and function of regulatory RNAs.
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800171/temporal-regulation-of-planarian-eye-regeneration
#17
Michelle E Deochand, Taylor R Birkholz, Wendy S Beane
While tissue regeneration is typically studied using standard injury models, in nature injuries vary greatly in the amount and location of tissues lost. Planarians have the unique ability to regenerate from many different injuries (including from tiny fragments with no brain), allowing us to study the effects of different injuries on regeneration timelines. We followed the timing of regeneration for one organ, the eye, after multiple injury types that involved tissue loss (single- and double-eye ablation, and decapitation) in Schmidtea mediterranea...
August 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771293/utilizing-the-planarian-voltage-gated-ion-channel-transcriptome-to-resolve-a-role-for-a-ca-2-channel-in-neuromuscular-function-and-regeneration
#18
John D Chan, Dan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Magdalena Zarowiecki, Matthew Berriman, Jonathan S Marchant
The robust regenerative capacity of planarian flatworms depends on the orchestration of signaling events from early wounding responses through the stem cell enacted differentiative outcomes that restore appropriate tissue types. Acute signaling events in excitable cells play an important role in determining regenerative polarity, rationalized by the discovery that sub-epidermal muscle cells express critical patterning genes known to control regenerative outcomes. These data imply a dual conductive (neuromuscular signaling) and instructive (anterior-posterior patterning) role for Ca(2+) signaling in planarian regeneration...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737903/localization-of-planarian-%C3%AE-catenin-1-reveals-multiple-roles-during-anterior-posterior-regeneration-and-organogenesis
#19
Miquel Sureda-Gómez, José M Martín-Durán, Teresa Adell
The β-catenin-dependent Wnt pathway exerts multiple context-dependent roles in embryonic and adult tissues. In planarians, β-catenin-1 is thought to specify posterior identities through the generation of an anteroposterior gradient. However, the existence of such a gradient has not been directly demonstrated. Here, we use a specific polyclonal antibody to demonstrate that nuclear β-CATENIN-1 exists as an anteroposterior gradient from the pre-pharyngeal region to the tail of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa High levels in the posterior region steadily decrease towards the pre-pharyngeal region but then increase again in the head region...
November 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628751/photokinesis-and-djopsin-gene-expression-analysis-during-the-regeneration-of-planarian-eyes
#20
Zimei Dong, Yanqing Yuwen, Yingxu Sima, Yanping Dong, Huina Zhan, Guangwen Chen, Dezeng Liu
Planarians are the ideal models for studying eye development with the simple eye structure and exceptionally rapid regeneration. Here, we observed the eye morphogenesis, photophobic behavior, spectral sensitivity, and expression pattern of Djopsin in planarian Dugesia japonica. The results showed that: (1) Djopsin encoding the putative protein belonged to rhabdomeric opsins group and displayed a high conservation during animal evolution; (2) planarians displayed diverse photophobic response to different visible wavelength and were more sensitive to the light blue (495 nm) and yellow (635 nm); (3) the morphogenesis and functional recovery of eyes were related to the expression pattern of Djopsin during head regeneration; (4) Djopsin gene plays a major role in functional recovery during eyes regeneration and visual system maintenance in adult planarians...
September 14, 2016: Integrative Zoology
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