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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042260/pldt-planarian-light-dark-test-an-invertebrate-assay-to-quantify-defensive-responding-and-study-anxiety-like-effects
#1
Ashenafi Mebratu Zewde, Frances Yu, Sunil Nayak, Christopher Tallarida, Allen B Reitz, Lynn G Kirby, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND: Planarians, like rodents, instinctively spend more time in dark versus light environments when given a choice. This behavioral phenomenon is called negative phototaxis, which may reflect defensive responding related to an anxiety-like phenotype. NEW METHOD: We propose a planarian light/dark test, designated PLDT, to predict anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects. Experimentally, we placed a planarian at the midline of a Petri dish, containing test compound or water, that was split evenly into light and dark compartments and determined time spent in the light over 10min...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978744/a-dynamically-diluted-alignment-model-reveals-the-impact-of-cell-turnover-on-the-plasticity-of-tissue-polarity-patterns
#2
Karl B Hoffmann, Anja Voss-Böhme, Jochen C Rink, Lutz Brusch
The polarization of cells and tissues is fundamental for tissue morphogenesis during biological development and regeneration. A deeper understanding of biological polarity pattern formation can be gained from the consideration of pattern reorganization in response to an opposing instructive cue, which we here consider using the example of experimentally inducible body axis inversions in planarian flatworms. We define a dynamically diluted alignment model linking three processes: entrainment of cell polarity by a global signal, local cell-cell coupling aligning polarity among neighbours, and cell turnover replacing polarized cells by initially unpolarized cells...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976975/a-c-terminally-truncated-form-of-%C3%AE-catenin-acts-as-a-novel-regulator-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-planarians
#3
Hanxia Su, Miquel Sureda-Gomez, Neus Rabaneda-Lombarte, Maria Gelabert, Jianlei Xie, Wei Wu, Teresa Adell
β-Catenin, the core element of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is a multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved protein which performs essential roles in a variety of developmental and homeostatic processes. Despite its crucial roles, the mechanisms that control its context-specific functions in time and space remain largely unknown. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been extensively studied in planarians, flatworms with the ability to regenerate and remodel the whole body, providing a 'whole animal' developmental framework to approach this question...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973880/mechanics-dictate-where-and-how-freshwater-planarians-fission
#4
Paul T Malinowski, Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Kelson J Kaj, Edward Ronan, Alexander Groisman, Patrick H Diamond, Eva-Maria S Collins
Asexual freshwater planarians reproduce by tearing themselves into two pieces by a process called binary fission. The resulting head and tail pieces regenerate within about a week, forming two new worms. Understanding this process of ripping oneself into two parts poses a challenging biomechanical problem. Because planarians stop "doing it" at the slightest disturbance, this remained a centuries-old puzzle. We focus on Dugesia japonica fission and show that it proceeds in three stages: a local constriction ("waist formation"), pulsation-which increases waist longitudinal stresses-and transverse rupture...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963966/systematic-review-of-biological-effects-of-exposure-to-static-electric-fields-part-ii-invertebrates-and-plants
#5
REVIEW
Kristina Schmiedchen, Anne-Kathrin Petri, Sarah Driessen, William H Bailey
BACKGROUND: The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954851/bioelectric-gene-and-reaction-networks-computational-modelling-of-genetic-biochemical-and-bioelectrical-dynamics-in-pattern-regulation
#6
Alexis Pietak, Michael Levin
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) describe interactions between gene products and transcription factors that control gene expression. In combination with reaction-diffusion models, GRNs have enhanced comprehension of biological pattern formation. However, although it is well known that biological systems exploit an interplay of genetic and physical mechanisms, instructive factors such as transmembrane potential (Vmem) have not been integrated into full GRN models. Here we extend regulatory networks to include bioelectric signalling, developing a novel synthesis: the bioelectricity-integrated gene and reaction (BIGR) network...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893948/an-x-ray-shielded-irradiation-assay-reveals-emt-transcription-factors-control-pluripotent-adult-stem-cell-migration-in-vivo-in-planarians
#7
Prasad Abnave, Ellen Aboukhatwa, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, James Thompson, Mark A Hill, A Aziz Aboobaker
Migration of stem cells underpins the physiology of metazoan animals. For tissues to be maintained, stem cells and their progeny must migrate and differentiate in the correct positions. This need is even more acute after tissue damage by wounding or pathogenic infections. Inappropriate migration also underpins the formation of metastasis. Despite this, few mechanistic studies address stem cell migration during repair or homeostasis in adult tissues. Here, we present a shielded X-ray irradiation assay that allows us to follow stem cell migration in planarians...
September 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893535/down-regulate-of-djrfc2-causes-tissues-hypertrophy-during-planarian-regeneration
#8
Qi Guo, Guixia Zhao, Jiajia Ni, Yanan Guo, Yizhe Zhang, Qingnan Tian, Shoutao Zhang
Planarians are an ideal model organism for regeneration research due to their amazing ability to regenerate. DNA replication is crucial for genome stability. Replication factor C (RFC), which is a replication factor C-like complex and plays an important role during DNA replication in eukaryotes, has been reported as a wound response factor during planarian regeneration. However, how RFC controls regeneration in planarians by regulating DNA replication remains to be explained. Here, we used a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in intact and regenerated planarians...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869924/methylisothiazolinone-toxicity-and-inhibition-of-wound-healing-and-regeneration-in-planaria
#9
Alanna V Van Huizen, Ai-Sun Tseng, Wendy S Beane
Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) is a common biocide used in cosmetic and industrial settings. Studies have demonstrated that MIT is a human sensitizer, to the extent that in 2013 MIT was named allergen of the year. Recently, we showed that MIT exposure in Xenopus laevis (the African clawed frog) inhibits wound healing and tail regeneration. However, it is unknown whether MIT affects these processes in other animals. Here, we investigated the effects of MIT exposure in planaria-non-parasitic freshwater flatworms able to regenerate all tissues after injury...
August 26, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851936/putrescine-independent-wound-response-phenotype-is-produced-by-odc-like-rnai-in-planarians
#10
Lucia Cassella, Alessandra Salvetti, Paola Iacopetti, Chiara Ippolito, Claudio Ghezzani, Gregory Gimenez, Eric Ghigo, Leonardo Rossi
Despite increasing evidence indicates polyamines as a convergence point for signaling pathways, including cell growth and differentiation, a unifying concept to interpret their role is still missing. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery, and the demonstration of the existence of multiple ODC paralogs, lacking decarboxylation activity, suggests additional layers of complexity to the intricate ODC regulatory pathway...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844665/djhnrnpa2-b1-like-gene-is-required-for-planarian-regeneration-and-tissue-homeostasis
#11
Zimei Dong, Tong Yang, Yibo Yang, He Dou, Guangwen Chen
The hnRNPs play important roles in physiological processes in eukaryotic organisms by regulation of pre-mRNA after transcription, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA stability, DNA replication and repair and telomere maintenance and so on. However, it remains unclear about the specific functions of these genes. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of hnRNPA2/B1-like was first cloned from Dugesia japonica, and its roles were investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results showed that: (1) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like was highly conserved during animal evolution; (2) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like mRNA was mainly distributed each side of the body in intact worms and regenerative blastemas, and its expression levels were up-regulated on days 0 and 5 after amputation; (3) the intact and regenerating worms gradually lysed or lost regeneration capacity after DjhnRNPA2/B1-like RNAi; and (4) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like expression is induced by temperature and heavy metal ion stress...
October 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818620/secrets-from-immortal-worms-what-can-we-learn-about-biological-ageing-from-the-planarian-model-system
#12
REVIEW
Sounak Sahu, Anish Dattani, A Aziz Aboobaker
Understanding how some animals are immortal and avoid the ageing process is important. We currently know very little about how they achieve this. Research with genetic model systems has revealed the existence of conserved genetic pathways and molecular processes that affect longevity. Most of these established model organisms have relatively short lifespans. Here we consider the use of planarians, with an immortal life-history that is able to entirely avoid the ageing process. These animals are capable of profound feats of regeneration fueled by a population of adult stem cells called neoblasts...
October 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812561/widespread-maintenance-of-genome-heterozygosity-in-schmidtea%C3%A2-mediterranea
#13
Longhua Guo, Shasha Zhang, Boris Rubinstein, Eric Ross, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Loss of heterozygosity through inbreeding or mitotic errors leads to reductions in progeny survival and fertility. Loss of heterozygosity is particularly exacerbated in geographically isolated populations, which are prone to inbreeding depression and faster rates of extinction. The regenerative capacities of the hermaphroditic biotype of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea allowed us to perform a systematic genetic test of Mendelian segregation and study the loss of heterozygosity in the Spiralian superclade in general and planarians in particular...
December 5, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807897/cytoplasmic-poly-a-binding-protein-critically-regulates-epidermal-maintenance-and-turnover-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#14
Dhiru Bansal, Jahnavi Kulkarni, Kavana Nadahalli, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Srikar Krishna, Vidyanand Sasidharan, Jini Geo, Shilpa Dilipkumar, Renu Pasricha, Akash Gulyani, Srikala Raghavan, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Identifying key cellular events that facilitate stem cell function and tissue organization is crucial for understanding the process of regeneration. Planarians are powerful model system to study regeneration and stem cell (neoblast) function. Here, using planaria, we show that the initial events of regeneration, such as epithelialization and epidermal organization are critically regulated by a novel cytoplasmic poly A-binding protein, SMED-PABPC2. Knockdown of smed-pabpc2 leads to defects in epidermal lineage specification, disorganization of epidermis and ECM, and deregulated wound healing, resulting in the selective failure of neoblast proliferation near the wound region...
September 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807895/the-mir-124-family-of-micrornas-is-crucial-for-regeneration-of-the-brain-and-visual-system-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#15
Vidyanand Sasidharan, Srujan Marepally, Sarah A Elliott, Srishti Baid, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Nishtha Nayyar, Dhiru Bansal, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado, Praveen Kumar Vemula, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Brain regeneration in planarians is mediated by precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression and is crucial for multiple aspects of neurogenesis. However, the mechanisms underpinning the gene regulation essential for brain regeneration are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the miR-124 family of microRNAs in planarian brain regeneration. The miR-124 family (miR-124) is highly conserved in animals and regulates neurogenesis by facilitating neural differentiation, yet its role in neural wiring and brain organization is not known...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800531/changes-on-lipid-peroxidation-enzymatic-activities-and-gene-expression-in-planarian-dugesia-japonica-following-exposure-to-perfluorooctanoic-acid
#16
Zuoqing Yuan, Zili Miao, Xiaoning Gong, Baoying Zhao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongdou Ma, Jianyong Zhang, Bosheng Zhao
We investigated perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced stress response in planarians. We administered different concentrations of PFOA to planarians for up to 10 d. PFOA exposure resulted in significant concentration-dependent elevations in lipid peroxidation, glutathione S-transferase and caspase-3 protease activities, and a significant decline in glutathione peroxidase activities compared with control groups. Exposure to PFOA significantly up-regulated the heat shock proteins hsp70 and hsp90, and p53, and down-regulated hsp40 compared with controls...
August 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782018/hierarchies-in-light-sensing-and-dynamic-interactions-between-ocular-and-extraocular-sensory-networks-in-a-flatworm
#17
Nishan Shettigar, Asawari Joshi, Rimple Dalmeida, Rohini Gopalkrishna, Anirudh Chakravarthy, Siddharth Patnaik, Manoj Mathew, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Akash Gulyani
Light sensing has independently evolved multiple times under diverse selective pressures but has been examined only in a handful among the millions of light-responsive organisms. Unsurprisingly, mechanistic insights into how differential light processing can cause distinct behavioral outputs are limited. We show how an organism can achieve complex light processing with a simple "eye" while also having independent but mutually interacting light sensing networks. Although planarian flatworms lack wavelength-specific eye photoreceptors, a 25 nm change in light wavelength is sufficient to completely switch their phototactic behavior...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774726/girardia-dorotocephala-transcriptome-sequence-assembly-and-validation-through-characterization-of-piwi-homologs-and-stem-cell-progeny-markers
#18
Eugene Matthew P Almazan, Sydney L Lesko, Michael P Markey, Labib Rouhana
Planarian flatworms are popular models for the study of regeneration and stem cell biology in vivo. Technical advances and increased availability of genetic information have fueled the discovery of molecules responsible for stem cell pluripotency and regeneration in flatworms. Unfortunately, most of the planarian research performed worldwide utilizes species that are not natural habitants of North America, which limits their availability to newcomer laboratories and impedes their distribution for educational activities...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757112/the-abrogation-of-condensin-function-provides-independent-evidence-for-defining-the-self-renewing-population-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Alvina G Lai, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Prasad Abnave, Sounak Sahu, A Aziz Aboobaker
Heterogeneity of planarian stem cells has been categorised on the basis of single cell expression analyses and subsequent experiments to demonstrate lineage relationships. Some data suggest that despite heterogeneity in gene expression amongst cells in the cell cycle, in fact only one sub-population, known as sigma neoblasts, can self-renew. Without the tools to perform live in vivo lineage analysis, we instead took an alternative approach to provide independent evidence for defining the self-renewing stem cell population...
July 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708059/a-tunable-refractive-index-matching-medium-for-live-imaging-cells-tissues-and-model-organisms
#20
Tobias Boothe, Lennart Hilbert, Michael Heide, Lea Berninger, Wieland B Huttner, Vasily Zaburdaev, Nadine L Vastenhouw, Eugene W Myers, David N Drechsel, Jochen C Rink
In light microscopy, refractive index mismatches between media and sample cause spherical aberrations that often limit penetration depth and resolution. Optical clearing techniques can alleviate these mismatches, but they are so far limited to fixed samples. We present Iodixanol as a non-toxic medium supplement that allows refractive index matching in live specimens and thus substantially improves image quality in live-imaged primary cell cultures, planarians, zebrafish and human cerebral organoids.
July 14, 2017: ELife
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