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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455353/lethal-and-sub-lethal-effects-of-cyproconazole-on-freshwater-organisms-a-case-study-with-chironomus-riparius-and-dugesia-tigrina
#1
Althiéris S Saraiva, Renato A Sarmento, Oksana Golovko, Tomas Randak, João L T Pestana, Amadeu M V M Soares
The fungicide cyproconazole (CPZ) inhibits the biosynthesis of ergosterol, an essential sterol component in fungal cell membrane and can also affect non-target organisms by its inhibitory effects on P450 monooxygenases. The predicted environmental concentration of CPZ is up to 49.05 μg/L and 145.89 μg/kg in surface waters and sediments, respectively, and information about CPZ toxicity towards non-target aquatic organisms is still limited. This study aimed to address the lack of ecotoxicological data for CPZ, and thus, an evaluation of the lethal and sub-lethal effects of CPZ was performed using two freshwater invertebrates (the midge Chironomus riparius and the planarian Dugesia tigrina)...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453392/a-novel-flatworm-specific-gene-implicated-in-reproduction-in-macrostomum-lignano
#2
Magda Grudniewska, Stijn Mouton, Margriet Grelling, Anouk H G Wolters, Jeroen Kuipers, Ben N G Giepmans, Eugene Berezikov
Free-living flatworms, such as the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, are extensively used as model organisms to study stem cells and regeneration. The majority of flatworm studies so far focused on broadly conserved genes. However, investigating what makes these animals different is equally informative for understanding its biology and might have biomedical value. We re-analyzed the neoblast and germline transcriptional signatures of the flatworm M. lignano using an improved transcriptome assembly and show that germline-enriched genes have a high fraction of flatworm-specific genes...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442318/lophotrochozoan-zic-genes
#3
Jun Aruga
Lophotrochozoa is a sister taxon of Ecdysozoa in the Protostomia that includes mollusks, annelids, brachiopods, and platyhelminths. Recent studies have clarified the structure, expression, and roles of lophotrochozoan Zic family genes. Zic genes in oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex (freshwater sludge worm) and polychaete annelid Capitella teleta (bristle worm) are commonly expressed in a subset of developing brain and mesoderm derivatives. The latter includes the naïve mesoderm and the associated chaetal sacs in each body segment, although the segmentation processes differ between the two species...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405473/inhibition-of-dr-dut-gene-causes-dna-damage-in-planarian
#4
Md Shahanoor Alam, Hideaki Moriyama, Midori Matsumoto
The DUT gene encodes Deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase), which is involved in nucleotide metabolism. dUTPase prevents uracil misincorporation in DNA by balancing the intracellular ratio between dUTP and dTTP. This study aimed to investigate the role of Dr-dut gene in the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis by assessing the consequences of Dr-dut silencing on known phenomena, including regeneration following amputation and radiation damage. We functionally disrupted planarian Dr-dut mRNA by feeding RNAi-containing food to animals...
February 5, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364871/the-genome-of-schmidtea-mediterranea-and-the-evolution-of-core-cellular-mechanisms
#5
Markus Alexander Grohme, Siegfried Schloissnig, Andrei Rozanski, Martin Pippel, George Robert Young, Sylke Winkler, Holger Brandl, Ian Henry, Andreas Dahl, Sean Powell, Michael Hiller, Eugene Myers, Jochen Christian Rink
The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is an important model for stem cell research and regeneration, but adequate genome resources for this species have been lacking. Here we report a highly contiguous genome assembly of S. mediterranea, using long-read sequencing and a de novo assembler (MARVEL) enhanced for low-complexity reads. The S. mediterranea genome is highly polymorphic and repetitive, and harbours a novel class of giant retroelements. Furthermore, the genome assembly lacks a number of highly conserved genes, including critical components of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint, but planarians maintain checkpoint function...
January 24, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357350/hippo-signaling-controls-cell-cycle-and-restricts-cell-plasticity-in-planarians
#6
Nídia de Sousa, Gustavo Rodríguez-Esteban, Jose Ignacio Rojo-Laguna, Emili Saló, Teresa Adell
The Hippo pathway plays a key role in regulating cell turnover in adult tissues, and abnormalities in this pathway are consistently associated with human cancers. Hippo was initially implicated in the control of cell proliferation and death, and its inhibition is linked to the expansion of stem cells and progenitors, leading to larger organ size and tumor formation. To understand the mechanism by which Hippo directs cell renewal and promotes stemness, we studied its function in planarians. These stem cell-based organisms are ideal models for the analysis of the complex cellular events underlying tissue renewal in the whole organism...
January 22, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356836/chronic-toxicity-of-ferric-iron-for-north-american-aquatic-organisms-derivation-of-a-chronic-water-quality-criterion-using-single-species-and-mesocosm-data
#7
Pete Cadmus, Stephen F Brinkman, Melynda K May
Iron is a common pollutant in waters near coal and hard rock mine disturbances. The current 1000 µg/L total recoverable chronic criterion for iron (Fe) for protection of aquatic life in the United States was developed using very limited data in 1976 and has not been revised since. To develop a more scientifically based criterion, several chronic laboratory toxicity experiments (> 30 days) were conducted with ferric Fe at circumneutral pH on a taxonomically diverse group of organisms including brown trout (Salmo trutta), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), boreal toad tadpoles (Bufo boreas), the oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus, the mayfly Hexagenia limbata, and the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala...
January 22, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337984/anteroposterior-axis-patterning-by-early-canonical-wnt-signaling-during-hemichordate-development
#8
Sébastien Darras, Jens H Fritzenwanker, Kevin R Uhlinger, Ellyn Farrelly, Ariel M Pani, Imogen A Hurley, Rachael P Norris, Michelle Osovitz, Mark Terasaki, Mike Wu, Jochanan Aronowicz, Marc Kirschner, John C Gerhart, Christopher J Lowe
The Wnt family of secreted proteins has been proposed to play a conserved role in early specification of the bilaterian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. This hypothesis is based predominantly on data from vertebrate embryogenesis as well as planarian regeneration and homeostasis, indicating that canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling endows cells with positional information along the A/P axis. Outside of these phyla, there is strong support for a conserved role of cWnt signaling in the repression of anterior fates, but little comparative support for a conserved role in promotion of posterior fates...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299321/space-travel-has-effects-on-planarian-regeneration-that-cannot-be-explained-by-a-null-hypothesis
#9
Michael Levin, Junji Morokuma, Joshua Finkelstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299320/bipolarity-in-planarians-is-not-induced-by-space-travel
#10
Ronald Sluys, Giacinta A Stocchino
Available evidence strongly suggests that alternative, Earth-bound explanations should be sought first for the occurrence of a single bipolar planarian flatworm returning from space travel. Double-headed worms have been amply documented as arising under experimental conditions as well as spontaneously in stock cultures of planarians.
August 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273738/generic-wound-signals-initiate-regeneration-in-missing-tissue-contexts
#11
Suthira Owlarn, Felix Klenner, David Schmidt, Franziska Rabert, Antonio Tomasso, Hanna Reuter, Medhanie A Mulaw, Sören Moritz, Luca Gentile, Gilbert Weidinger, Kerstin Bartscherer
Despite the identification of numerous regulators of regeneration in different animal models, a fundamental question remains: why do some wounds trigger the full regeneration of lost body parts, whereas others resolve by mere healing? By selectively inhibiting regeneration initiation, but not the formation of a wound epidermis, here we create headless planarians and finless zebrafish. Strikingly, in both missing-tissue contexts, injuries that normally do not trigger regeneration activate complete restoration of heads and fin rays...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245445/increasing-diversity-of-land-planarians-platyhelminthes-geoplanidae-in-the-interior-atlantic-forest-with-the-description-of-two-new-species-and-new-records-from-argentina
#12
Lisandro Negrete, Francisco Brusa
Here, we describe two new species of land planarians of the genera Pasipha and Imbira from the Atlantic Forest of Argentina: Pasipha quirogai sp. nov. and Imbira negrita sp. nov. Their external features and internal anatomy distinguish them from their congeners. Pasipha quirogai sp. nov. is about 40mm long, characterized by brown beige dorsal pigmentation with a golden yellow median band and thin graphite black para-median stripes, cylindrical pharynx, extrabulbar prostatic vesicle with paired proximal portion, male atrium with small folds in its proximal part, and female canal opening into the dorso-caudal wall of the female atrium...
December 4, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198427/towards-the-identification-of-ancestrally-shared-regenerative-mechanisms-across-the-metazoa-a-transcriptomic-case-study-in-the-demosponge-halisarca-caerulea
#13
Nathan J Kenny, Jasper M de Goeij, Didier M de Bakker, Casey G Whalen, Eugene Berezikov, Ana Riesgo
Regeneration is an essential process for all multicellular organisms, allowing them to recover effectively from internal and external injury. This process has been studied extensively in a medical context in vertebrates, with pathways often investigated mechanistically, both to derive increased understanding and as potential drug targets for therapy. Several species from other parts of the metazoan tree of life, including Hydra, planarians and echinoderms, noted for their regenerative capabilities, have previously been targeted for study...
November 29, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197982/dissociation-of-place-preference-and-tolerance-responses-to-sucrose-using-a-dopamine-antagonist-in-the-planarian
#14
Rafat A Mohammed Jawad, Claire V Hutchinson, Jose Prados
In rodents, sucrose has been found to elicit addictive-like behaviours like the development of tolerance and the association with cues present at the time of consumption. Furthermore, the neurochemical response to sucrose binges is equivalent to the one observed in response to the abuse of addictive substances like cocaine. The experiments reported here address the effects of sucrose on an invertebrate model, the Platyhelminth brown planarian. The animals exposed to a 10% sucrose solution in one context developed a conditioned place preference (CPP) which was subsequently extinguished in the absence of the rewarding agent...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191623/diversity-out-of-simplicity-interaction-behavior-of-land-planarians-with-co-occurring-invertebrates
#15
Piter Kehoma Boll, Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet
Land planarians have a simple anatomy and simple behavioral repertoire in relation to most bilaterian animals, which makes them adequate for the study of biological processes. In this study, we investigate the behavior of land planarians during interaction events with other invertebrates found in the same environment. We observed 16 different behavioral units, including seven different capture behaviors and three different prey ingestion behaviors. The capture behavior varied from very simple, such as simply covering the prey with the body, to more complex ones, including two forms of tube formation that are described for the first time...
November 16, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186384/plannet-homology-based-predicted-interactome-for-multiple-planarian-transcriptomes
#16
S Castillo-Lara, J F Abril
Motivation: Planarians are emerging as a model organism to study regeneration in animals. However, the little available data of protein-protein interactions hinders the advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying its regenerating capabilities. Results: We have developed a protocol to predict protein-protein interactions using sequence homology data and a reference Human interactome. This methodology was applied on eleven Schmidtea mediterranea transcriptomic sequence datasets...
November 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184198/activation-of-planarian-trpa1-by-reactive-oxygen-species-reveals-a-conserved-mechanism-for-animal-nociception
#17
Oscar M Arenas, Emanuela E Zaharieva, Alessia Para, Constanza Vásquez-Doorman, Christian P Petersen, Marco Gallio
All animals must detect noxious stimuli to initiate protective behavior, but the evolutionary origin of nociceptive systems is not well understood. Here we show that noxious heat and irritant chemicals elicit robust escape behaviors in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and that the conserved ion channel TRPA1 is required for these responses. TRPA1-mutant Drosophila flies are also defective in noxious-heat responses. We find that either planarian or human TRPA1 can restore noxious-heat avoidance to TRPA1-mutant Drosophila, although neither is directly activated by heat...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168507/orthogonal-muscle-fibres-have-different-instructive-roles-in-planarian-regeneration
#18
M Lucila Scimone, Lauren E Cote, Peter W Reddien
The ability to regenerate missing body parts exists throughout the animal kingdom. Positional information is crucial for regeneration, but how it is harboured and used by differentiated tissues is poorly understood. In planarians, positional information has been identified from study of phenotypes caused by RNA interference in which the wrong tissues are regenerated. For example, inhibition of the Wnt signalling pathway leads to regeneration of heads in place of tails. Characterization of these phenotypes has led to the identification of position control genes (PCGs)-genes that are expressed in a constitutive and regional manner and are associated with patterning...
November 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167930/planarian-cholinesterase-molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-an-evolutionarily-ancient-enzyme-to-study-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity
#19
Danielle Hagstrom, Siqi Zhang, Alicia Ho, Eileen S Tsai, Zoran Radić, Aryo Jahromi, Kelson J Kaj, Yingtian He, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has emerged as a medium-throughput alternative animal model for neurotoxicology. We have previously shown that D. japonica are sensitive to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and characterized the in vitro inhibition profile of planarian cholinesterase (DjChE) activity using irreversible and reversible inhibitors. We found that DjChE has intermediate features of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Here, we identify two candidate genes (Djche1 and Djche2) responsible for DjChE activity...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158443/fox-and-ets-family-transcription-factors-regulate-the-pigment-cell-lineage-in-planarians
#20
Xinwen He, Nicole Lindsay-Mosher, Yan Li, Alyssa M Molinaro, Jason Pellettieri, Bret J Pearson
Many pigment cells acquire unique structural properties and gene expression profiles during animal development. The underlying differentiation pathways have been well characterized in cells formed during embryogenesis, such as the neural crest-derived melanocyte. However, much less is known about the developmental origins of pigment cells produced in adult organisms during tissue homeostasis and repair. Here we report a lineage analysis of ommochrome- and porphyrin-producing cells in the brown, freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea Using an RNA-sequencing approach, we identified two classes of markers expressed in sequential fashion when new pigment cells are generated during regeneration or in response to pigment cell ablation...
December 15, 2017: Development
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