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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198427/towards-the-identification-of-ancestrally-shared-regenerative-mechanisms-across-the-metazoa-a-transcriptomic-case-study-in-the-demosponge-halisarca-caerulea
#1
Nathan J Kenny, Jasper M de Goeij, Didier M de Bakker, Casey G Whalen, Eugene Berezikov, Ana Riesgo
Regeneration is an essential process for all multicellular organisms, allowing them to recover effectively from internal and external injury. This process has been studied extensively in a medical context in vertebrates, with pathways often investigated mechanistically, both to derive increased understanding and as potential drug targets for therapy. Several species from other parts of the metazoan tree of life, including Hydra, planarians and echinoderms, noted for their regenerative capabilities, have previously been targeted for study...
November 29, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197982/dissociation-of-place-preference-and-tolerance-responses-to-sucrose-using-a-dopamine-antagonist-in-the-planarian
#2
Rafat A Mohammed Jawad, Claire V Hutchinson, Jose Prados
In rodents, sucrose has been found to elicit addictive-like behaviours like the development of tolerance and the association with cues present at the time of consumption. Furthermore, the neurochemical response to sucrose binges is equivalent to the one observed in response to the abuse of addictive substances like cocaine. The experiments reported here address the effects of sucrose on an invertebrate model, the Platyhelminth brown planarian. The animals exposed to a 10% sucrose solution in one context developed a conditioned place preference (CPP) which was subsequently extinguished in the absence of the rewarding agent...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191623/diversity-out-of-simplicity-interaction-behavior-of-land-planarians-with-co-occurring-invertebrates
#3
Piter Kehoma Boll, Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet
Land planarians have a simple anatomy and simple behavioral repertoire in relation to most bilaterian animals, which makes them adequate for the study of biological processes. In this study, we investigate the behavior of land planarians during interaction events with other invertebrates found in the same environment. We observed 16 different behavioral units, including seven different capture behaviors and three different prey ingestion behaviors. The capture behavior varied from very simple, such as simply covering the prey with the body, to more complex ones, including two forms of tube formation that are described for the first time...
November 16, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186384/plannet-homology-based-predicted-interactome-for-multiple-planarian-transcriptomes
#4
S Castillo-Lara, J F Abril
Motivation: Planarians are emerging as a model organism to study regeneration in animals. However, the little available data of protein-protein interactions hinders the advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying its regenerating capabilities. Results: We have developed a protocol to predict protein-protein interactions using sequence homology data and a reference Human interactome. This methodology was applied on eleven Schmidtea mediterranea transcriptomic sequence datasets...
November 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184198/activation-of-planarian-trpa1-by-reactive-oxygen-species-reveals-a-conserved-mechanism-for-animal-nociception
#5
Oscar M Arenas, Emanuela E Zaharieva, Alessia Para, Constanza Vásquez-Doorman, Christian P Petersen, Marco Gallio
All animals must detect noxious stimuli to initiate protective behavior, but the evolutionary origin of nociceptive systems is not well understood. Here we show that noxious heat and irritant chemicals elicit robust escape behaviors in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and that the conserved ion channel TRPA1 is required for these responses. TRPA1-mutant Drosophila flies are also defective in noxious-heat responses. We find that either planarian or human TRPA1 can restore noxious-heat avoidance to TRPA1-mutant Drosophila, although neither is directly activated by heat...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168507/orthogonal-muscle-fibres-have-different-instructive-roles-in-planarian-regeneration
#6
M Lucila Scimone, Lauren E Cote, Peter W Reddien
The ability to regenerate missing body parts exists throughout the animal kingdom. Positional information is crucial for regeneration, but how it is harboured and used by differentiated tissues is poorly understood. In planarians, positional information has been identified from study of phenotypes caused by RNA interference in which the wrong tissues are regenerated. For example, inhibition of the Wnt signalling pathway leads to regeneration of heads in place of tails. Characterization of these phenotypes has led to the identification of position control genes (PCGs)-genes that are expressed in a constitutive and regional manner and are associated with patterning...
November 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167930/planarian-cholinesterase-molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-an-evolutionarily-ancient-enzyme-to-study-organophosphorus-pesticide-toxicity
#7
Danielle Hagstrom, Siqi Zhang, Alicia Ho, Eileen S Tsai, Zoran Radić, Aryo Jahromi, Kelson J Kaj, Yingtian He, Palmer Taylor, Eva-Maria S Collins
The asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has emerged as a medium-throughput alternative animal model for neurotoxicology. We have previously shown that D. japonica are sensitive to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and characterized the in vitro inhibition profile of planarian cholinesterase (DjChE) activity using irreversible and reversible inhibitors. We found that DjChE has intermediate features of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Here, we identify two candidate genes (Djche1 and Djche2) responsible for DjChE activity...
November 22, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158443/fox-and-ets-family-transcription-factors-regulate-the-pigment-cell-lineage-in-planarians
#8
Xinwen He, Nicole Lindsay-Mosher, Yan Li, Alyssa M Molinaro, Jason Pellettieri, Bret J Pearson
Many pigment cells acquire unique structural properties and gene expression profiles during animal development. The underlying differentiation pathways have been well characterized in cells formed during embryogenesis, such as the neural crest-derived melanocyte. However, much less is known about the developmental origins of pigment cells produced in adult organisms during tissue homeostasis and repair. Here we report a lineage analysis of ommochrome- and porphyrin-producing cells in the brown, freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea Using an RNA-sequencing approach, we identified two classes of markers expressed in sequential fashion when new pigment cells are generated during regeneration or in response to pigment cell ablation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145667/planarians-customize-their-stem-cell-responses-following-genotoxic-stress-as-a-function-of-exposure-time-and-regenerative-state
#9
An-Sofie Stevens, Annelies Wouters, Jan-Pieter Ploem, Nicky Pirotte, Andromeda Van Roten, Maxime Willems, Niels Hellings, Carmen Franken, Gudrun Koppen, Tom Artois, Michelle Plusquin, Karen Smeets
Aiming to in vivo characterise the responses of pluripotent stem cells and regenerative tissues to carcinogenic stress, we employed the highly regenerative organism Schmidtea mediterranea. Its broad regenerative capacities are attributable to a large pool of pluripotent stem cells, which are considered key players in the lower vulnerability towards chemically-induced carcinogenesis observed in regenerative organisms. S. mediterranea is, therefore, an ideal model to study pluripotent stem cell responses with stem cells residing in their natural environment...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139537/planaria-an-animal-model-that-integrates-development-regeneration-and-pharmacology
#10
Oné R Pagán
Although planarians are established model organisms in developmental biology and regeneration studies, in the last forty years or so, they have caught the attention of pharmacologists, especially to study the pharmacology of drugs of abuse. This review covers the following topics: some fundamentals of the history of animal models and planarians in biomedical research; an abbreviated story of systematic pharmacology research using planarians as a model organism; an example of how planarians are contributing to the search for compounds against acute cocaine toxicity; an analysis of the number of papers on planarians and pharmacological topics from 1900-2016; some perspectives on pharmacology in developmental and regeneration studies, arguing in favor of the planarian model as a leading subject for this interdisciplinary area of research, and finally some concluding thoughts...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124009/small-rnaome-sequencing-delineates-the-small-rna-landscape-of-pluripotent-adult-stem-cells-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#11
Yue Li, An Zeng, Xiao-Shuan Han, Ge Li, Yong-Qin Li, Bairong Shen, Qing Jing
Small noncoding RNAs play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression, and are key regulators of animal development. Freshwater planarian exhibits an extraordinary ability to regenerate any missing body parts, representing an emerging model for studying mechanism underlying stem cell regulation and tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify small RNAs that are expressed in planarian adult stem cells, and are implicated in tissue regeneration. We profiled microRNAs (miRNAs), piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs), small rDNA-derived RNAs (srRNAs) and endogenous interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) population from size 18-30 nt, measured the expression of 244 conserved miRNAs, and identified 41 novel miRNAs and 64 novel endo-siRNAs...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123147/enzymatic-degradation-of-organophosphorus-insecticides-decreases-toxicity-in-planarians-and-enhances-survival
#12
Laetitia Poirier, Lucile Brun, Pauline Jacquet, Catherine Lepolard, Nicholas Armstrong, Cédric Torre, David Daudé, Eric Ghigo, Eric Chabrière
Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are toxic compounds used for agricultural purposes and responsible for severe types of contamination worldwide. OPs may also induce chronic deleterious effects and developmental disruption. Finding remediation strategies is a major concern to diminish their impact on environment and human health. Enzymes have emerged as a promising eco-friendly route for decontaminating OPs. The enzyme SsoPox from the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus has been particularly studied, considering both its tremendous stability and phosphotriesterase activity...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100657/cellular-ultrastructural-and-molecular-analyses-of-epidermal-cell-development-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#13
Li-Chun Cheng, Kimberly C Tu, Chris W Seidel, Sofia M C Robb, Fengli Guo, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
The epidermis is essential for animal survival, providing both a protective barrier and cellular sensor to external environments. The generally conserved embryonic origin of the epidermis, but the broad morphological and functional diversity of this organ across animals is puzzling. We define the transcriptional regulators underlying epidermal lineage differentiation in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, an invertebrate organism that, unlike fruitflies and nematodes, continuously replaces its epidermal cells...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098326/sumoylation-controls-stem-cell-proliferation-and-regional-cell-death-through-hedgehog-signaling-in-planarians
#14
Manish Thiruvalluvan, Paul G Barghouth, Assaf Tsur, Limor Broday, Néstor J Oviedo
Mechanisms underlying anteroposterior body axis differences during adult tissue maintenance and regeneration are poorly understood. Here, we identify that post-translational modifications through the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) machinery are evolutionarily conserved in the Lophotrocozoan Schmidtea mediterranea. Disruption of SUMOylation in adult animals by RNA-interference of the only SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9 leads to a systemic increase in DNA damage and a remarkable regional defect characterized by increased cell death and loss of the posterior half of the body...
November 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095551/genetic-expansion-of-chaperonin-containing-tcp-1-cct-tric-complex-subunits-yields-testis-specific-isoforms-required-for-spermatogenesis-in-planarian-flatworms
#15
Jenna T Counts, Tasha M Hester, Labib Rouhana
Chaperonin-containing Tail-less complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) is a highly conserved, hetero-oligomeric complex that ensures proper folding of actin, tubulin, and regulators of mitosis. Eight subunits (CCT1-8) make up this complex, and every subunit has a homolog expressed in the testes and somatic tissue of the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea. Gene duplications of four subunits in the genomes of S. mediterranea and other planarian flatworms created paralogs to CCT1, CCT3, CCT4, and CCT8 that are expressed exclusively in the testes...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042260/pldt-planarian-light-dark-test-an-invertebrate-assay-to-quantify-defensive-responding-and-study-anxiety-like-effects
#16
Ashenafi Mebratu Zewde, Frances Yu, Sunil Nayak, Christopher Tallarida, Allen B Reitz, Lynn G Kirby, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND: Planarians, like rodents, instinctively spend more time in dark versus light environments when given a choice. This behavioral phenomenon is called negative phototaxis, which may reflect defensive responding related to an anxiety-like phenotype. NEW METHOD: We propose a planarian light/dark test, designated PLDT, to predict anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects. Experimentally, we placed a planarian at the midline of a Petri dish, containing test compound or water, that was split evenly into light and dark compartments and determined time spent in the light over 10min...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978744/a-dynamically-diluted-alignment-model-reveals-the-impact-of-cell-turnover-on-the-plasticity-of-tissue-polarity-patterns
#17
Karl B Hoffmann, Anja Voss-Böhme, Jochen C Rink, Lutz Brusch
The polarization of cells and tissues is fundamental for tissue morphogenesis during biological development and regeneration. A deeper understanding of biological polarity pattern formation can be gained from the consideration of pattern reorganization in response to an opposing instructive cue, which we here consider using the example of experimentally inducible body axis inversions in planarian flatworms. We define a dynamically diluted alignment model linking three processes: entrainment of cell polarity by a global signal, local cell-cell coupling aligning polarity among neighbours, and cell turnover replacing polarized cells by initially unpolarized cells...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976975/a-c-terminally-truncated-form-of-%C3%AE-catenin-acts-as-a-novel-regulator-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-planarians
#18
Hanxia Su, Miquel Sureda-Gomez, Neus Rabaneda-Lombarte, Maria Gelabert, Jianlei Xie, Wei Wu, Teresa Adell
β-Catenin, the core element of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, is a multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved protein which performs essential roles in a variety of developmental and homeostatic processes. Despite its crucial roles, the mechanisms that control its context-specific functions in time and space remain largely unknown. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been extensively studied in planarians, flatworms with the ability to regenerate and remodel the whole body, providing a 'whole animal' developmental framework to approach this question...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973880/mechanics-dictate-where-and-how-freshwater-planarians-fission
#19
Paul T Malinowski, Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Kelson J Kaj, Edward Ronan, Alexander Groisman, Patrick H Diamond, Eva-Maria S Collins
Asexual freshwater planarians reproduce by tearing themselves into two pieces by a process called binary fission. The resulting head and tail pieces regenerate within about a week, forming two new worms. Understanding this process of ripping oneself into two parts poses a challenging biomechanical problem. Because planarians stop "doing it" at the slightest disturbance, this remained a centuries-old puzzle. We focus on Dugesia japonica fission and show that it proceeds in three stages: a local constriction ("waist formation"), pulsation-which increases waist longitudinal stresses-and transverse rupture...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963966/systematic-review-of-biological-effects-of-exposure-to-static-electric-fields-part-ii-invertebrates-and-plants
#20
REVIEW
Kristina Schmiedchen, Anne-Kathrin Petri, Sarah Driessen, William H Bailey
BACKGROUND: The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Research
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