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Rotavirus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902376/detection-of-a-novel-equine-like-g3-rotavirus-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-brazil
#2
Sylvia F S Guerra, Luana S Soares, Patrícia S Lobo, Edvaldo T Penha Júnior, Edivaldo C Sousa Júnior, Delana A M Bezerra, Lívia R Vaz, Alexandre C Linhares, Joana D P Mascarenhas
Genotype G3P[8] of rotavirus A (RVA) is detected worldwide, usually associated with Wa-like constellation and exhibiting a long RNA migration pattern. More recently, a novel intergenogroup, G3P[8] reassortant variant with a short electropherotype has emerged in Asia, Oceania and Europe, denoting an overall potential of unusual rotavirus strains. During a RVA surveillance in Brazil, G3P[8] strains were found displaying a short electropherotype pattern, which had not been detected before in this region. This study aims to characterize the complete genomes of 10 G3P[8] strains detected in Northern region of Brazil...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902372/molecular-characterization-of-emerging-g9p-4-rotavirus-strains-possessing-a-rare-e6-nsp4-or-t1-nsp3-genotype-on-a-genogroup-2-backbone-using-a-refined-classification-framework
#3
Gauri N Pradhan, Atul M Walimbe, Shobha D Chitambar
Rotavirus infections associated with unusual strains are an emerging concern in rotavirus vaccination program. Recently, an increase in circulation of unusual G9P[4] strain was reported from different regions of India, placing it at the third position after G1P[8] and G2P[4], the most common rotavirus strains. The aim of the present study was to analyze complete genomic constellation of three G9P[4] strains (RV09, RV10 and RV11), determine their genetic relatedness with other genogroup-2 strains and understand the evolution of a rare E6 and other NSP4 genotypes...
November 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895844/effect-of-human-rotavirus-vaccine-on-severe-diarrhea-in-african-infants
#4
Shabir A Madhi, Nigel A Cunliffe, Duncan Steele, Desirée Witte, Mari Kirsten, Cheryl Louw, Bagrey Ngwira, John C Victor, Paul H Gillard, Brigitte B Cheuvart, Htay H Han, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. Data are needed to assess the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine in African children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in South Africa (3166 infants; 64.1% of the total) and Malawi (1773 infants; 35.9% of the total) to evaluate the efficacy of a live, oral rotavirus vaccine in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888815/acute-diarrhoea-induced-by-rotavirus-in-children-hospitalysed-in-provincial-hospital-for-infectious-diseases-in-bydgoszcz-in-2014-year
#5
Beata Smok, Katarzyna Zieniewicz-Cieślik, Ewa Smukalska, Małgorzata Pawłowska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiology and course of rotavirus infection in children hospitalized at the T. Browicz Provincial Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Bydgoszcz, Poland in 2014 year. INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus infection is responsible for over 2 millions hospitalizations per year among children under 5 year old. Rotavirus gastroenterocolitis is one of the most common cause of severe dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and metabolic acidosis, leading to 400-600 thousand deaths per year in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884652/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiologic-trends-reveal-the-important-role-of-rotavirus-in-adult-infectious-gastroenteritis-in-shanghai-china
#6
Yan Wang, Jinan Zhang, Pengbo Liu
As a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, the pathogenic role of rotavirus in adults has been underestimated for a long time. A hospital-based prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study of rotavirus infections in adults was performed between April 2014 and March 2015 in Shanghai, China. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 48 of 441 (10.9%) specimens with prevalence peaking in December (33.3%) and January (27.9%), whereas bacteria were identified in 45 of 846 (5.3%) samples (p<0.01). The rotavirus winter-spring seasonality (November-March) contrasts with the marked summer-fall seasonality (April-October) of bacterial pathogens (p<0...
November 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881278/cost-burden-of-severe-community-acquired-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-requiring-hospitalization-in-the-czech-republic-slovakia-poland-and-hungary-a-retrospective-patient-chart-review
#7
Aleš Tichopád, Juliana Müllerová, Teresa Jackowska, Eva Nemes, Petr Pazdiora, Brigitte Sloesen, Mária Štefkovičová
OBJECTIVES: To provide valuable local data on the economic burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) for decision making on introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Central European countries. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective patient hospital chart review during the winter RVGE peak in the Czech Republic (n = 109), Hungary (n = 109), Poland, (n = 112), and Slovakia (n = 115) to estimate resource use and associated costs from the payer's perspective in children younger than 5 years with severe RVGE requiring hospitalization...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880083/how-do-parents-and-pediatricians-arrive-at-the-decision-to-immunize-their-children-in-the-private-sector-insights-from-a-qualitative-study-on-rotavirus-vaccination-across-select-indian-cities
#8
Mathew Sunil George, Preeti Negandhi, Habib Hassan Farooqui, Anjali Sharma, Sanjay Zodpey
Key debates on improving vaccination coverage tend to focus on factors that affect uptake in the public health system while ignoring the private sector that plays an important role in providing health services in any low or middle-income country setting. Using in-depth interviews, we explored factors that influenced the decision of parents as well as pediatricians working in the private sector across 8 Indian cities on whether their children should be vaccinated with a particular vaccine Pediatricians and their relationship with parents was an important factor that influenced the decision on whether parents vaccinated their children with a particular vaccine or not...
November 23, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876201/changing-molecular-epidemiology-of-rotavirus-infection-after-introduction-of-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccination-in-scotland
#9
Indrani Mukhopadhya, Heather Murdoch, Susan Berry, Alison Hunt, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Alison Smith-Palmer, J Claire Cameron, Georgina L Hold
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses (RV) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age worldwide. Rotarix®, a live attenuated monovalent vaccine containing a RV strain of G1P[8] specificity has been included in the childhood immunisation schedule from June 2013 in Scotland. This study aimed to characterise the prevalent RV strains in Scotland before and after the introduction of the RV vaccine. METHODS: RV positive faecal samples from Scottish virology laboratories covering the years 2012-2015 were genotyped...
November 18, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876198/rotavirus-vaccine-effectiveness-in-low-income-settings-an-evaluation-of-the-test-negative-design
#10
Lauren M Schwartz, M Elizabeth Halloran, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Kathleen M Neuzil, John C Victor
BACKGROUND: The test-negative design (TND), an epidemiologic method currently used to measure rotavirus vaccine (RV) effectiveness, compares the vaccination status of rotavirus-positive cases and rotavirus-negative controls meeting a pre-defined case definition for acute gastroenteritis. Despite the use of this study design in low-income settings, the TND has not been evaluated to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: This study builds upon prior methods to evaluate the use of the TND for influenza vaccine using a randomized controlled clinical trial database...
November 18, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869440/immunology-update-new-vaccines
#11
S Paul Starr
A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862014/analysis-of-a-genotype-g3p-9-rotavirus-a-strain-that-shows-evidence-of-multiple-reassortment-events-between-animal-and-human-rotaviruses
#12
Delana A M Bezerra, Sylvia F S Guerra, Ana C S Serra, Priscylla C M S Fecury, Renato S Bandeira, Edvaldo T Penha, Patrícia S Lobo, Edivaldo C Sousa, Alexandre C Linhares, Luana S Soares, Joana D P Mascarenhas
The species A rotaviruses (RVA) are important gastroenteric pathogens that infect humans and animals. RVA genotype G3P[9] has been described in human-animal reassortment events, and the complexity of its hosts motivates the genetic investigation of this strain. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse a G3P[9] sample that was detected in a child with acute gastroenteritis. The 1A3739 sample featured the constellation G3P[9]-I18-R3-C3-Mx-A19-N3-T3-E3-H6. The sequence for VP3 gene was not obtained. The phylogeny showed a closer relationship among genes VP7, VP1, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 with genes of animal origin, such as chiropter, alpaca, equine and simian...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860553/developing-an-inactivated-rotavirus-vaccine-and-evaluating-the-immunogenicity-against-a-commercially-available-attenuated-rotavirus-vaccine-using-a-mice-animal-model
#13
Ayaa S M Hashim, Khaled M A Aboshanab, Aly F M El-Sayed
There is a high demand for public immunization against Rotavirus (RV), especially in Africa. In Africa, the attenuated RV vaccination is contraindicated in patients with immune diseases and nutrition deficiency. Therefore, the inactivated RV vaccine (IRVV) could be an alternative. In this study, we aimed to develop a pentavalent-IRVV using the most circulating RV strains in Egypt and evaluate it against the commercially available Rotarix(®) vaccine. Trial-IRVV was developed with 5% sucrose, 2% polysorbate-80, and adsorbed on Alum to potentiate the vaccine immune response...
November 18, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855146/global-routine-vaccination-coverage-2015
#14
Rebecca M Casey, Laure Dumolard, M Carolina Danovaro-Holliday, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Mamadou S Diallo, Lee M Hampton, Aaron S Wallace
In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) and the third dose of polio vaccine (Pol3) has remained stable (84%-86%) since 2010. From 2014 to 2015, estimated global coverage with the second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 39% to 43% by the end of the second year of life and from 58% to 61% when older age groups were included...
November 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853451/high-protective-efficacy-of-probiotics-and-rice-bran-against-human-norovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#15
Shaohua Lei, Ashwin Ramesh, Erica Twitchell, Ke Wen, Tammy Bui, Mariah Weiss, Xingdong Yang, Jacob Kocher, Guohua Li, Ernawati Giri-Rachman, Nguyen Van Trang, Xi Jiang, Elizabeth P Ryan, Lijuan Yuan
Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran (RB) reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major pathogens causing non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849227/the-impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-emergency-department-visits-and-hospital-admissions-for-acute-diarrhea-in-children-under-5-years
#16
Rodrigo Locatelli Pedro Paulo, André Broggin Dutra Rodrigues, Beatriz Marcondes Machado, Alfredo Elias Gilio
Introduction: Acute diarrheal disease is the second cause of death in children under 5 years. In Brazil, from 2003 to 2009, acute diarrhea was responsible for nearly 100,000 hospital admissions per year and 4% of the deaths in children under 5 years. Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea worldwide. In 2006, the rotavirus monovalent vaccine (RV1) was added to the Brazilian National Immunization Program. Objectives: To analyze the impact of the RV1 on emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions for acute diarrhea...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847365/contribution-of-maternal-immunity-to-decreased-rotavirus-vaccine-performance-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#17
Katayi Mwila, Roma Chilengi, Michelo Simuyandi, Sallie R Permar, Sylvia Becker-Dreps
The role of maternal immunity received by infants either transplacentally or orally from breast milk on rotavirus vaccine (RV) performance is evaluated. Breast feeding withholding has no effect on vaccine response, but higher levels of transplacental rotavirus-specific IgG antibody contribute to reduced vaccine seroconversion. The gaps in knowledge on the factors associated with low RV efficacy in low and middle income countries (LMIC) remain and further research is needed to shed more light on these issues...
November 9, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847298/nsp4-antibody-levels-in-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-patients-with-seizures
#18
Jung Sook Yeom, Young-Soo Kim, Jin-Su Jun, Hyun Jung Do, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae-Young Lim, Hyang-Ok Woo, Chan-Hoo Park, Hee-Shang Youn
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) has been suggested as a pathogen of rotavirus-associated seizures. We investigated pre-existing serum antibodies against NSP4 and VP6 (the most highly immunogenic rotavirus protein) in patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis and its correlation with the occurrence of seizures. METHODS: With an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, IgG and IgA titers against NSP4 (genotype [A] and [B]) and VP6 were measured in acute-phase sera of 202 children aged 0...
November 1, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846803/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-china-projected-possibility-of-scale-up-from-the-current-domestic-option
#19
Shuhui Cui, Ruoyan Gai Tobe, Xiuting Mo, Xiaoyan Liu, Lingzhong Xu, Shixue Li
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus infection causes considerable disease burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalization and death among children less than 5 years in China. Although two rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) have been licensed in more than 100 countries in the world, the Lanzhou Lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) is the only vaccine licensed in China. This study aims to forecast the potential impacts of the two international vaccines compared to domestic LLR. METHODS: An economic evaluation was performed using a Markov simulation model...
November 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846058/lot-to-lot-consistency-safety-tolerability-and-immunogenicity-of-an-investigational-hexavalent-vaccine-in-us-infants
#20
Stanley L Block, Nicola P Klein, Kwabena Sarpong, Stephen Russell, John Fling, Maria Petrecz, Sheryl Flores, Jin Xu, Guanghan Liu, Jon E Stek, Ginamarie Foglia, Andrew W Lee
BACKGROUND: This multicenter Phase III study (NCT01340937) evaluated the consistency of immune responses to 3 separate lots of DTaP5-IPV-Hib-HepB, an investigational hexavalent vaccine (HV). METHODS: Healthy infants were randomized (2:2:2:1) to receive HV or Pentacel (Control). Groups 1, 2, and 3 received HV at 2, 4, and 6 months, and Control at 15 months. Group 4 received Control at 2, 4, 6, and 15 months, plus Recombivax HB (HepB) at 2 and 6 months. Concomitant Prevnar 13 (PCV13) was given to all groups at 2, 4, 6, and 15 months; pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) was given to all groups at 2, 4, and 6 months...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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