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Rotavirus vaccine

J F Gruber, S Becker-Dreps, M G Hudgens, M A Brookhart, J C Thomas, M Jonsson Funk
Delays in rotavirus vaccine schedule could improve performance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, delaying the first dose could be detrimental if infants experience severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) early in life. Our objective was to describe the timing and predictors of severe RVGE in unvaccinated children in LMICs. We analysed the placebo arms from two clinical trials (cohort 1: NCT00241644; cohort 2: NCT00362648). We estimated the rate, cumulative incidence (per 1000 infants) and age distribution of severe RVGE episodes...
March 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Yuki Higashimoto, Masaru Ihira, Yu Miyazaki, Ayumi Kuboshiki, Sayaka Yoshinaga, Hiroyuki Hiramatsu, Ryota Suzuki, Masafumi Miyata, Hiroki Miura, Satoshi Komoto, Jun Yukitake, Koki Taniguchi, Yoshiki Kawamura, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
RotaTeq (RV5) is a widely used live attenuated pentavalent rotavirus (RV) vaccine. Although fecal shedding of RV vaccine strains persists for long time periods, it is unclear how each vaccine strain replicates in intestinal tissue and is excreted in stool. To examine this issue, we established RV5 genotype--specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Five real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for the VP7 gene in genotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, and G6. All assays exhibited excellent linearity, and the detection limit was 1 Infectious Units (IU)/reaction for G2, G4, and G6 and 10 IU/reaction for G1 and G3...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Halle B Getachew, Rebecca M Dahl, Benjamin A Lopman, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination was introduced in the United States in 2006. Our objectives were to examine reductions in diarrhea-associated health care utilization after rotavirus vaccine implementation and to assess direct vaccine effectiveness (VE) in US children. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using claims data of US children under 5 years of age. We compared rates of diarrhea-associated health care utilization in prevaccine versus post-vaccine introduction years...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Anuradha Sinha, Suman Kanungo, Deok Ryun Kim, Byomkesh Manna, Manki Song, Ju Yeon Park, Bisakha Haldar, Prashant Sharma, Aiyel Haque Mallick, Soon Ae Kim, Sudhir Babji, Dipika Sur, Gagandeep Kang, Mohammad Ali, William A Petri, Thomas F Wierzba, Cecil Czerkinsky, Ranjan Kumar Nandy, Ayan Dey
Background: Assessing immune response after rotavirus vaccination consists in measuring serum or plasma IgA and IgG antibodies, but these assays provide very little information about the mucosal immune response. Thus the development of assays for detection of mucosal immune response following rotavirus vaccination is essential. We evaluate to assess circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) as a potential means to evaluate mucosal immune responses to rotavirus vaccine. Methods: 372 subjects, aged 6 weeks, were enrolled in the study...
January 2018: Heliyon
Yijian Li, Miaoge Xue, Linqi Yu, Guoxing Luo, Han Yang, Lianzhi Jia, Yuanjun Zeng, Tingdong Li, Shengxiang Ge, Ningshao Xia
The outer capsid protein VP4 is an important target for the development of a recombinant rotavirus vaccine because it mediates the attachment and penetration of rotavirus. Due to the poor solubility of full-length VP4, VP8 was explored as candidate rotavirus vaccines in the past years. In previous studies, it has been found that the N-terminal truncated VP8 protein, VP8-1 (aa26-231), could be expressed in soluble form with improved immunogenicity compared to the core of VP8 (aa65-223). However, this protein stimulated only a weak immune response when aluminum hydroxide was used as an adjuvant...
March 16, 2018: Vaccine
F Hoeksema, J Karpilow, A Luitjens, F Lagerwerf, M Havenga, M Groothuizen, G Gillissen, A A C Lemckert, B Jiang, R A Tripp, C Yallop
The global adoption of vaccines to combat disease is hampered by the high cost of vaccine manufacturing. The work described herein follows two previous publications (van der Sanden et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2017) that report a strategy to enhance poliovirus and rotavirus vaccine production through genetic modification of the Vero cell lines used in large-scale vaccine manufacturing. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tools were used to knockout Vero target genes previously shown to play a role in polio- and rotavirus production...
March 16, 2018: Vaccine
Kyung Suk Lee, Ye-Rin Lee, So-Youn Park, In-Hwan Oh
Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide, and vaccination prevents rotaviral gastroenteritis. Since the rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Korea in 2007, the prevalence of rotaviral gastroenteritis has decreased. However, little is known on the economic burden of rotavirus infection and its variations in Korea. Here, we estimated the economic costs of rotavirus infection from 2009 to 2012 using nationwide data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) claims. Socioeconomic costs were subdivided into direct and indirect and measured with a prevalence-based approach...
2018: PloS One
Ben Lopman, Rebecca Dahl, Minesh Shah, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus vaccines were introduced in the United States in 2006 and in the subsequent years have fundamentally altered seasonality and shifted disease from annual to biennial epidemics. We investigated whether season and year of birth have emerged as risk factors for rotavirus and affected vaccine performance. We constructed a retrospective birth cohort of US children <5 years using the 2001-2014 MarketScan Database. We evaluated the assocations of season of birth, even/odd year of birth and interactions with vaccination...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Bakary Sanneh, Alhagie Papa Sey, Minesh Shah, Jacqueline Tate, Mariama Sonko, Sheriffo Jagne, ModouLamin Jarju, Dawda Sowe, Makie Taal, Adam Cohen, Umesh Parashar, Jason M Mwenda
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus vaccines protect against the leading cause of severe childhood diarrhoea, and have been introduced in many low-income African countries. The Gambia introducedRotateq® (RV5) into their national immunization program in 2013. We revieweddata from an active rotavirus sentinel surveillancesitefor early evidence of vaccine impact. METHODS: We compared rotavirus prevalence in diarrhoeal stool in children< 5 years of age admittedat the Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital sentinel surveillance site before (2013) andafterRV5 introduction (2015-2016) in the Gambia...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Raches Ella, Radhika Bobba, Sanjay Muralidhar, Sudhir Babji, Krishna Mohan Vadrevu, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that rotavirus vaccines should be included in all national immunization programs. Some currently licensed oral rotavirus vaccines contain a buffering agent (either as part of a ready-to-use liquid formulation or added during reconstitution) to reduce possible degradation of the vaccine virus in the infant gut, which poses several programmatic challenges (the large dose volume or the reconstitution requirement) during vaccine administration...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Francelena de Sousa Silva, Yonna Costa Barbosa, Mônica Araújo Batalha, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Waleska Regina Machado Araújo, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
J M Colston, A M S Ahmed, S B Soofi, E Svensen, R Haque, J Shrestha, R Nshama, Z Bhutta, I F N Lima, A Samie, L Bodhidatta, A A M Lima, P Bessong, M Paredes Olortegui, A Turab, V R Mohan, L H Moulton, E N Naumova, G Kang, M N Kosek
Improving understanding of the pathogen-specific seasonality of enteric infections is critical to informing policy on the timing of preventive measures and to forecast trends in the burden of diarrhoeal disease. Data obtained from active surveillance of cohorts can capture the underlying infection status as transmission occurs in the community. The purpose of this study was to characterise rotavirus seasonality in eight different locations while adjusting for age, calendar time and within-subject clustering of episodes by applying an adapted Serfling model approach to data from a multi-site cohort study...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Veena Hoffman, Remon Abu-Elyazeed, Cheryl Enger, Daina B Esposito, Michael C Doherty, Scott C Quinlan, Kathleen Skerry, Crystal N Holick, Peter Basile, Leonard R Friedland, Nicolas Praet, Stéphanie Wéry, Corinne Willame, David D Dore, Dominique Rosillon
As part of a regulatory commitment for post-licensure safety monitoring of live, oral human rotavirus vaccine (RV1), this study compared the incidence rates (IR) of intussusception, acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) hospitalization, Kawasaki disease, convulsion, and mortality in RV1 recipients versus inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) recipients in concurrent (cIPV) and recent historical (hIPV) comparison cohorts. Vaccine recipients were identified in 2 claims databases from August 2008 - June 2013 (RV1 and cIPV) and January 2004 - July 2008 (hIPV)...
March 13, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Sandra Isabel, Rachel R Higgins, Adriana Peci, Marc R Isabel, Shelley L Deeks, Jonathan B Gubbay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ontario introduced a universal publicly-funded group A rotavirus (RVA) immunization program in August 2011, using monovalent vaccine. RVA immunization programs have decreased the incidence of RVA acute gastroenteritis in many countries but it is unclear if it will contribute to the emergence of certain genotypes. We monitored RVA trends and genotypes in Ontario before and after implementation of the publicly-funded immunization program. METHODS: RVA detection was conducted at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from January 2009 to December 2011 (pre-program period) and January 2012 to October 2015 (publicly-funded RVA immunization program period) and number of RVA-positive specimens and percent positivity were analysed...
March 8, 2018: Vaccine
Sidhartha Giri, R Priya Hemavathy, Rajesh Arumugam, Jeevan B Sherchand, Hlaing Myat Thu, Geethani Galagoda, Theingi Win Myat, Nihal Abeysinghe, Madhava Gunasekara, Navaratnasingam Janakan, Rahul Pradhan, Vinod Bura, Pushparanjan Wijesinghe, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: In Asia, rotavirus accounts for approximately 45% of admissions due to acute gastroenteritis in children <5 years, and causes about 145,000 deaths every year. We studied the distribution of rotavirus strains from Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Nepal during 2009-2015. METHODS: Stool samples collected from children <5 years of age hospitalized with acute diarrhea in the three sites and positive for rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were sent to the Christian Medical College, Vellore from 2009 to 2015...
March 5, 2018: Vaccine
Elizabeth T Rogawski, James A Platts-Mills, E Ross Colgate, Rashidul Haque, K Zaman, William A Petri, Beth D Kirkpatrick
Background: The low efficacy of rotavirus vaccines in clinical trials performed in low-resource settings may be partially explained by acquired immunity from natural exposure, especially in settings with high disease incidence. Methods: In a clinical trial of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Bangladesh, we compared the original per-protocol efficacy estimate to efficacy derived from a recurrent events survival model in which children were considered naturally exposed and potentially immune after their first rotavirus diarrhea (RVD) episode...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Anshu Srivastava, Rishi Bolia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Palwasha Anwari, Najibullah Safi, Daniel C Payne, Mary Carol Jennings, Shugufa Rasikh, Abdul Shakoor Waciqi, Sardar M Parwiz
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is estimated to cause approximately five thousand deaths annually among Afghan children under 5 years old. Because laboratory confirmation of rotavirus is not routinely performed in clinical settings, assessing the precise burden of disease attributable to severe rotavirus gastroenteritis typically requires active surveillance efforts. This study describes the current burden of pediatric hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus gastroenteritis among Afghan children using surveillance data collected from 2013 to 2015...
March 3, 2018: Vaccine
Rosana P Rota, Carlos A Palacios, C Facundo Temprana, Marcelo H Argüelles, Marcelo G Mandile, Nora Mattion, Andrea S Laimbacher, Cornell Fraefel, Alejandro A Castello, Graciela Glikmann
Group C Rotavirus (RVC) has been associated globally with sporadic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children and adults. RVC also infects animals, and interspecies transmission has been reported as well as its zoonotic potential. Considering its genetic diversity and the absence of effective vaccines, it is important and necessary to develop new generation vaccines against RVC for both humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize an HSV-1-based amplicon vector expressing a human RVC-VP6 protein and evaluate the humoral immune response induced after immunizing BALB/c mice...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Nusrat Khandoker, Aksara Thongprachum, Sayaka Takanashi, Shoko Okitsu, Shuichi Nishimura, Hideaki Kikuta, Atsuko Yamamoto, Kumiko Sugita, Tsuneyoshi Baba, Masaaki Kobayashi, Satoshi Hayakawa, Masashi Mizuguchi, Hiroshi Ushijima
Rotavirus vaccines have been available in Japan since 2011. This study conducted to monitor the trend of group A rotavirus (RVA) genotypes three years after vaccine introduction. A total of, 539 fecal samples were collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in six regions during July 2014-June 2015. Among them, 178 samples (33.0%) were positive for RVA. The most predominant genotype was G1P[8] (35.9%) followed by G2P[4] (26.4%), G9P[8] (21.3%), G3P[8] (4.5%) and G3P[9] (4.5%). The detection rate of G2P[4] was increased soon after vaccine introduction...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
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