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Rotavirus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935470/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-pentavalent-live-human-bovine-reassortant-rotavirus-vaccine-rv5-in-healthy-chinese-infants-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Zhaojun Mo, Yi Mo, Mingqiang Li, Junhui Tao, Xu Yang, Jilian Kong, Dingkai Wei, Botao Fu, Xueyan Liao, Jianli Chu, Yuanzheng Qiu, Darcy A Hille, Micki Nelson, Susan S Kaplan
BACKGROUND: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial was conducted in healthy Chinese infants to assess the efficacy and safety of a pentavalent live human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq™, RV5) against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). METHODS: 4040 participants aged 6-12weeks were enrolled and randomly assigned to either 3 oral doses of RV5 (n=2020) or placebo (n=2020), administered ∼4weeks apart. The participants also received OPV and DTaP in a concomitant or staggered fashion...
September 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928954/rotavirus-vaccines-a-story-of-success-with-challenges-ahead
#2
REVIEW
Miguel O'Ryan
Approximately 40 years have passed since the discovery of the rotavirus and 10 years since the introduction and progressive dissemination of rotavirus vaccines worldwide. Currently, 92 countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into national or subnational programs with evident impact in disease reduction. Two vaccines have been widely used, and four additional vaccines have been licensed and are being used in defined regions. In this context, one main issue that remains unsolved is the lower vaccine efficacy/effectiveness in low-income countries...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915725/distribution-of-rotavirus-genotypes-ccirculating-in-ahvaz-iran-in-2016
#3
Azarakhsh Azaran, Manoochehr Makvandi, Ali Teimoori, Saeedeh Ebrahimi, Farzad Heydari, Roya Nikfar
Background: Group A rotavirus (RVA) mainly causes acute gastroenteritis, exclusively in young children in developing countries. The prevalence and determination of the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus genotypes will determine the dominant rotavirus genotypes in the region and provide a strategy for the development of appropriate vaccines. Methods: A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from children below five years with acute gastroenteritis who referred to Aboozar Children’s Hospital of Ahvaz city during October 2015 to March 2016...
September 16, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911835/molecular-characterisation-of-equine-group-a-rotaviruses-in-ireland-2011-2015
#4
Manabu Nemoto, Evelyn Ryan, Pamela Lyons, Ann Cullinane
The molecular epidemiology of equine group A rotaviruses (RVAs) in Ireland from 2011 to 2015 was investigated. Of 438 diagnostic specimens submitted from foals with enteric disease, 102 (23.3%) were positive for RVA using an immunochromatographic assay. G genotypes were determined for 76 equine RVAs, of which 68 (89.5%) were G3 and eight (10.5%) were G14. Of 18 RVAs (12 G3 and six G14) characterised by P genotyping, all were P[12]. G3P[12] and G14P[12] were the most prevalent genotypes of RVA in foals in Ireland, similar to other countries and consistent with previous studies in Ireland from 1999 to 2005...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906005/group-a-rotaviruses-circulating-prior-to-a-national-immunization-programme-in-nigeria-clinical-manifestations-high-g12p-8-frequency-intra-genotypic-divergence-of-vp4-and-vp7
#5
M O Japhet, O Famurewa, M Iturriza-Gomara, O A Adesina, O O Opaleye, S Niendorf, C T Bock, A Mas Marques
Nigeria having approximately 50,000 Rotavirus A (RVA) deaths annually is yet to introduce RVA vaccine into routine national immunization; therefore surveillance of RVA strains circulating before vaccine introduction is essential in evaluating impact of the intervention. Stool samples and sociodemographic data of diarrhoeic children, <5 years were collected between August 2012 and December 2013. While a high prevalence of RVA infection (47.6%; 49/103) was observed by quantitative reverse transcription real time PCR, only 25% (26/103) had high RVA genome concentrations and were antigen positive...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905279/capturing-budget-impact-considerations-within-economic-evaluations-a-systematic-review-of-economic-evaluations-of-rotavirus-vaccine-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-and-a-proposed-assessment-framework
#6
REVIEW
Natalie Carvalho, Mark Jit, Sarah Cox, Joanne Yoong, Raymond C W Hutubessy
BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries, budget impact is an important criterion for funding new interventions, particularly for large public health investments such as new vaccines. However, budget impact analyses remain less frequently conducted and less well researched than cost-effectiveness analyses. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to fill the gap in research on budget impact analyses by assessing (1) the quality of stand-alone budget impact analyses, and (2) the feasibility of extending cost-effectiveness analyses to capture budget impact...
September 13, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902863/identification-of-vaccine-derived-rotavirus-strains-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-japan-2012-2015
#7
Mei Kaneko, Sayaka Takanashi, Aksara Thongprachum, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Koo Nagasawa, Hirokazu Kimura, Shoko Okitsu, Masashi Mizuguchi, Hiroshi Ushijima
Two live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been introduced as voluntary vaccination in Japan since 2011 and 2012, respectively. Effectiveness of the vaccines has been confirmed, whereas concerns such as shedding of the vaccine strains and gastroenteritis cases caused by vaccine strains are not well assessed. We aimed to identify the vaccine strains in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) to investigate the prevalence of AGE caused by vaccination or horizontal transmission of vaccine strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901254/therapeutics-and-immunoprophylaxis-against-noroviruses-and-rotaviruses
#8
Souvik Ghosh, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Noroviruses and rotaviruses are important viral etiologies of severe gastroenteritis. Noroviruses are the primary cause of non-bacterial diarrheal outbreaks in humans, whilst rotaviruses are a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Although both enteric pathogens substantially impact human health and economies, there are no approved drugs against noroviruses and rotaviruses, so far. On the other hand, whilst the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been successfully implemented in over 100 countries, the most advanced norovirus vaccine has recently completed phase-I and II trials...
September 12, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895864/immunomodulatory-potential-of-%C3%AE-glucan-as-supportive-treatment-in-porcine-rotavirus-enteritis
#9
Gollahalli Eregowda Chethan, Jugal Garkhal, Shubhankar Sircar, Yash Pal Singh Malik, Reena Mukherjee, Nihar Ranjan Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Ujjwal Kumar De
A non-blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory potential of β-glucan (BG) in piglet diarrhoea associated with type A rotavirus infection. A total of 12 rotavirus-infected diarrheic piglets were randomly divided into two groups: wherein six rotavirus-infected piglets were treated with supportive treatment (ST) and other six rotavirus-infected piglets were treated with BG along with ST (ST-BG). Simultaneously, six healthy piglets were also included in the study which served as control...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893479/reaching-every-child-with-rotavirus-vaccine-report-from-the-10th-african-rotavirus-symposium-held-in-bamako-mali
#10
Samba O Sow, A Duncan Steele, Jason M Mwenda, George E Armah, Kathleen M Neuzil
The Center for Vaccine Development - Mali (CVD - Mali), the World Health Organization's regional office in Africa (WHO/AFRO), and the CVD at the University of Maryland School of Medicine hosted the 10th African Rotavirus Symposium in Bamako, Mali on 1-2 June 2016. The symposium is coordinated by WHO/AFRO, the Regional Rotavirus Reference Laboratories, and the African Rotavirus Network (ARN), with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The event brings together leading rotavirus researchers, scientists, and policy-makers from across Africa and the world...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893475/impact-of-five-years-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-finland-and-the-associated-cost-savings-in-secondary-healthcare
#11
Tuija Leino, Ulrike Baum, Peter Scott, Jukka Ollgren, Heini Salo
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the impact of the national rotavirus (RV) vaccination programme, starting 2009, on the total hospital-treated acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe RV disease burden in Finland during the first five years of the programme. This study also evaluated the costs saved in secondary healthcare by the RV vaccination programme. METHODS: The RV related outcome definitions were based on ICD10 diagnostic codes recorded in the Care Register for Health Care...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892480/estimating-global-regional-and-national-rotavirus-deaths-in-children-aged-5-years-current-approaches-new-analyses-and-proposed-improvements
#12
Andrew Clark, Robert Black, Jacqueline Tate, Anna Roose, Karen Kotloff, Diana Lam, William Blackwelder, Umesh Parashar, Claudio Lanata, Gagandeep Kang, Christopher Troeger, James Platts-Mills, Ali Mokdad, Colin Sanderson, Laura Lamberti, Myron Levine, Mathuram Santosham, Duncan Steele
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a leading cause of diarrhoeal mortality in children but there is considerable disagreement about how many deaths occur each year. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared CHERG, GBD and WHO/CDC estimates of age under 5 years (U5) rotavirus deaths at the global, regional and national level using a standard year (2013) and standard list of 186 countries. The global estimates were 157,398 (CHERG), 122,322 (GBD) and 215,757 (WHO/CDC). The three groups used different methods: (i) to select data points for rotavirus-positive proportions; (ii) to extrapolate data points to individual countries; (iii) to account for rotavirus vaccine coverage; (iv) to convert rotavirus-positive proportions to rotavirus attributable fractions; and (v) to calculate uncertainty ranges...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891751/rotavirus-vaccine-response-correlates-with-the-infant-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pakistan
#13
Vanessa Harris, Asad Ali, Susana Fuentes, Katri Korpela, Momin Kazi, Jacqueline Tate, Umesh Parashar, W Joost Wiersinga, Carlo Giaquinto, Carolina de Weerth, Willem M de Vos
Background Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide, and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders...
September 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882877/clinical-pathway-produces-sustained-improvement-in-acute-gastroenteritis-care
#14
Lori Rutman, Eileen J Klein, Julie C Brown
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite widespread use of the rotavirus vaccine in the last decade, dehydrating illnesses impact almost 2 billion children worldwide annually. Evidence supports oral rehydration therapy as a first-line treatment of mild to moderate dehydration. Ondansetron has proven to be a safe and effective adjunct in children with vomiting. We implemented a clinical pathway in our pediatric emergency department (ED) in January 2005 to improve care for this common condition...
September 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877163/long-term-impact-of-changing-childhood-malnutrition-on-rotavirus-diarrhoea-two-decades-of-adjusted-association-with-climate-and-socio-demographic-factors-from-urban-bangladesh
#15
Sumon Kumar Das, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Mohammad Habibur Rahman Sarker, Jui Das, Shawnawaz Ahmed, K M Shahunja, Shamsun Nahar, Nora Gibbons, Tahmeed Ahmed, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Mustafizur Rahman, George J Fuchs, Abdullah Al Mamun, Peter John Baker
BACKGROUND: There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition) with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874323/the-effect-of-probiotics-and-zinc-supplementation-on-the-immune-response-to-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-a-randomized-factorial-design-placebo-controlled-study-among-indian-infants
#16
Robin P Lazarus, Jacob John, E Shanmugasundaram, Anand K Rajan, S Thiagarajan, Sidhartha Giri, Sudhir Babji, Rajiv Sarkar, P Saravankumar Kaliappan, Srinivasan Venugopal, Ira Praharaj, Uma Raman, Meghana Paranjpe, Nicholas C Grassly, Edward P K Parker, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Jessica A Fleming, A Duncan Steele, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Asha M Abraham, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Strategies are needed to improve oral rotavirus vaccine (RV), which provides suboptimal protection in developing countries. Probiotics and zinc supplementation could improve RV immunogenicity by altering the intestinal microbiota and immune function. METHODS: Infants 5weeks old living in urban Vellore, India were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 4-arm factorial design to assess the effects of daily zinc (5mg), probiotic (10(10)Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) or placebo on the immunogenicity of two doses of RV (Rotarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) given at 6 and 10weeks of age...
September 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870657/use-of-biologic-therapy-by-pregnant-women-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-does-not-affect-infant-response-to-vaccines
#17
Dawn B Beaulieu, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Christopher Martin, Russell D Cohen, Sunanda V Kane, Uma Mahadevan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In women with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), exposure to immunomodulator or biologic therapy has not been associated with adverse events during pregnancy or outcomes of newborns. We investigated whether exposure of patients to these agents during pregnancy affects serologic responses to vaccines in newborns. METHODS: We collected data from the Pregnancy in IBD and Neonatal Outcomes registry, which records outcomes of pregnant women with diagnosis of IBD receiving care at multiple centers in the United States, from 2007 - 2016...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869727/-research-progress-in-rotavirus-vp4-subunit-vaccine
#18
Lianzhi Jia, Tingdong Li, Shengxiang Ge
Rotaviruses are leading causes of worldwide acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years old, with severe consequence of social and economic burden. Vaccination is the most effective way to control rotavirus infection, however, the licensed rotavirus vaccines are ineffective in some low-income countries of Africa and Asia, where the mortality caused by rotavirus is higher than other areas. In addition, there are also safety concerns such as increased risk of intussusception. Therefore, it is urgent to improve the efficiency and safety of rotavirus vaccine to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by rotavirus...
July 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867843/estimated-economic-impact-of-vaccinations-in-73-low-and-middle-income-countries-2001-2020
#19
Sachiko Ozawa, Samantha Clark, Allison Portnoy, Simrun Grewal, Meghan L Stack, Anushua Sinha, Andrew Mirelman, Heather Franklin, Ingrid K Friberg, Yvonne Tam, Neff Walker, Andrew Clark, Matthew Ferrari, Chutima Suraratdecha, Steven Sweet, Sue J Goldie, Tini Garske, Michelle Li, Peter M Hansen, Hope L Johnson, Damian Walker
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic impact likely to be achieved by efforts to vaccinate against 10 vaccine-preventable diseases between 2001 and 2020 in 73 low- and middle-income countries largely supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. METHODS: We used health impact models to estimate the economic impact of achieving forecasted coverages for vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Japanese encephalitis, measles, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, rotavirus, rubella, Streptococcus pneumoniae and yellow fever...
September 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859432/naturally-acquired-immunity-against-rotavirus-infection-and-gastroenteritis-in-children-paired-reanalyses-of-birth-cohort-studies
#20
Joseph A Lewnard, Benjamin A Lopman, Umesh D Parashar, Naor Bar-Zeev, Prasanna Samuel, M Lourdes Guerrero, Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios, Gagandeep Kang, Virginia E Pitzer
Background: Observational studies in socioeconomically distinct populations have yielded conflicting conclusions about the strength of naturally acquired immunity against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), mirroring vaccine underperformance in low-income countries. We revisited birth cohort studies to understand naturally acquired protection against rotavirus infection and RVGE. Methods: We reanalyzed data from 200 Mexican and 373 Indian children followed from birth to 2 and 3 years of age, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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