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Rotavirus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536027/live-attenuated-tetravalent-g1-g4-bovine-human-reassortant-rotavirus-vaccine-brv-tv-randomized-controlled-phase-iii-study-in-indian-infants
#1
Tarun Saluja, Sonali Palkar, Puneet Misra, Madhu Gupta, Potula Venugopal, Ashwani Kumar Sood, Ravi Mandyam Dhati, Avinash Shetty, Sangappa Malappa Dhaded, Sharad Agarkhedkar, Amlan Choudhury, Ramesh Kumar, Sundaram Balasubramanian, Sudhir Babji, Lopa Adhikary, Martin Dupuy, Sangeet Mohan Chadha, Forum Desai, Darshna Kukian, Badri Narayan Patnaik, Mandeep Singh Dhingra
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus remains the leading cause of diarrhoea among children <5years. We assessed immunogenic non-inferiority of a tetravalent bovine-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (BRV-TV) over the licensed human-bovine pentavalent rotavirus vaccine RV5. METHODS: Phase III single-blind study (parents blinded) in healthy infants randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of BRV-TV or RV5 at 6-8, 10-12, and 14-16weeks of age. All concomitantly received a licensed diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTwP-HepB-Hib) and oral polio vaccine (OPV)...
May 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527973/molecular-analysis-of-group-a-rotaviruses-detected-in-hospitalized-children-from-rawalpindi-pakistan-during-2014
#2
Massab Umair, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Nadia Nisar, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Adnan Khurshid, Ghulam Mujtaba, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
As part of strategy to control diarrheal diseases, World Health Organization (WHO) recommends to include rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs. Sentinel surveillance networks have been established to monitor rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution in both pre and post vaccine era in many countries. Unfortunately due to lack of proper surveillance programs, data on rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution from Pakistan is scarce. We investigated 502 stool samples from children (<5years) hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2014 for the presence of group A rotavirus (RVA) and its genotypic diversity...
May 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523920/expression-of-bovine-rotavirus-vp8-and-preparation-of-igy-antibodies-against-recombinant-vp8
#3
H S Kim, B Lee, S Y Han, Y T Jung
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in cattle and swine. Although, vaccination against this virus is an effective strategy for prevention, additional strategy to control disease is necessary. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY)-based passive immunization could be a better option in preventing this disease. Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is group A rotavirus and possesses a genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. The outer layer of capsid is composed of two proteins (VP7 and VP4), which induce virus neutralizing antibodies...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510686/freeze-dried-rotavirus-vaccine-shows-promise
#4
M J Friedrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504193/global-economic-evaluations-of-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Surachai Kotirum, Naaon Vutipongsatorn, Khachen Kongpakwattana, Raymond Hutubessy, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Rotavirus vaccines to prevent and control rotavirus infections. Economic evaluations (EE) have been considered to support decision making of national policy. Summarizing global experience of the economic value of rotavirus vaccines is crucial in order to encourage global WHO recommendations for vaccine uptake. Therefore, a systematic review of economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccine was conducted. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, NHS EED, EconLit, CEA Registry, SciELO, LILACS, CABI-Global Health Database, Popline, World Bank - e-Library, and WHOLIS...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504192/correlates-of-protection-for-enteric-vaccines
#6
Jan Holmgren, Umesh D Parashar, Stanley Plotkin, Jacques Louis, Su-Peing Ng, Eric Desauziers, Valentina Picot, Mitra Saadatian-Elahi
An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486524/rotavirus-vaccine-will-have-an-impact-in-asia
#7
Carl D Kirkwood, A Duncan Steele
Carl Kirkwood and Duncan Steele discuss the evidence supporting rotavirus vaccine deployment in Asian countries.
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484432/rice-bran-and-probiotics-alter-the-porcine-large-intestine-and-serum-metabolomes-for-protection-against-human-rotavirus-diarrhea
#8
Nora Jean Nealon, Lijuan Yuan, Xingdong Yang, Elizabeth P Ryan
Human rotavirus (HRV) is a leading cause of severe childhood diarrhea, and there is limited vaccine efficacy in the developing world. Neonatal gnotobiotic pigs consuming a prophylactic synbiotic combination of probiotics and rice bran (Pro+RB) did not exhibit HRV diarrhea after challenge. Multiple immune, gut barrier protective, and anti-diarrheal mechanisms contributed to the prophylactic efficacy of Pro+RB when compared to probiotics (Pro) alone. In order to understand the molecular signature associated with diarrheal protection by Pro+RB, a global non-targeted metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the large intestinal contents and serum of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483417/parenteral-protein-based-rotavirus-vaccine
#9
Miguel O'Ryan, Benjamin A Lopman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483414/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-parenteral-p2-vp8-p-8-subunit-rotavirus-vaccine-in-toddlers-and-infants-in-south-africa-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Michelle J Groome, Anthonet Koen, Alan Fix, Nicola Page, Lisa Jose, Shabir A Madhi, Monica McNeal, Len Dally, Iksung Cho, Maureen Power, Jorge Flores, Stanley Cryz
BACKGROUND: Efficacy of live oral rotavirus vaccines is reduced in low-income compared with high-income settings. Parenteral non-replicating rotavirus vaccines might offer benefits over oral vaccines. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the P2-VP8-P[8] subunit rotavirus vaccine at different doses in South African toddlers and infants. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial was done at a single research unit based at a hospital in South Africa in healthy HIV-uninfected toddlers (aged 2 to <3 years) and term infants (aged 6 to <8 weeks, without previous rotavirus vaccination)...
May 5, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481726/rotavirus-shedding-following-administration-of-rv3-bb-human-neonatal-rotavirus-vaccine
#11
Daniel Cowley, Karen Boniface, Nada Bogdanovic-Sakran, Carl D Kirkwood, Julie E Bines
The RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine aims to provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. A phase IIa safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand between January 2012 and April 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥36 weeks gestation) babies, who were 0-5 days old were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive three doses of oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 days after birth (neonatal schedule), or the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to receive placebo (placebo schedule)...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477327/circulating-rotavirus-genotypes-in-the-irish-paediatric-population-prior-to-the-introduction-of-the-vaccination-programme
#12
Z Yandle, S Coughlan, R J Drew, N O'Flaherty, J O'Gorman, C De Gascun
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in children, and it is anticipated that the introduction of the Rotarix™ vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals S.A., Rixensart, Belgium) into the Irish immunisation schedule will result in a significant reduction of rotavirus-associated disease. In the pre- and post-vaccination eras, it is important to determine circulating strains of rotavirus to assess vaccine effectiveness, to monitor vaccine failures, and to detect potential emerging strains...
May 5, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476628/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-vaccinations-and-decision-makings-on-vaccination-programmes-in-hong-kong-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Carlos K H Wong, Qiuyan Liao, Vivian Y W Guo, Yiqiao Xin, Cindy L K Lam
OBJECTIVES: To describe and systematically review the modelling and reporting of cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination in Hong Kong, and to identify areas for quality enhancement in future cost-effectiveness analyses. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies related to vaccination and government immunisation programmes in Hong Kong published from 1990 to 2015, through database search of Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and OVID Medline...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475412/pi3k-akt-mtor-axis-sustains-rotavirus-infection-via-the-4e-bp1-mediated-autophagy-pathway-and-represents-an-antiviral-target
#14
Yuebang Yin, Wen Dang, Xinying Zhou, Lei Xu, Wenshi Wang, Wanlu Cao, Sunrui Chen, Junhong Su, Xuepeng Cai, Shaobo Xiao, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Rotavirus infection is a major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in infants younger than five years old and in particular cases of immunocompromised patients irrespective to the age of the patients. Although vaccines have been developed, antiviral therapy is an important complement that cannot be substituted. Because of the lack of specific approved treatment, it is urgent to facilitate the cascade of further understanding of the infection biology, identification of druggable targets and the final development of effective antiviral therapies...
May 5, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472489/pathogen-specific-burden-of-outpatient-diarrhea-in-infants-in-nepal-a-multisite-prospective-case-control-study
#15
Cristina V Cardemil, Jeevan B Sherchand, Laxman Shrestha, Arun Sharma, Howard E Gary, Concepcion F Estivariz, Marta Diez-Valcarce, M Leanne Ward, Michael D Bowen, Jan Vinjé, Umesh Parashar, Susan Y Chu
Background.: Nonsevere diarrheal disease in Nepal represents a large burden of illness. Identification of the specific disease-causing pathogens will help target the appropriate control measures. Methods.: Infants aged 6 weeks to 12 months were recruited from 5 health facilities in eastern, central, and western Nepal between August 2012 and August 2013. The diarrhea arm included infants with mild or moderate diarrhea treatable in an outpatient setting; the nondiarrhea arm included healthy infants who presented for immunization visits or had a mild nondiarrheal illness...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472348/rotavirus-infection-and-disease-in-a-multi-site-birth-cohort-results-from-the-mal-ed-study
#16
Venkata Raghava Mohan, Karthikeyan Ramanujam, Sudhir Babji, Monica McGrath, Sanjaya Shrestha, Jasmin Shrestha, Estomih Mdumah, Caroline Amour, Amidou Samie, Emanuel Nyathi, Rashidul Haque, Shahida Qureshi, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Aldo A M Lima, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Erling Svensen, Pascal Bessong, Tahmeed Ahmed, Jessica C Seidman, Anita Km Zaidi, Margaret N Kosek, Richard L Guerrant, Jean Gratz, James A Platts-Mills, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Background: In a multi-country birth cohort study, we describe rotavirus infection in the first two years of life in sites with and without rotavirus vaccination programs. Methods: Children were recruited by 17 days of age and followed to 24 months with collection of monthly surveillance and diarrheal stools. Data on socio-demographics, feeding and illness were collected at defined intervals. Stools were tested for rotavirus and sera for anti-rotavirus immunoglobulins by enzyme immunoassays...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468712/risk-of-intussusception-after-rotavirus-vaccination
#17
Judith Koch, Thomas Harder, Rüdiger von Kries, Ole Wichmann
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (Ständige Impfkommission, STIKO) recommended rotavirus (RV) vaccination for all infants while stating that this mildly increased the risk of intussusception, a potentially life-threatening event. Since this recommendation was issued, multiple observational studies on this topic designed as self-controlled case series (SCCS) have been published. The SCCS design is particularly suitable for the study of rare adverse effects of medications...
April 14, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465097/challenges-in-conducting-post-authorisation-safety-studies-pass-a-vaccine-manufacturer-s-view
#18
Catherine Cohet, Dominique Rosillon, Corinne Willame, Francois Haguinet, Marie-Noëlle Marenne, Sandrine Fontaine, Hubert Buyse, Vincent Bauchau, Laurence Baril
Post-authorisation safety studies (PASS) of vaccines assess or quantify the risk of adverse events following immunisation that were not identified or could not be estimated pre-licensure. The aim of this perspective paper is to describe the authors' experience in the design and conduct of twelve PASS that contributed to the evaluation of the benefit-risk of vaccines in real-world settings. We describe challenges and learnings from selected PASS of rotavirus, malaria, influenza, human papillomavirus and measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccines that assessed or identified potential or theoretical risks, which may lead to changes to risk management plans and/or to label updates...
April 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465094/enhancement-of-vp6-immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-against-rotavirus-by-vp2-in-a-genetic-immunization
#19
D V Lopez-Guerrero, N Arias, L Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, L Chihu-Amparan, A González, A Pedroza-Saavedra, G Rosas-Salgado, J C Villegas-Garcia, O Badillo-Godinez, G Fernandez, S Lopez, F Esquivel-Guadarrama
VP2/VP6 virus like particles (VLPs) are very effective in inducing protection against the rotavirus infection in animal models. Individually, VP6 can also induce protection. However, there is no information about the immunogenicity of VP2. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of DNA vaccines codifying for VP2 or VP6, alone or combined, to induce protection against the rotavirus infection. Murine rotavirus VP2 and VP6 genes were cloned into the pcDNA3 vector. Adult BALB/c mice were inoculated three times by intramuscular (i...
April 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455169/economic-impact-of-thermostable-vaccines
#20
Bruce Y Lee, Patrick T Wedlock, Leila A Haidari, Kate Elder, Julien Potet, Rachel Manring, Diana L Connor, Marie L Spiker, Kimberly Bonner, Arjun Rangarajan, Delphine Hunyh, Shawn T Brown
BACKGROUND: While our previous work has shown that replacing existing vaccines with thermostable vaccines can relieve bottlenecks in vaccine supply chains and thus increase vaccine availability, the question remains whether this benefit would outweigh the additional cost of thermostable formulations. METHODS: Using HERMES simulation models of the vaccine supply chains for the Republic of Benin, the state of Bihar (India), and Niger, we simulated replacing different existing vaccines with thermostable formulations and determined the resulting clinical and economic impact...
April 25, 2017: Vaccine
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