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Rotavirus vaccine

David I Bernstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Susie Roczo-Farkas, Carl D Kirkwood, Daniel Cowley, Graeme L Barnes, Ruth F Bishop, Nada Bogdanovic-Sakran, Karen Boniface, Celeste M Donato, Julie E Bines
Background: Introduction of rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programs (NIPs) could result in strain selection due to vaccine-induced selective pressure. This study describes the distribution and diversity of rotavirus genotypes before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction into the Australian NIP. State-based vaccine selection facilitated a unique comparison of diversity in RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccine states. Methods: From 1995 to 2015, the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program conducted genotypic analysis on 13051 rotavirus-positive samples from children <5 years of age, hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Rachel M Burke, Jacqueline E Tate, Rebecca Moritz Dahl, Negar Aliabadi, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus commonly causes diarrhea but can also cause seizures. Analysis of insurance claims for 1,773,295 US children with 2950 recorded seizures found that, compared to rotavirus-unvaccinated children, seizure hospitalization risk was reduced by 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13% - 33%) and 14% (95%CI, 0% - 26%) among fully and partially rotavirus-vaccinated children, respectively.
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Alice Abou-Nader, Molly Sauer, A Duncan Steele, Jacqueline E Tate, Deborah Atherly, Umesh D Parashar, Mathuram Santosham, E Anthony S Nelson
An estimated 215,000 children died of rotavirus infections in 2013, accounting for 37% of diarrhea-related deaths worldwide, 92% of which occurred in low and lower-middle income countries. Since 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of rotavirus vaccines in all national immunization programs. This review compares rotavirus vaccine (RV) introductions and vaccine coverage by region, country income status and Gavi-eligibility from 2006-2016. Gross National Income data from the World Bank and surviving infant population from United Nations Population Division was obtained for 2016...
May 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Dang Thi Thanh Huyen, Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Thanh Trung, Tran Thi Nguyen Hoa, Nguyen Kieu Oanh, Ho Vinh Thang, Nguyen Thi Thanh Thao, Do Manh Hung, Makiko Iijima, Kimberley Fox, Varja Grabovac, James Heffelfinger, Nyambat Batmunkh, Dang Duc Anh
A prospective, multicentre study was conducted in four sentinel surveillance hospitals to assess the trend and epidemiology of acute diarrhea caused by Rotavirus in Vietnam. During the period 2012-2015, a total 8,889 children under 5 years of age were enrolled in the surveillance, and 8689 stool samples were collected. Of these cases, Rotavirus was most common pathogen 46.7% (4054 cases); in which 26.6% (1117) rotavirus-positive stool samples were evaluated to identify genotypes. The proportion of rotavirus positive specimens decreased annually from 54...
May 18, 2018: Vaccine
Yu-Hang Chen, Fan Chen, Tao Zhou, Jia-Yi Chen, Tian-Li Zheng, Xin Xu, Xiao-Fang Pei
OBJECTIVES: Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children. However, little is known about the epidemiological and clinical profile of rotavirus A (RVA) in diarrheal children or the efficacy of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) in Chengdu, China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical profile of RVA in diarrheal children and provide gene analysis information for RVA vaccination programs. METHODS: 1121 fecal samples were collected from outpatient children with diarrhea between 2009 and 2014...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Amanda E Schnee, Rashidul Haque, Mami Taniuchi, Jashim Uddin, Masud Alam, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Beth Kirkpatrick, Eric R Houpt, William A Petri, James A Platts-Mills
Childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings has been variably linked to linear growth shortfalls. However, the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and growth has not been comprehensively evaluated. We tested diarrheal stools collected from the Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries study from 2011-2013 in Dhaka, Bangladesh by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a broad range of enteropathogens to characterize diarrhea etiology and examine the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and linear growth and systemic inflammation...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Roman Prymula, Dorothee Kieninger, Emmanuel Feroldi, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Xavier DaCosta
BACKGROUND: To support a fully liquid, diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae b (PRP-T) vaccine in Europe using a 2, 3, 4 month primary series and a booster at 11 to 15 months of age. METHODS: Phase III, randomized, observer-blind studies in Germany and the Czech Republic. Participants who had not received HB vaccine were randomized to a 2, 3, 4 month primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (Group 1; N=266) or a reconstituted DTaPHB-IPV//PRP-T comparator (Group 2; N=263) and a booster of the same vaccine...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Claudio Costantino, Vincenzo Restivo, Fabio Tramuto, Alessandra Casuccio, Francesco Vitale
Rotavirus is considered the main cause of severe gastroenteritis and nosocomial infections in Pediatric units, especially during late winter and early spring season in temperate region. In 2013 Sicilian Region, for the first time in Italy, introduced universal Rotavirus vaccination. This study aims to estimate health and economic impact on rotavirus Gastroenteritis (RVGE) among children aged 0-59 months in Sicily, after rotavirus vaccine introduction. We analyzed hospital discharge records including a diagnosis of RVGE occurred from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2016 among hospitalized children aged 0 to 59 months, residents in Sicily...
May 14, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Rosemary J Burnett, Gloria Mmoledi, Ntombenhle J Ngcobo, Carine Dochez, L Mapaseka Seheri, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
Introduction: National population-based immunization coverage surveys provide data for validating official administrative coverage figures. However, these costly and logistically challenging surveys are conducted infrequently. This hospital-based records review determined coverage of birth-dose vaccines, fully immunized under 1-y-old coverage (FIC) of 12- to 59-mo-old children; and the reasons for missed vaccinations. Methods: Rotavirus surveillance in South Africa is based on under-5-y-old children being treated for diarrhoea, and includes photocopying the official vaccination document and collecting data on reasons for missed vaccinations...
May 11, 2018: International Health
Margaret K Doll, Caroline Quach, David L Buckeridge
Estimation of the overall effect of a vaccine program is essential, but the effect is typically estimated for a whole program. We estimate the overall effect of the Quebec rotavirus vaccine program launched in November 2011, and the effect for each 10% increase in rotavirus vaccine coverage on pediatric, all-cause acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations. We implemented negative binomial regressions adjusted for seasonality, long-term trends, and infection dynamics, to estimate the effect of the vaccine program as: 1) a dichotomous variable, representing program presence/absence, and linear term to account for changes in trend in the post-program period, or 2) a continuous variable, representing rotavirus vaccine coverage...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Hassan Sibomana, Celse Rugambwa, Jason M Mwenda, Felix Sayinzoga, Gisele Iraguha, Jeanine Uwimana, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate
BACKGROUND: Rwanda introduced pentavalent rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program in 2012. To determine the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccine on disease burden in a high burden setting, we examined trends in rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations in the first four years following rotavirus vaccine introduction. METHODS: We used data from an active surveillance system, from a review of pediatric ward registries, and from the Health Management Information System to describe trends in rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations from January 2009 through December 2016...
May 10, 2018: Vaccine
Ehsan Zafari, Hoorieh Soleimanjahi, Ashraf Mohammadi, Ali Teimoori, Homayon Mahravani
Rotaviruses (RV) are the leading cause of acute infantile gastroenteritis, associated with elevated mortality in low-income countries. Morbidity and mortality, length and rates of hospitalization due to RV gastroenteritis are dropping. Improving the quality of newborns life is an ongoing challenge for health-care providers. In this study, homemade reassortant human-bovine rotavirus was developed and biological activity and molecular characterization of candidate vaccine were evaluated for the vaccine stability...
May 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Matthew E Coldiron, Ousmane Guindo, Rockyath Makarimi, Issaka Soumana, Amadou Matar Seck, Souna Garba, Emilie Macher, Sheila Isanaka, Rebecca F Grais
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus remains a major cause of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. The efficacy of RotaSIIL, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, was shown in an event-driven trial in Niger. We describe the two-year safety follow-up of this trial. METHODS: Follow-up of safety outcomes began upon administration of the first dose of RotaSIIL or placebo. Adverse events were followed until 28 days after the third dose, and serious adverse events were followed until 2 years of age...
May 8, 2018: Vaccine
Cliff A Magwira, Maureen B Taylor
The introduction of oral rotavirus vaccines (ORVVs) has led to a reduction in number of hospitalisations and deaths due to rotavirus (RV) infection. However, the efficacy of the vaccines has been varied with low-income countries showing significantly lower efficacy as compared to high-income countries. The reasons for the disparity are not fully understood but are thought to be multi-factorial. In this review article, we discuss the concept that the disparity in the efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines between the higher and lower socio-economical countries could be due the nature of the bacteria that colonises and establishes in the gut early in life...
May 8, 2018: Vaccine
Christabel C Enweronu-Laryea, George Armah, Kwamena W Sagoe, Daniel Ansong, Emmanuel Addo-Yobo, Stanley K Diamenu, Jason M Mwenda, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate
INTRODUCTION: Ghana introduced monovalent rotavirus vaccine in April 2012. We sought to determine the long-term impact of routine rotavirus vaccination on rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in Ghana during the first 4 years following rotavirus vaccine introduction. METHODS: Active sentinel surveillance for acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations among children <5 years of age was conducted at two sites from July 2009 through June 2016. Stool specimens were collected from enrolled children and tested by enzyme immunoassay...
May 8, 2018: Vaccine
Douangdao SoukAloun, Vannida Douangbouphaa, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Bountoy Sibounheuang, Manivanh Vongsouvat, Keomany Chanmala, Thonglay Vongphachanh, Soudalinh Maniphonh, Inhpanh Phouangsouvanh, Kimberley Fox, Josephine Logronio, Varja Grabovac, James Heffelfinger, Hyesook Jeong, Kisang Kim, Batmunkh Nyambat
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of death in children <5 years worldwide, causing an estimated 215,000 deaths in 2013. This evaluation tracks the epidemiologic patterns and most common rotavirus genotypes among hospitalized children in this age group with acute gastroenteritis in Lao PDR. METHODS: Children <5 years in a central tertiary hospital in the capital city were prospectively enrolled into the surveillance platform during January 2009-December 2015...
May 5, 2018: Vaccine
Anna Lena Lopez, Peter Francis Raguindin, Joel Esparagoza, Kimberley Fox, Nyambat Batmunkh, Joseph Bonifacio, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Maria Joyce Ducusin
BACKGROUND: Monovalent rotavirus (RV) vaccine was introduced in the Philippines in a phased manner beginning in 2012. To assess the impact of RV vaccine, we conducted a retrospective review of diarrheal admissions in two hospitals. METHODS: Records of physician-diagnosed diarrheal admissions were reviewed in D.O. Plaza Hospital (DOPH) from 2009 to 2016 in Agusan del Sur where RV vaccine was introduced in the immunization program; and in Cotabato Regional Medical Center (CRMC) from 2011 to 2016 in a region where the vaccine was not introduced...
May 2, 2018: Vaccine
Xiaoman Sun, Dandi Li, Jianxun Qi, Wengang Chai, Luyao Wang, Lihong Wang, Ruchao Peng, Han Wang, Qing Zhang, Lili Pang, Xiangyu Kong, Hong Wang, Miao Jin, George F Gao, Zhaojun Duan
Rotaviruses (RVs), which cause severe gastroenteritis in infants and children, recognize glycan ligands in a genotype-dependent manner via the distal VP8* head of the spike protein VP4. However, the glycan binding mechanisms remain elusive for the P[II] genogroup RVs, including the widely prevalent human RVs (P[8], P[4], and P[6]) and a rare P[19] RV. In this study, we characterized the glycan binding specificity of human and porcine P[6]/P[19] RV VP8* and found that the P[II] genogroup RV VP8*s could commonly interact with mucin core 2 which may play an important role in the RV evolution and cross-species transmission...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jocelynne E McRae, Helen E Quinn, Kristine Macartney
Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment for selected serious childhood conditions, particularly vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS data is used to better understand these conditions, inform policy and practice under the National Immunisation Program, and enable rapid public health responses for certain conditions of public health importance...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
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