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Rotavirus vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735327/genotyping-and-clinicoepidemiological-characterization-of-rotavirus-acute-gastroenteritis-in-egyptian-children
#1
Niveen Saudy, Walaa Othman Elshabrawy, Ahmed Megahed, Mona F Foad, Aly F Mohamed
Group A rotavirus (RVA) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common cause of severe childhood diarrhea. The dominant circulating RVA genotypes in a given region may vary between and within the geographic regions and from year to year. Our cross-sectional study was designed to determine the burden of RVA genotypes among children with AGE admitted to referral Children Hospital at Egypt prior to implementation of the vaccine. Stool samples with clinico-epidemiological data were collected from 92 children ≤ 3 years-old with AGE...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734513/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-infections-in-children-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Blandina T Mmbaga, Eric R Houpt
Diarrheal disease remains the second leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause and its importance stands to increase as rotavirus vaccine becomes used around the world. Cryptosporidium is particularly problematic in children younger than 2 years old and in the immunocompromised. Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal protozoan that is associated with diarrhea and, perhaps, growth faltering in impoverished settings. This review establishes the current prevalence of these infections in global settings and reviews current diagnosis and management approaches...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734511/the-burden-and-etiology-of-diarrheal-illness-in-developing-countries
#3
REVIEW
Karen L Kotloff
Reductions in mortality from diarrheal diseases among young children have occurred in recent decades; however, approximately 500,000 children continue to die each year. Moreover, similar reductions in disease incidence have not been seen, episodes that impact the growth and development of young children. Two recent studies, MAL-ED and GEMS, have more clearly defined the burden and cause of diarrhea among young children, identifying four leading pathogens: rotavirus, CryptosporidiumShigella, and heat stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733861/an-infant-with-acute-gastroenteritis-caused-by-a-secondary-infection-with-a-rotarix-derived-strain
#4
Naomi Sakon, Ryohei Miyamoto, Jun Komano
Rotavirus vaccines have been successful in controlling severe diarrhea and have decreased deaths of young children globally. Rotarix and RotaTeq are the two currently available live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines. The vaccine virus can grow in a recipient's gut and spread from the vaccinee to naïve individuals. The potential for the emergence of revertant viruses is a concern with live-attenuated vaccines. We identified a previously healthy infant with severe acute gastroenteritis that was positive for rotavirus in a non-endemic season...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732533/spatial-and-temporal-patterns-of-diarrhoea-in-bhutan-2003-2013
#5
Kinley Wangdi, Archie Ca Clements
BACKGROUND: To describe spatiotemporal patterns of diarrhoea in Bhutan, and quantify the association between climatic factors and the distribution and dynamics of the disease. METHODS: Nationwide data on diarrhoea were obtained for 2003 to 2013 from the Health Information and Management System (HIMS), Ministry of Health, Bhutan. Climatic variables were obtained from the Department of Hydro Met Services, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Bhutan. Seasonal trend decomposition was used to examine secular trends and seasonal patterns of diarrhoea...
July 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723322/heat-stable-oral-rotavirus-vaccine
#6
LETTER
Sheila Isanaka, Ali Djibo, Rebecca F Grais
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722190/estimating-population-effects-of-vaccination-using-large-routinely-collected-data
#7
M Elizabeth Halloran, Michael G Hudgens
Vaccination in populations can have several kinds of effects. Establishing that vaccination produces population-level effects beyond the direct effects in the vaccinated individuals can have important consequences for public health policy. Formal methods have been developed for study designs and analysis that can estimate the different effects of vaccination. However, implementing field studies to evaluate the different effects of vaccination can be expensive, of limited generalizability, or unethical. It would be advantageous to use routinely collected data to estimate the different effects of vaccination...
July 19, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720280/hospitalised-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-in-new-zealand-the-laboratory-database-is-a-valuable-tool-for-assessing-the-impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination
#8
Matthew J Kelly, David Foley, Timothy K Blackmore
AIM: To assess the impact of the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in New Zealand at a regional and national level, underlining the utility of a passively collected laboratory dataset. METHOD: Retrospective laboratory data for rotavirus testing from Wellington and Hutt Hospitals from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016, matched with hospital admissions data of children under 5years of age with gastroenteritis primary and secondary coded admissions. The second part of the study examined the national dataset of primary coded hospital gastroenteritis admissions from the same period...
July 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#9
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N=1375) received HB vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of three batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4-6 months of age, co-administered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719399/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#10
Kulandaipalayam Natarajan Chella Sindhu, Sudhir Babji, Santhosh Kumar Ganesan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rotavirus vaccines are playing a pivotal role in improving lives of infants and young children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many of these countries have adopted the vaccine into their routine immunization, whereas others are considering introduction. This article provides an update on the impact of rotavirus vaccines in LMICs on morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years, and their cost-effectiveness. RECENT FINDINGS: The WHO, in 2013, updated its recommendation to prioritize introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the routine immunization schedule, without age restrictions...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713095/rotavirus-infection-in-children-as-of-today-literature-review
#11
Kateryna V Pikul, Lyudmyla E Bobyreva, Tatiana V Kushnereva, Valentina I Il'chenko, Konstantin Yu Priluckiy
INTRODUCTION: Urgency of the issue of rotavirus infection (RV) is stipulated by a special place in the structure of morbidity and mortality among young children. According to the data provided by WHO, 180 million diarrheal diseases with rotavirus etiology are registered every year. The aim of this article is to examine of current views on diagnosis and management of rotavirus infection in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of scientific literatures with the use of bibliosemantic method of study became the material for research...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709556/intussusception-among-children-less-than-2years-of-age-findings-from-pre-vaccine-introduction-surveillance-in-pakistan
#12
Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rozina Thobani, Saqib Hamid Qazi, Nasir Saddal, Catherine Yen, Negar Aliabadi, Syed Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination introduction in routine immunization is under consideration in Pakistan. Data on the baseline epidemiology of intussusception will inform surveillance strategies for intussusception after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Pakistan. We describe the epidemiology of intussusception-associated hospitalizations among children <2years of age in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review for July 01, 2012 through June 30, 2015 at the National Institute of Child Health (NICH) and Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) Karachi...
July 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693503/effectiveness-of-rotavirus-vaccines-against-hospitalisations-in-japan
#13
Yoshiyuki Fujii, Atsuko Noguchi, Shinobu Miura, Haruka Ishii, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi, Tsutomu Takahashi
BACKGROUND: In Japan, rotavirus hospitalisation occurs at a rate from 2.8 to 13.7 per 1000 child-years among children age less than 5 years, and it imposes a substantial burden to the healthcare system in the country. While both monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines are licensed in Japan, neither has been incorporated in the national infant immunization programme. In this study, we estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Japan. METHODS: This study was conducted in Yuri-Kumiai General Hospital located in a city in the north-western part of Japan...
July 11, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674310/distribution-of-rotavirus-genotypes-from-the-2008-2009-to-2015-2016-season-in-nara-prefecture-japan
#14
Daichi Sugimoto, Mamoru Nakano, Machi Inada, Misako Fujitani, Shoko Chiba, Takeshi Sakai
This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in Nara Prefecture, Japan before and after introduction of vaccination in 2011. Since the 2011/2012 season, DS-1-like G1P[8] strains have been detected in Nara Prefecture, accounting for about half of all strains in the 2014/2015 season. During the 2015/2016 season, no DS-1-like G1P[8] strain was detected. G2P[4] was the predominant genotype. Group A rotavirus (RVA), a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children, poses an important public health issue in Japan...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671426/vaccine-adverse-events-separating-myth-from-reality
#15
Jeanne P Spencer, Ruth H Trondsen Pawlowski, Stephanie Thomas
Vaccines are one of the most successful medical advances in modern times. Most vaccine-preventable illnesses are unfamiliar to modern parents. Because of this, parents are increasingly questioning the necessity of immunizing their children, especially because no vaccine is completely free of adverse effects or the risk of complications. Family physicians should be aware of the risks and benefits of recommended immunizations. Thimerosal is currently used only in multidose vials of influenza vaccine, and exposure through vaccines is not associated with adverse neurologic outcomes...
June 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670908/effects-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-on-the-maturation-and-differentiation-of-dendritic-cells-in-rotavirus-infected-mice
#16
Y Jiang, L Ye, Y Cui, G Yang, W Yang, J Wang, J Hu, W Gu, C Shi, H Huang, C Wang
Rotavirus-related diarrhoea is considered one of the most important diseases in field animal production. In addition to the classic vaccine strategy, a number of studies have utilised probiotics, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), to prevent rotavirus-induced diarrhoea. Although it has been partially revealed that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the LGG-mediated protection against rotavirus infection, the details of the underlying immunologic mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, three-to-four-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and orally administered phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS plus rotavirus or LGG plus rotavirus, respectively...
July 3, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665085/rotavirus-gastroenteritis-is-associated-with-increased-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-with-inherited-metabolic-disorders
#17
A Smith, M Mannion, P O'Reilly, E Crushell, J Hughes, I Knerr, P Gavin, A Monavari
Rotavirus is the leading cause of infantile diarrhoea worldwide in children <5 years1. Although mortality rates are low in Ireland, certain populations are more susceptible to the associated morbidity and mortality of infection. A retrospective chart review of 14 patients with confirmed IMDs who were admitted to Temple Street Children's Hospital between 2010 to 2015 with rotavirus infection were compared with 14 randomly selected age matched controls. The median length of stay was 7 days (SD25.3) in IMD patients versus 1...
April 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662763/baseline-incidence-of-intussusception-in-early-childhood-before-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-the-netherlands-january-2008-to-december-2012
#18
Kartini Gadroen, Jeanet M Kemmeren, Patricia Cj Bruijning-Verhagen, Sabine Mjm Straus, Daniel Weibel, Hester E de Melker, Miriam Cjm Sturkenboom
Intussusception is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition in early childhood. It gained attention due to an unexpected association with the first rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, which was subsequently withdrawn from the market. Across Europe, broad variations in intussusception incidence rates have been reported. This study provides a first estimate of intussusception incidence in young children in the Netherlands from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012, which could be used for future rotavirus safety monitoring...
June 22, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648544/risk-of-intussusception-following-rotavirus-vaccination-an-evidence-based-meta-analysis-of-cohort-and-case-control-studies
#19
Priya Kassim, Guy D Eslick
BACKGROUND: International post-licensure studies on rotavirus vaccines have identified an increased risk of intussusception in infants after administration. The first developed rotavirus vaccine (Rotashield (RRV-TV)) was suspended post-licensure in 1999 after an association with intussusception was found. The currently available second-generation rotavirus vaccines (Rotateq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1)), are recommended as a routine vaccine by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Post-licensure studies of these vaccines have shown a smaller but temporal increased risk for developing intussusception...
June 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640005/intussusception-related-hospitalizations-among-infants-before-and-after-private-market-licensure-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-taiwan-2001-2013
#20
Catherine Yen, Shu-Man Shih, Jacqueline E Tate, Fang-Tzy Wu, Yhu-Chering Huang, Umesh D Parashar, Chao A Hsiung
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among Taiwanese children. Two globally licensed rotavirus vaccines recommended for inclusion in routine immunization programs that have been available for private market use in Taiwan since 2006 have been associated with a low risk of intussusception in post-marketing studies conducted in several countries. Our objective was to examine trends and characteristics of intussusception hospitalizations in Taiwan among children aged <12 months before and after rotavirus vaccine licensure to provide updated baseline and early post-licensure data...
June 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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