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Rotavirus vaccine

Margaret Mokomane, Ishmael Kasvosve, Emilia de Melo, Jeffrey M Pernica, David M Goldfarb
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
Jin-Song Li, Bing Cao, Han-Chun Gao, Dan-di Li, Lin Lin, Li-Li Li, Na Liu, Zhao-Jun Duan
Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) is an oral live attenuated vaccine first licensed in China in 2000. To date, > 60 million doses of LLR have been distributed to children. However, very little is known about faecal shedding of LLR in children. Therefore, faecal samples (n = 1,184) were collected from 114 children for 15 days post-vaccination in September-November 2011/2012. Faecal shedding and viral loads were determined by an enzyme immunoassay kit (EIA) and real-time RT-PCR. The complete genome was sequenced and the vaccine strain was isolated by culture in MA104 cells...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rachel M Burke, Jacqueline E Tate, Kimberly D Pringle, Manish Patel, Lucia H De Oliveira, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines are less effective in developing countries versus developed countries. One hypothesis for this difference in performance is that higher levels of maternal antibodies in developing countries may interfere with vaccine response, suggesting that delayed dosing could be beneficial. The present analysis aims to assess whether rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) varies by age at vaccination during routine use in Bolivia. METHODS: Data were merged from two post-licensure evaluations of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Bolivia, where two doses of RV1 are recommended at two and four months of age...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Felix Omeñaca, Liliana Vázquez, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain, Ivonne Puente Gómez, Johannes Liese, Markus Knuf
BACKGROUND: Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed. METHODS: Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK's hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
Theresa K Resch, Yuhuan Wang, Sung-Sil Moon, Jessica Joyce, Song Li, Mark Prausnitz, Baoming Jiang
To improve the safety and efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines, we developed an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) for parenteral administration. Since it remains unknown whether parenteral vaccination can induce mucosal immunity, we performed a comprehensive assessment of immune responses to IRV in mice with an adjuvant-free dissolving polymer MN patch or by alum-adjuvanted IM injection. We demonstrated that IRV induced the expression of the gut homing receptor LPAM-1 on T and B cells in spleen and mLN of vaccinated mice...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kimberly D Pringle, Rachel M Burke, Claudia A Steiner, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate
Background: Rotavirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis and has also been associated with generalized tonic-clonic afebrile seizures. Since rotavirus vaccine introduction, hospitalizations for treatment of acute gastroenteritis have decreased. We assess whether there has been an associated decrease in seizure-associated hospitalizations. Methods: We used discharge codes to abstract data on seizure hospitalizations among children <5 years old from the State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
T Akhtar, J Cargill, C Gerrard, F Shaw, N A Cunliffe, R P D Cooke, B Pizer
We reviewed seven year's data to examine stool testing for rotavirus in patents treated on a regional Paediatric Oncology Unit before and after the introduction of UK-wide rotavirus immunisation in July 2013. The prevalence of rotavirus positivity has diminished since the introduction of rotavirus immunisation, with 21 of 416 positive samples between 2010 and 2012, but only one positive test out of 122 samples in 2015 and 2016. Based on these results, we suggest there is very little utility for routine rotavirus testing in children and young people with cancer presenting with diarrhoea...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Scott P Grytdal, Dana L Haberling, Jordan L Kennedy, Jeffrey T McCollum, Umesh D Parashar
We examined the uptake of rotavirus vaccine and compared trends in acute gastroenteritis (AGE)-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years before and after introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. The rates of AGE-associated hospitalization and outpatient visits among AI/AN children remained below prevaccine levels.
December 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Bryony R Dawkins, Andrew J Mirelman, Miqdad Asaria, Kjell Arne Johansson, Richard A Cookson
Reducing health inequality is a major policy concern for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) on the path to universal health coverage. However, health inequality impacts are rarely quantified in cost-effectiveness analyses of health programmes. Distributional cost-effectiveness analysis (DCEA) is a method developed to analyse the expected social distributions of costs and health benefits, and the potential trade-offs that may exist between maximising total health and reducing health inequality. This is the first paper to show how DCEA can be applied in LMICs...
January 3, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Gerardo J Sánchez, Holger Mayta, Monica J Pajuelo, Karen Neira, Liu Xiaofang, Lilia Cabrera, Sarah Blythe Ballard, Jean E Crabtree, Dermot Kelleher, Vitaliano Cama, Caryn Bern, Hitoshi Oshitani, Robert H Gilman, Mayuko Saito
Background: Sapovirus is one of the primary viral causes of acute gastroenteritis, especially in settings where rotavirus vaccination has been implemented. The characteristics and impact of natural infection at the community level, however, have not been well documented. Methods: Stool samples were analyzed from 100 children randomly selected from a community-based birth cohort study in Peru. All diarrheal and one non-diarrheal stools collected trimonthly from children up to two years of age (n=1669) were tested for sapovirus detection...
December 22, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Houping Wang, Merry Liu, Ken Sugata, Yuhuan Wang, Jennifer Hull, Kimberly Foytich, Baoming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Group A rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in young children worldwide. A simple and rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been commonly used to detect rotavirus infection and evaluate rotavirus vaccines. Currently licensed commercial EIA kits have low sensitivity. A more sensitive detection of rotavirus can improve rotavirus diagnostics and vaccine efficacy studies. OBJECTIVE: A biotin-avidin based sandwich EIA was developed and compared with commercial EIA kits for improved detection of viral shedding in fecal samples from infants who received human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix in Mexico...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
David Moreno-Pérez, Francisco José Álvarez García, Javier Álvarez Aldeán, María José Cilleruelo Ortega, María Garcés Sánchez, Nuria García Sánchez, Ángel Hernández Merino, María Méndez Hernández, Manuel Merino Moína, Abián Montesdeoca Melián, Jesús Ruiz-Contreras
The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTPa is recommended, and a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women in every pregnancy between 27 and 32 weeks' gestation...
January 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Isidore Juste O Bonkoungou, Negar Aliabadi, Eyal Leshem, Madibèlè Kam, Désiré Nezien, Maxime K Drabo, Moumouni Nikiema, Boureima Ouedraogo, Isaïe Medah, Souleymane Konaté, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Lassana Sangaré, Ludovic Kam, Diarra Yé, Ma Ouattara, Joseph N Biey, Jason M Mwenda, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Burkina Faso was one of the first African nations to introduce pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5, RotaTeq) into its national immunization program in October 2013. We describe the impact and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations among Burkinabe children. METHODS: Sentinel hospital-based surveillance for AGE was conducted at four hospitals during December 2013 - February 2017. Demographic, clinical, and vaccination information was collected and stool specimens were tested by EIA...
December 28, 2017: Vaccine
Daisuke Tokuhara
Infectious diarrhea in children can be life-threatening and imposes a large economic burden on healthcare systems, therefore more effective prophylactic and therapeutic drugs are needed urgently. Because most of the pathogens responsible for childhood diarrhea infect the gastrointestinal mucosa, providing protective immunity at the mucosal surface is an ideal way to control pathogen invasion and toxic activity. Mucosal (e.g., oral, nasal) vaccines are superior to systemic (subcutaneous or intramuscular) vaccination for conferring both mucosal and systemic pathogen-specific immune responses...
December 31, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Fumihiko Hattori, Yoshiki Kawamura, Jun-Ichi Kawada, Seiji Kojima, Jun Natsume, Koichi Ito, Shinji Saito, Yoshiro Kitagawa, Akihisa Okumura, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus can rarely cause severe complications such as encephalopathy/encephalitis, myocarditis, sudden unexpected death, urinary stone, and gastrointestinal bleeding; indeed incidence of these severe complications remains unclear. Additionally, it has not been determined whether rotavirus vaccine could reduce the cases with the severe complications or not. METHOD: A two-part questionnaire was designed to determine the number and clinical features of the cases with the severe complications between September 1st 2008 and August 31st 2015 including the observation periods before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Aichi prefecture...
December 29, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Aisleen Bennett, Nico Nagelkerke, Ellen Heinsbroek, Prasanna S Premkumar, Małgorzata Wnęk, Gagandeep Kang, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Naor Bar-Zeev, Ben Lopman, Miren Iturriza-Gomara
Accurate estimates of rotavirus incidence in infants are crucial given disparities in rotavirus vaccine effectiveness from low-income settings. Sero-surveys are a pragmatic means of estimating incidence however serological data is prone to misclassification. This study used mixture models to estimate incidence of rotavirus infection from anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) titres in infants from Vellore, India, and Karonga, Malawi. IgA titres were measured using serum samples collected at 6 month intervals for 36 months from 373 infants from Vellore and 12 months from 66 infants from Karonga...
2017: PloS One
Katayi Mwila-Kazimbaya, Miguel Pugliese Garcia, Samuel Bosomprah, Natasha Makabilo Laban, Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga, Sallie Robey Permar, Michelo Simuyandi, Sody Munsaka, Roma Chilengi
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus vaccines have been introduced into national immunization programmes to mitigate morbidity and mortality associated rotavirus diarrhoea. Lower vaccine effectiveness has however been noted in low-middle income countries, but little is known about the role of maternal components found in breast milk. This study assessed the effect of lactoferrin, lactadherin, and tenascin-c on rotavirus vaccine seroconversion. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 128 infants who had been fully immunized with Rotarix™...
2017: PloS One
Innocent Mwape, Samuel Bosomprah, John Mwaba, Katayi Mwila-Kazimbaya, Natasha Makabilo Laban, Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga, Gibson Sijumbila, Michelo Simuyandi, Roma Chilengi
INTRODUCTION: Deployment of rotavirus vaccines has contributed to significant declines in diarrheal morbidity and mortality globally. Unfortunately, vaccine performance in low-middle income countries (LMICs) is generally lower than in developed countries. The cause for this has been associated with several host and maternal factors including poor water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) status, which are predominant in LMICs. More recently, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) has specifically been hypothesized to contribute to poor vaccine uptake and response...
2017: PloS One
Theingi Win Myat, Hlaing Myat Thu, Hlaing Myat Kyaw, Khin Mar Aye, Mo Mo Win, Htin Lin, Thin Thin Shwe, Win Mar, Khin Khin Oo, Kyaw Zin Thant
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children <5 years of age in Myanmar. The purpose of this analysis is to report from the sentinel surveillance system for rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), which collects information on the epidemiology and circulating genotypes to assess the disease burden and support vaccine introduction in Myanmar. METHODS: Prospective, active surveillance for RVGE-associated hospitalizations was conducted during 2009 -2014 at Yangon Children's Hospital...
December 20, 2017: Vaccine
Charles E Okafor, Obinna I Ekwunife
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death in Nigerian children under 5 years. Implementing the most cost-effective approach to diarrhoea management in Nigeria will help optimize health care resources allocation. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of various approaches to diarrhoea management namely: the 'no treatment' approach (NT); the preventive approach with rotavirus vaccine; the integrated management of childhood illness for diarrhoea approach (IMCI); and rotavirus vaccine plus integrated management of childhood illness for diarrhoea approach (rotavirus vaccine + IMCI)...
December 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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