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Rotavirus vaccine

Khitam Muhsen, Eias Kassem, Uri Rubenstein, Sophy Goren, Moshe Ephros, Dani Cohen, Lester M Shulman
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about the sustainability of the reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) following the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programs, and on its potential impact on circulating genotypes. RotaTeq was introduced into the Israeli national immunization program in December 2010, and vaccination coverage is around 80%. AIMS: To examine the change in incidence of RVGE hospitalization and rotavirus genotypes, during the five years after introduction of RotaTeq into the Israeli national immunization program...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
M Topuridze, D Baliashvili, T Komakhidze, M Shishniashvili, N Grdzelidze, M Butsashvili
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. RV causes approximately half a million deaths each year among children aged <5 years. According to WHO estimates for 2008, there were approximately 10 to 50 deaths annually in young children due to rotavirus diarrhea in Georgia. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to rotavirus diarrhea and the rotavirus vaccine among health care workers (HCWs). The National Center for Disease Control and Public Health (NCDC) conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs involved in the expanded program of immunization (EPI)...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Suifang Ye, David M Whiley, Robert S Ware, Theo P Sloots, Carl D Kirkwood, Keith Grimwood, Stephen B Lambert
Several viruses are associated with gastroenteritis in infants. This pilot study, nested within a larger community-based project of early childhood infections, collected daily symptom data and 511 weekly stool samples from five healthy, fully-vaccinated, term infants from birth until their second birthday. Real-time PCR assays were used to detect six enteric viruses. Frequent, silent shedding of one or more of the six viruses was observed, particularly involving adenovirus where shedding could be for up to 3-months without gastrointestinal symptoms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Shu-Ling Hoshi, Masahide Kondo, Ichiro Okubo
Two rotavirus vaccines are currently available in Japan. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of routine infant rotavirus immunisation programme without defining which vaccine to be evaluated, which reflects the current deliberation at the Health Science Council in charge of Immunisation and Vaccine established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Three ICERs were estimated, one from payers' perspective and two from societal perspective depending on the scenarios to uptake vaccines...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Juan F Contreras-Cordero, César I Romo-Sáenz, Griselda E Menchaca-Rodríguez, Rocío Infante-Ramírez, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Carlos E Hernández-Luna, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, Reyes S Tamez-Guerra
Rotavirus vaccine was developed using the most prominent G and P genotypes circulating in children population. Therefore, severe gastroenteritis has been reduced around the world. This study investigated the G and P rotavirus genotypes circulating in children from two hospitals in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. Additionally, polyclonal antibodies against Rotavirus Wa strain were used to determine their homotypic and heterotypic reactivity to both P[8] and P[4] genotypes. G1, G2, and G3 VP7 genotypes and P[8] and P[4] VP4 genotypes were detected in common and uncommon combinations as well as mixed infectious...
December 2015: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Maria Hemming-Harlo, Timo Vesikari, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko, Marjo Salminen, Laurence Torcel-Pagnon, Susanne Hartwig, Francois Simondon, Hélène Bricout
KEY POINTS: The effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus-associated hospitalization was more than 90% 4 years after introduction into the national immunization program in Finland. A major impact on hospitalization for all-cause gastroenteritis was observed also. BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination with exclusive use of RotaTeq was added to the National Immunization Programme (NIP) of Finland in September 2009. The objective of our study was to estimate the effectiveness and impact of RotaTeq after 4 years of follow-up...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Joann F Gruber, Darcy A Hille, G Frank Liu, Susan S Kaplan, Micki Nelson, Michelle G Goveia, T Christopher Mast
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea worldwide in young children. Although rotavirus vaccine efficacy is high in developed countries, efficacy is lower in developing countries. Here, we investigated heterogeneity of rotavirus vaccine efficacy by infant characteristics in developing countries. METHODS: An exploratory, post-hoc analysis was conducted using randomized controlled trial data of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) conducted in Africa and Asia (NCT00362648)...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kyungtaek Im, Jisu Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Trisha C Parker, Anaam Mohammed, Traci Leong, Shelley Mays, Shabnam Jain, Victoria Churchill, Fatima Ali, Lilly C Immergluck
OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus (RV) is one of the most common diarrheal diseases affecting children less than 5 years of age. RV vaccines have greatly reduced this burden in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine possible disparities and socio-economic differences in RV vaccination rates. DESIGN: Children with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled. Stool was tested for presence of rotavirus using an enzyme immunoassay kit. Vaccination records were abstracted from the state immunization registry and healthcare providers to examine complete and incomplete vaccination status...
October 14, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mélanie Gagnon, Allison Vimont, André Darveau, Ismaïl Fliss, Julie Jean
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Despite effective vaccines, inexpensive alternatives such as probiotics are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of probiotic candidate Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 to inhibit rotavirus infection. Bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells and interference with viral attachment were evaluated in vitro. B. thermophilum RBL67 displayed adhesion indexes of 625 ± 84 and 1958 ± 318 on Caco-2 and HT-29 cells respectively and was comparable or superior to four other bifidobacteria, including B...
2016: PloS One
Alasdair Bamford, Emma C Manno, Maria Jose Mellado, Vana Spoulou, Laura Marques, Henriette J Scherpbier, Tim Niehues, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
J Arístegui, J Ferrer, I Salamanca, E Garrote, A Partidas, M San-Martin, B San-Jose
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is acknowledged as an important cause of paediatric gastroenteritis worldwide. In Spain, comprehensive data on the burden of rotavirus disease was lacking. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, observational study was carried out, during the winter season, from October to April 2014 in selected areas of Spain (Catalonia, Basque Country, Andalusia) to estimate the frequency and characteristics of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children ≤3 years of age seeking medical care in primary care and emergency department centres...
October 10, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ziqin Dian, Mao Fan, Binghui Wang, Yue Feng, Hao Ji, Shuwei Dong, A-Mei Zhang, Li Liu, Hua Niu, Xueshan Xia
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus A (RVA) infections in children from Kunming, China, and the RVA genotypes present. A total of 16,311 children with acute gastroenteritis were recruited for the study, and 33.1 % (5,394/16,311) were RVA positive. Children under 24 months of age were more susceptible to RVA infection, with an infection rate of 87.4 % (4,712/5,394). The most prevalent genotype was G9P[8] (85/107, 79.4 %), which showed high sequence similarity to G9P[8] strains from other regions of China and neighbouring countries, but not to the licensed vaccine strain LLR...
October 7, 2016: Archives of Virology
Baudouin Standaert, Danielle Strens, Xiao Li, Nadia Schecroun, Marc Raes
INTRODUCTION: The benefits of rotavirus (RV) vaccination in developed countries have focused on reductions in mortality, hospitalization and medical visits, and herd protection. We investigated other aspects related to RV-induced nosocomial infection, duration of hospital stay, age shift, and sustained vaccine impact (VI) over time. METHOD: RotaBIS (Rotavirus Belgian Impact Study; identifier, NCT01563146) annually collects retrospective data on hospitalization linked to RV testing in children up to 5 years old from 11 pediatric wards located all over Belgium...
October 6, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Dan Yamin, Katherine E Atkins, Vanessa Remy, Alison P Galvani
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against rotavirus has shown great potential for reducing the primary cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. Previous economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccination in France have not modeled the potential impact of vaccines on disease burden via reduced transmission. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of pentavalent rotavirus vaccination into the French infant vaccination schedule. METHODS: We developed an age-structured model of rotavirus transmission calibrated to 6 years of French gastroenteritis incidence and vaccine clinical trial data...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Vance Dietz
Sustained high coverage with recommended vaccinations among children has kept many vaccine-preventable diseases at low levels in the United States (1). To assess coverage with vaccinations recommended for children by age 2 years in the United States (2), CDC analyzed data collected by the 2015 National Immunization Survey (NIS) for children aged 19-35 months (born January 2012-May 2014). Overall, coverage did not change during 2014-2015. Coverage in 2015 was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
J Y Wang, Z H Li, M Ye, Q Feng, Z M Chen, X S Ye, Z G Wu, B Wang, L Liu, J Yao
Biliary atresia (BA) is a destructive bile duct disease occurring in newborn children within a few weeks after birth. In this study, the effect of miR-29c and miR-129-5p on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in experimental BA was explored by constructing BA mouse models via Rhesus rotavirus vaccine infection. miR-29c and miR-129-5p expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. EMT was established by induction with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. miR-29c and miR-129-5p were overexpressed and inhibited, respectively, by Lipofectamine transfection...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Evans M Mpabalwani, Jason M Mwenda, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, are increasingly being introduced in national immunization programmes in Africa to prevent severe dehydrating acute gastroenteritis. A low-level risk of intussusception has been associated with rotavirus vaccines. We reviewed published data on intussusception in children <2 years of age in Africa. PubMed electronic database search was used to retrieve papers published on intussusception. The search was further refined to identify surveillance reports and case series conducted from 1980 to 2014, with at least 25 cases...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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