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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928361/mir-9a-modulates-maintenance-and-ageing-of-drosophila-germline-stem-cells-by-limiting-n-cadherin-expression
#1
Yehonatan Epstein, Noam Perry, Marina Volin, Maayan Zohar-Fux, Rachel Braun, Lilach Porat-Kuperstein, Hila Toledano
Ageing is characterized by a decline in stem cell functionality leading to dampened tissue regeneration. While the expression of microRNAs across multiple species is markedly altered with age, the mechanism by which they govern stem cell-sustained tissue regeneration is unknown. We report that in the Drosophila testis, the conserved miR-9a is expressed in germline stem cells and its levels are significantly elevated during ageing. Transcriptome and functional analyses show that miR-9a directly regulates the expression of the adhesion molecule N-cadherin (N-cad)...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925281/fertility-regulation-as-identity-maintenance-understanding-the-social-aspects-of-birth-control
#2
Cicely Marston, Alicia Renedo, Gertrude Nsorma Nyaaba
We take a dialogical approach to exploring fertility regulation practices and show how they can maintain or express social identity. We identify three themes in educated Ghanaian women's accounts of how they navigate conflicting social demands on their identity when trying to regulate fertility: secrecy and silence - hiding contraception use and avoiding talking about it; tolerating uncertainty - such as using unreliable but more socially acceptable contraception; and wanting to be fertile and protecting menses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913952/new-age-ideas-about-age-old-sex-separating-meiosis-from-mating-could-solve-a-century-old-conundrum
#3
Michael Brandeis
Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. I argue that the obstacle for comprehending the role of sex stems from the conceptual entanglement of two distinct processes - gamete production by meiosis and gamete fusion by mating (mixis)...
September 14, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913136/clinical-analyses-of-successful-and-previously-failed-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-cycle-parameters-in-patients-with-poor-ovarian-reserve
#4
Tayfun Kutlu, Enis Özkaya, Pınar Kumru, Habibe Ayvacı, Belgin Devranoğlu, İlhan Sanverdi, Yavuz Şahin, Beyhan Sağlam, Ateş Karateke
OBJECTIVE: To determine some major characteristic differences between two consecutive successful and unsuccessful intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in poor responders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty women with poor ovarian response as determined using the Bologna criteria underwent ICSI cycles following an unsuccessful trial. Some parameters of both cycles including age, body mass index (BMI), serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels, antral follicle count, gonadotropin dosage, duration of stimulation, antagonist starting day, duration of antagonist administration, endometrial thickness at trigger day, number of total and fertilized oocytes, embryo transfer day, number of embryo cells, and fertilization rate were compared in the same patients to identify predictors of cycles with clinical pregnancy...
March 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910998/abnormal-uterine-bleeding
#5
Ying Cheong, Iain T Cameron, Hilary O D Critchley
Introduction: It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Sources of data: Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. Areas of agreement: There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified)...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905369/tsga10-is-a-novel-candidate-gene-associated-with-acephalic-spermatozoa
#6
Yan-Wei Sha, Yan-Kun Sha, Zhi-Yong Ji, Li-Bin Mei, Lu Ding, Qing Zhang, Ping-Ping Qiu, Shao-Bin Lin, Xu Wang, Ping Li, Xiaohui Xu, Lin Li
Acephalic spermatozoa is a rare teratozoospermia associated with male infertility. However, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear. Here, we report a 27-year-old infertile male from a consanguineous family, who presented with 99% headless sperm in his ejaculate. Electron microscopic and immunofluorescence analysis suggested breakage at the midpiece of the patient's sperm cells. Subsequent whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis identified a homozygous deletion within TSGA10 (c.211delG; p.A71Hfs*12), which resulted in the production of truncated TSGA10 protein...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901603/fertility-immigration-and-the-fight-against-climate-change
#7
Jake Earl, Colin Hickey, Travis N Rieder
Several philosophers have recently argued that policies aimed at reducing human fertility are a practical and morally justifiable way to mitigate the risk of dangerous climate change. There is a powerful objection to such "population engineering" proposals: even if drastic fertility reductions are needed to prevent dangerous climate change, implementing those reductions would wreak havoc on the global economy, which would seriously undermine international antipoverty efforts. In this article, we articulate this economic objection to population engineering and show how it fails...
October 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900177/comparison-of-soil-analytical-methods-for-estimating-wheat-potassium-fertilizer-requirements-in-response-to-contrasting-plant-k-demand-in-the-glasshouse
#8
Yulin Zhang, Gunasekhar Nachimuthu, Sean Mason, Michael J McLaughlin, Ann McNeill, Michael J Bell
The traditional soil potassium (K) testing methods fail to accurately predict K requirement by plants. The Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) method is promising, but the relationship between the DGT-measured K pool and plant available K is not clear. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Frame) was grown in 9 Australian broad acre agricultural soils in a glasshouse trial until the end of tillering growth stage (GS30) with different plant K demands generated by varying plant numbers and pot sizes. Different K concentrations in soils were varied by 4 rates of K fertilizer application...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892594/male-infertility-the-other-side-of-the-equation
#9
Darren J Katz, Patrick Teloken, Ohad Shoshany
BACKGROUND: A male factor contributes to infertility in approximately 50% of couples who fail to conceive, causing significant psychosocial and marital stress. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the general practitioner's (GP's) evaluation of male infertility and indications for referral to a male infertility specialist, and gives an overview of the specialist management of male infertility. DISCUSSION: Male infertility can result from anatomical or genetic abnormalities, systemic or neurological diseases, infections, trauma, iatrogenic injury, gonadotoxins and development of sperm antibodies...
September 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882581/premature-ovarian-senescence-and-high-miscarriage-rate-impair-fertility-in-women-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#10
Aimilia Karampatou, Xue Han, Loreta A Kondili, Gloria Taliani, Alessia Ciancio, Filomena Morisco, Rosina Maria Critelli, Enrica Baraldi, Veronica Bernabucci, Giulia Troshina, Maria Guarino, Simonetta Tagliavini, Federica D'Ambrosio, Laura Bristot, Laura Turco, Stefano Rosato, Stefano Vella, Tommaso Trenti, Isabella Neri, Antonio La Marca, Shivaji Manthena, Andrea S Goldstein, Savino Bruno, Yanjun Bao, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez, Erica Villa
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Premenopausal Hepatitis C Virus positive (HCV+) women have failing ovarian function.We thus investigated reproductive history,risk of infertility and pregnancy outcomes in HCV+ women of childbearing age. METHODS: Three different groups were studied:1) Clinical cohort:100 HCV+ women with chronic liver disease (CLD), age matched with 50 HBV+ women with CLD and with 100 healthy women consecutively observed in 3 Italian Gastroenterology Units;2) 1998 HCV+ women enrolled in the Italian Platform for the Study of Viral Hepatitis Therapies (PITER);3) 6...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880892/beyond-hiv-serodiscordance-partnership-communication-dynamics-that-affect-engagement-in-safer-conception-care
#11
Lynn T Matthews, Bridget F Burns, Francis Bajunirwe, Jerome Kabakyenga, Mwebesa Bwana, Courtney Ng, Jasmine Kastner, Annet Kembabazi, Naomi Sanyu, Adrine Kusasira, Jessica E Haberer, David R Bangsberg, Angela Kaida
INTRODUCTION: We explored acceptability and feasibility of safer conception methods among HIV-affected couples in Uganda. METHODS: We recruited HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) ('index') from the Uganda Antiretroviral Rural Treatment Outcomes cohort who reported an HIV-negative or unknown-serostatus partner ('partner'), HIV-serostatus disclosure to partner, and personal or partner desire for a child within two years. We conducted in-depth interviews with 40 individuals from 20 couples, using a narrative approach with tailored images to assess acceptability of five safer conception strategies: ART for the infected partner, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the uninfected partner, condomless sex timed to peak fertility, manual insemination, and male circumcision...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878788/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-candidate-genes-for-female-sterility-in-pomegranate-flowers
#12
Lina Chen, Jie Zhang, Haoxian Li, Juan Niu, Hui Xue, Beibei Liu, Qi Wang, Xiang Luo, Fuhong Zhang, Diguang Zhao, Shangyin Cao
Pomegranate has two types of flowers on the same plant: functional male flowers (FMF) and bisexual flowers (BF). BF are female-fertile flowers that can set fruits. FMF are female-sterile flowers that fail to set fruit and that eventually drop. The putative cause of pomegranate FMF female sterility is abnormal ovule development. However, the key stage at which the FMF pomegranate ovules become abnormal and the mechanism of regulation of pomegranate female sterility remain unknown. Here, we studied ovule development in FMF and BF, using scanning electron microscopy to explore the key stage at which ovule development was terminated and then analyzed genes differentially expressed (differentially expressed genes - DEGs) between FMF and BF to investigate the mechanism responsible for pomegranate female sterility...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866084/a-homozygous-cep135-mutation-is-associated-with-multiple-morphological-abnormalities-of-the-sperm-flagella-mmaf
#13
Yan-Wei Sha, Xiaohui Xu, Li-Bin Mei, Ping Li, Zhi-Ying Su, Xiao-Qin He, Lin Li
Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) is a rare disease associated with primary infertility; however, ~50% of the genetic alterations associated with MMAF remain unclear. Here, we reported the case of a 30-year-old infertile male from a consanguineous family. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous mutation in the CEP135 gene (c.A1364T:p.D455V), with CEP135 previously reported to play a role in centriole biogenesis and specifically central pair assembly. D455V-mutated proteins formed protein aggregates in the centrosome and the flagella, which might potentially affect the function of centriole assembly...
August 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854857/inequality-and-demographic-response-to-short-term-economic-stress-in-north-orkney-scotland-1855-1910-sector-differences
#14
Julia A Jennings, Luciana Quaranta, Tommy Bengtsson
We examine economic inequality and social differences in infant and child mortality, and fertility responses to food price changes in North Orkney, 1855-1910, using linked vital records. This small population featured a diverse occupational structure, limited land resources, and geographic isolation from mainland Scotland. Segments of Orkney's non-agricultural working population were living so close to the margin of subsistence in normal years that an increase in food prices in bad years cost the lives of their children...
August 31, 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854591/non-publication-and-publication-bias-in-reproductive-medicine-a-cohort-analysis
#15
S Lensen, V Jordan, M Showell, E Showell, V Shen, C Venetis, C Farquhar
STUDY QUESTION: Does publication bias or non-publication exist in fertility trials presented as conference abstracts? SUMMARY ANSWER: This study did not detect any publication bias; however, it did identify a high level of non-publication, with only 49% of abstracts reaching full-text publication four or more years after abstract presentation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the foundation of evidence based medicine...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829973/feasibility-and-efficacy-of-repeated-hysteroscopic-cesarean-niche-resection
#16
Shlomo B Cohen, Roy Mashiach, Alexandra Baron, Motti Goldenberg, Eyal Schiff, Raoul Orvieto, Jerome Bouaziz
OBJECTIVE: Cesarean-induced niche can cause symptoms such as abnormal postmenstrual bleeding, pain and associated infertility. Hysteroscopic niche resection is usually a successful treatment, but can result in a failure to improve symptoms or symptoms can recur. In the present study we aim to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of a second hysteroscopic niche resection for patients in whom an initial hysteroscopic resection failed to improve symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2) hospital tell hashomer (tertiary center) included all patients who underwent a second hysteroscopic niche resection between 2011 and 2015...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820408/-thrombophilic-genetic-mutations-and-polymorphisms-in-women-with-infertility-and-failed-in-vitro-fertilization
#17
G Abrahamyan
Occurrence of pregnancy after in vitro fertilization depends of two components: functional adequacy of the embryo at the blastocyst stage and receptivity of endometrium, which, according to modern perception, are determinate in achieving optimal conditions of implantation. From the pregnancy occurrence point of view, as well as in regard to its further development , implantation is the most crucial phase of IVF/ICSI and ET. As the same time, this phase is also the most vulnerable. Multiple researches have proven the role of mother thrombophilia for genesis of gestation complications and early embryo losses, but in relation to this problem i the context of IVF there is still a lot to be detailed...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820406/-results-of-preparation-and-implementation-of-ivf-program-in-patients-with-thrombophilia-and-history-of-failed-ivf
#18
G Abrahamyan
The problem of infertility and reproductive losses maintains its urgency, as well as medical and social significance. Frequency of infertility in overall population, according to the data from different authors, varies from 9 to 18 per cent. Methods of aided reproductive technologies (ART) opened a new era in the field of correction of infertile marriage. As a result, more and more couples choose to solve this problem by means of aided reproductive technologies (ART): in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET)...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798523/the-second-demographic-transition-theory-a-review-and-appraisal
#19
Batool Zaidi, S Philip Morgan
References to the second demographic transition (SDT) concept/theoretical framework have increased dramatically in the last two decades. The SDT predicts unilinear change toward very low fertility and a diversity of union and family types. The primary driver of these changes is a powerful, inevitable and irreversible shift in attitudes and norms in the direction of greater individual freedom and self-actualization. First, we describe the origin of this framework and its evolution over time. Second, we review the empirical fit of the framework to major changes in demographic and family behavior in the U...
July 2017: Annual Review of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768200/cfp1-regulates-histone-h3k4-trimethylation-and-developmental-potential-in-mouse-oocytes
#20
Chao Yu, Xiaoying Fan, Qian-Qian Sha, Hui-Han Wang, Bo-Tai Li, Xing-Xing Dai, Li Shen, Junping Liu, Lie Wang, Kui Liu, Fuchou Tang, Heng-Yu Fan
Trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine-4 (H3K4me3) is associated with eukaryotic gene promoters and poises their transcriptional activation during development. To examine the in vivo function of H3K4me3 in the absence of DNA replication, we deleted CXXC finger protein 1 (CFP1), the DNA-binding subunit of the SETD1 histone H3K4 methyltransferase, in developing oocytes. We find that CFP1 is required for H3K4me3 accumulation and the deposition of histone variants onto chromatin during oocyte maturation. Decreased H3K4me3 in oocytes caused global downregulation of transcription activity...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
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