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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914154/short-and-long-term-efficacy-of-laparoscopic-ovarian-diathermy-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
Rita Luz, Joana Barros, Ana Aguiar, Cátia Rodrigues, Ana Paula Soares, Joaquim Nunes, Sandra Sousa, Carlos Calhaz-Jorge
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most frequent cause of anovulatory infertility and management involves a multistep approach. Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy is accepted as a second-line treatment of patients who failed to respond to clomiphene citrate. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy of this technique at short and long-term and to perform an analysis of predictive factors of spontaneous pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study involved 76 women who underwent laparoscopic ovarian diathermy between 2004 and 2013 in a university hospital...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907897/cost-effectiveness-of-embryo-transfer-strategies-a-decision-analytic-model-using-long-term-costs-and-consequences-of-singletons-and-multiples-born-as-a-consequence-of-ivf
#2
M M J van Heesch, A D I van Asselt, J L H Evers, M A H B M van der Hoeven, J C M Dumoulin, C E M van Beijsterveldt, G J Bonsel, R H M Dykgraaf, J B van Goudoever, C Koopman-Esseboom, W L D M Nelen, K Steiner, P Tamminga, N Tonch, H L Torrance, C D Dirksen
STUDY QUESTION: What is the cost-effectiveness of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) versus double embryo transfer (DET) strategies from a societal perspective, when applying a time horizon of 1, 5 and 18 years? SUMMARY ANSWER: From a short-term perspective (1 year) it is cost-effective to replace DET with single embryo transfer; however when intermediate- (5 years) and long-term (18 years) costs and consequences are incorporated, DET becomes the most cost-effective strategy, given a ceiling ratio of €20 000 per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906881/stem-cells-and-clinical-practice-new-advances-and-challenges-at-the-time-of-emerging-problems-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-therapies
#3
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Kamila Bujko, Wojciech Wojakowski
Humans, like other species that reproduce sexually, originate from a fertilized oocyte (zygote), which is a totipotent stem cell giving rise to an adult organism. During the process of embryogenesis, stem cells at different levels of the developmental hierarchy establish all 3 germ layers and give rise to tissue‑committed stem cells, which are responsible for rejuvenation of a given tissue or organ. The robustness of the stem cell compartment is one of the major factors that directly impact life quality as well as lifespan...
November 10, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881734/nlrp2-controls-age-associated-maternal-fertility
#4
Anna A Kuchmiy, Jinke D'Hont, Tino Hochepied, Mohamed Lamkanfi
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are well-known for their key roles in the immune system. Ectopically expressed NLRP2 in immortalized cell lines assembles an inflammasome and inhibits activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, but the physiological roles of NLRP2 are unknown. Here, we show that Nlrp2-deficient mice were born with expected Mendelian ratios and that Nlrp2 was dispensable for innate and adaptive immunity. The observation that Nlrp2 was exclusively expressed in oocytes led us to explore the role of Nlrp2 in parthenogenetic activation of oocytes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876811/unlocking-sperm-chromatin-at-fertilization-requires-a-dedicated-egg-thioredoxin-in-drosophila
#5
Samantha Tirmarche, Shuhei Kimura, Raphaëlle Dubruille, Béatrice Horard, Benjamin Loppin
In most animals, the extreme compaction of sperm DNA is achieved after the massive replacement of histones with sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs), such as protamines. In some species, the ultracompact sperm chromatin is stabilized by a network of disulfide bonds connecting cysteine residues present in SNBPs. Studies in mammals have established that the reduction of these disulfide crosslinks at fertilization is required for sperm nuclear decondensation and the formation of the male pronucleus. Here, we show that the Drosophila maternal thioredoxin Deadhead (DHD) is specifically required to unlock sperm chromatin at fertilization...
November 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867150/generation-and-analysis-of-the-rett-syndrome-associated-mecp2-null-rat-model
#6
(no author information available yet)
MeCP2 mutations are associated with the Rett syndrome (RTT). Currently, there is an urgent need for new animal models for RTT as the existing MeCP2 knockout mouse models fail to fully mimic the pathogenesis and symptoms of RTT patients. In order to investigate the role of MeCP2 in brain development and RTT pathogenesis, we aimed to set up the MeCP2-null rat model using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Firstly we constructed the MeCP2 targeting vector and then microinjected Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA mixtures into fertilized ova of SD rats...
November 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864361/causes-of-male-infertility-a-9-year-prospective-monocentre-study-on-1737-patients-with-reduced-total-sperm-counts
#7
M Punab, O Poolamets, P Paju, V Vihljajev, K Pomm, R Ladva, P Korrovits, M Laan
STUDY QUESTION: What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was conducted at the Andrology Centre, Tartu University Hospital between 2005 and 2013, recruiting male partners of couples failing to conceive a child for over ≥12 months...
November 17, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862365/electroejaculation-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injuries-a-21-year-single-center-experience
#8
Timo Fw Soeterik, Paul W Veenboer, Ralph Ja Oude-Ophuis, Tycho Mtw Lock
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate treatment results of electroejaculation in patients with spinal cord injuries and the additional value of repeated electroejaculation. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective chart analysis of all spinal cord injury patients treated with electroejaculation at University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, from January 1994 to January 2015. Data were collected on the patients' demographics and medical history. We evaluated sperm quality according to World Health Organization standards, pregnancy and delivery rates...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860834/regulation-of-mammalian-oocyte-meiosis-by-intercellular-communication-within-the-ovarian-follicle
#9
Laurinda Jaffe, Jeremy R Egbert
Meiotic progression in mammalian preovulatory follicles is controlled by the granulosa cells around the oocyte. Cyclic GMP (cGMP) generated in the granulosa cells diffuses through gap junctions into the oocyte, maintaining meiotic prophase arrest. Luteinizing hormone then acts on receptors in outer granulosa cells to rapidly decrease cGMP. This occurs by two complementary pathways: cGMP production is decreased by dephosphorylation and inactivation of the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase, and cGMP hydrolysis is increased by activation of the PDE5 phosphodiesterase...
November 14, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855957/age-and-duration-of-testosterone-therapy-predict-time-to-return-of-sperm-count-after-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-therapy
#10
Taylor P Kohn, Matthew R Louis, Stephen M Pickett, Mark C Lindgren, Jaden R Kohn, Alexander W Pastuszak, Larry I Lipshultz
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors that influence sperm recovery after T-associated infertility. DESIGN: Clinical retrospective study. SETTING: Academic male-infertility urology clinic. PATIENT(S): Sixty-six men who presented with infertility after T use. INTERVENTION(S): T cessation and combination high-dose hCG and selective estrogen modulator (SERM) therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Whether patients successfully achieved or failed to achieve a total motile count (TMC) of greater than 5 million sperm within 12 months of T cessation and initiation of therapy...
November 14, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855529/uterine-packing-versus-foley-s-catheter-for-the-treatment-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-secondary-to-bleeding-tendency-in-low-resource-setting-a-four-year-observational-study
#11
Mohamed Rezk, Said Saleh, Hamid Ellakwa, Abdelhamid Shaheen, Tamer Fakhry
OBJECTIVE: to assess the effectiveness and safety of uterine packing versus Foley's catheter tamponade for controlling postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) secondary to bleeding tendency after vaginal delivery. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted on 92 patients with primary PPH due to bleeding tendency following vaginal delivery who were unresponsive to uterotonics and bimanual compression of the uterus. Patients were divided into two groups, Uterine packing group (n = 45) and Foley catheter group (n = 47)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848745/global-matrix-2-0-report-card-grades-on-the-physical-activity-of-children-and-youth-comparing-38-countries
#12
Mark S Tremblay, Joel D Barnes, Silvia A González, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Vincent O Onywera, John J Reilly, Grant R Tomkinson
The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance organized the concurrent preparation of Report Cards on the physical activity of children and youth in 38 countries from 6 continents (representing 60% of the world's population). Nine common indicators were used (Overall Physical Activity, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Active Transportation, Sedentary Behavior, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments), and all Report Cards were generated through a harmonized development process and a standardized grading framework (from A = excellent, to F = failing)...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842925/a-rare-case-of-right-lower-quadrant-abdominal-pain
#13
Mark Macedo, Brian Kim, Rami Khoury, Larry Narkiewicz
Isolated fallopian tube torsion without involvement of the ovary is a rare condition most frequently presenting during reproductive years. Imaging, vitals, physical exam, and laboratory findings all fail to help establish a definitive diagnosis. The majority of the diagnoses are made on the operating table. Physical exam most often reveals unilateral and localized abdominal pain, often with nausea and vomiting, but few other reliably common findings. Diagnosis becomes even more challenging due to the fact that isolated tubal torsion occurs often in pregnancy and preferentially on the right, further complicating the clinical picture...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833122/re-visiting-the-protamine-2-locus-deletion-but-not-haploinsufficiency-renders-male-mice-infertile
#14
Simon Schneider, Melanie Balbach, Jan F Jikeli, Daniela Fietz, Daniel Nettersheim, Sina Jostes, Rovenna Schmidt, Monika Kressin, Martin Bergmann, Dagmar Wachten, Klaus Steger, Hubert Schorle
Protamines are arginine-rich DNA-binding proteins that replace histones in elongating spermatids. This leads to hypercondensation of chromatin and ensures physiological sperm morphology, thereby protecting DNA integrity. In mice and humans, two protamines, protamine-1 (Prm1) and protamine-2 (Prm2) are expressed in a species-specific ratio. In humans, alterations of this PRM1/PRM2 ratio is associated with subfertility. By applying CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene-editing in oocytes, we established Prm2-deficient mice...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818375/time-discounting-and-tobacco-smoking-a-systematic-review-and-network-analysis
#15
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, Aaron Reeves, Gauden Galea, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking harms health, so why do people smoke and fail to quit? An explanation originating in behavioural economics suggests a role for time-discounting, which describes how the value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. A large number of studies test the relationship of time-discounting with tobacco outcomes but the temporal pattern of this relationship and its variation according to measurement methods remain unclear. We review the association between time-discounting and smoking across (i) the life course, from initiation to cessation, and (ii) diverse discount measures...
November 6, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816233/detection-of-segmental-aneuploidy-and-mosaicism-in-the-human-preimplantation-embryo-technical-considerations-and-limitations
#16
REVIEW
Nathan R Treff, Jason M Franasiak
Whole-chromosome aneuploidy screening has become a common practice to improve outcomes and decrease embryonic transfer order in patients undergoing treatment for infertility through in vitro fertilization. Despite implementation of this powerful technology, a significant percentage of euploid embryos fail to result in successful deliveries. As technology has evolved, detection of subchromosomal imbalances and embryonic mosaicism has become possible, and these serve as potential explanations for euploid embryo transfer failures...
November 2, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815806/first-successful-trial-of-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-for-pantothenate-kinase-associated-neurodegeneration
#17
Objoon Trachoo, Chonthicha Satirapod, Bhakbhoom Panthan, Matchuporn Sukprasert, Angkana Charoenyingwattana, Wasun Chantratita, Wicharn Choktanasiri, Suradej Hongeng
PURPOSE: We aim to present a case of a healthy infant born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection-in vitro fertilization (ICSI-IVF) with a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) due to PANK2 mutation. METHODS: ICSI-IVF was performed on a Thai couple, 34-year-old female and 33-year-old male, with a family history of PKAN in their first child. Following fertilization, each of the embryos were biopsied in the cleavage stage and subsequently processed for whole-genome amplification...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815561/gestational-stress-placental-norepinephrine-transporter-and-offspring-fertility
#18
Beatriz Piquer, Jose L Fonseca, He Lara
Chronic cold stress produces adrenergic overload that can affect fetal development. The placental norepinephrine transporter (NET) clears norepinephrine (NE) from both maternal circulation and the fetus during gestation. If this system fails, NE clearance can be reduced, leading to high fetal exposure to NE. The main aim of this study was to determine the changes in NET expression during gestation and their relationship with the functional capacity of NET to transport NE under stressful conditions. Additionally, this study correlated these findings with the reproductive capacity of 2nd-generation progeny...
November 4, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810395/the-puzzle-of-partial-migration-adaptive-dynamics-and-evolutionary-game-theory-perspectives
#19
Patrick De Leenheer, Anushaya Mohapatra, Haley A Ohms, David A Lytle, J M Cushing
We consider the phenomenon of partial migration which is exhibited by populations in which some individuals migrate between habitats during their lifetime, but others do not. First, using an adaptive dynamics approach, we show that partial migration can be explained on the basis of negative density dependence in the per capita fertilities alone, provided that this density dependence is attenuated for increasing abundances of the subtypes that make up the population. We present an exact formula for the optimal proportion of migrants which is expressed in terms of the vital rates of migrant and non-migrant subtypes only...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802173/widespread-failure-to-complete-meiosis-does-not-impair-fecundity-in-parthenogenetic-whiptail-lizards
#20
Aracely A Newton, Robert R Schnittker, Zulin Yu, Sarah S Munday, Diana P Baumann, William B Neaves, Peter Baumann
Parthenogenetic species of whiptail lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis constitute a striking example of speciation by hybridization, in which first-generation hybrids instantly attain reproductive isolation and procreate as clonal all-female lineages. Production of eggs containing a full complement of chromosomes in the absence of fertilization involves genome duplication prior to the meiotic divisions. In these pseudo-tetraploid oocytes, pairing and recombination occur exclusively between identical chromosomes instead of homologs; a deviation from the normal meiotic program that maintains heterozygosity...
December 1, 2016: Development
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