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Yu Zheng, Zongqiang Fu, Dong Li, Min Wu
To investigate the effect of ball mill treatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) on the rheological properties of MCC-polymer suspension, the structure and physicochemical characteristics of ground samples with different milling time and the rheological behaviors of MCC-starch suspensions were determined and comprehensively analyzed. During the ball milling process, MCC underwent a morphological transformation from rod-like to spherical shape under the combined effect of breakage and an agglomeration regime...
June 22, 2018: Materials
Michael D Kurdziel, Abigail Davidson, David Ross, Joseph Seta, Shashin Doshi, Kevin C Baker, Tristan Maerz
PURPOSE: The rat rotator cuff (RC) model is used to study RC pathology and potential treatment, however, native scar-mediated healing allows the rat RC to recover at 4-6 weeks but little is known about acute healing. This study characterized the properties of the repaired and non-repaired rat RC following surgical detachment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight rats underwent surgical RC detachment and received surgical repair (Repair) or left unrepaired (Defect)to either 12 or 19 days...
June 22, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Pengcheng Peng, Hui Huang, Hongqiang Ren, Haijun Ma, Yuan Lin, Jinju Geng, Ke Xu, Yan Zhang, Lili Ding
Startup of biofilm process triggered by initial adhesion of bacteria is difficult in high ammonia nitrogen wastewater treatment. In this study, the influence of two commonly used N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), N-Hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-Octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), on the adhesion of soluble macromolecules and bacteria in four types of high ammonia nitrogen wastewater to surfaces of model biocarriers (i.e. polystyrene, polyamide and polyethylene terephthalate) was investigated by using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring technology...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Johanna Block, Hannes Witt, Andrea Candelli, Jordi Cabanas Danes, Erwin J G Peterman, Gijs J L Wuite, Andreas Janshoff, Sarah Köster
Structure and dynamics of living matter rely on design principles fundamentally different from concepts of traditional material science. Specialized intracellular filaments in the cytoskeleton permit living systems to divide, migrate, and grow with a high degree of variability and durability. Among the three filament systems, microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments (IFs), the physical properties of IFs and their role in cellular mechanics are the least well understood. We use optical trapping of individual vimentin filaments to investigate energy dissipation, strain history dependence, and creep behavior of stretched filaments...
June 2018: Science Advances
Rocco Rizzo, Antonino Musolino, Lynette A Jones
Smart materials such as magnetorheological fluids (MRF) offer an interesting technology for use in haptic displays as changes in the magnetic field are rapid, reversible, and controllable. These interfaces have been evaluated in a number of medical and surgical simulators where they can provide cues regarding the viscoelastic properties of tissues. The objective of the present set of experiments was first to determine whether a shape embedded in the MRF could be precisely localized and second whether 10 shapes rendered in a MRF haptic display could be accurately identified...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Stacey Lee, Elena Kassianidou, Sanjay Kumar
Actomyosin stress fibers (SFs) support cell shape and migration by directing intracellular tension to the extracellular matrix (ECM) via focal adhesions. Migrating cells exhibit three SF subtypes (dorsal SFs, transverse arcs, and ventral SFs), which differ in their origin, location, and ECM connectivity. While each subtype is hypothesized to play unique structural roles, this idea has not been directly tested at the single-SF level. Here, we interrogate the mechanical properties of single SFs of each subtype based on their retraction kinetics following laser incision...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Vance G Nielsen, Paul M Ford
Aminocaproic acid (EACA) availability has recently been decreased whereas tranexamic acid (TXA) is still available as an antifibrinolytic agent to decrease blood loss associated with procedures involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) by inhibiting plasmin mediated platelet activation. Given that the clinical inclination is to substitute TXA for EACA, we sought to compare the antifibrinolytic efficacy of the two agents using the clinically accepted molar ratio of EACA:TXA (7.9:1) that prevents platelet activation in a viscoelastic based system under a variety of conditions in human plasma; 25-50% therapeutic concentration (EACA 32...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Tatsuya Fukuyama, Sho Nakama, Yusuke T Maeda
The control of solute flux by either microscopic phoresis or hydrodynamic advection is a fundamental way to transport molecules, which are ubiquitously present in nature and technology. We study the transport of large solutes such as DNA driven by a time-dependent thermal field in a polymer solution. Heat propagation of a heat spot moving back and forth gives rise to the molecular focusing of DNA with frequency-tunable control. We develop a model where the viscoelastic expansion of a solution and the viscosity gradient of a smaller solute are coupled, which explains the underlying hydrodynamic focusing...
June 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Wenlong Xu, Elaheh Alizadeh, Ashok Prasad
A single-cell assay of active and passive intracellular mechanical properties of mammalian cells could give significant insight into cellular processes. Force spectrum microscopy (FSM) is one such technique, which combines the spontaneous motion of probe particles and the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton measured by active microrheology using optical tweezers to determine the force spectrum of the cytoskeleton. A simpler and noninvasive method to perform FSM would be very useful, enabling its widespread adoption...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Seyed Amir Oleyaei, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi, Kirsi S Mikkonen
Sage seed gum (SSG) is a promising biopolymer candidate for utilization and substitution prevalent galactomannan gels of interest in soft biomaterial applications. Herein, physicochemical and rheo-mechanical properties of SSG matrix reinforced by various titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles loading (0-25wt%) were monitored. Particle size and density of the nanocomposite increased with raising TiO2 content, due to the creation of more compact agglomerated and aggregated microstructure. Increasing the particle size resulted in lower electrophoretic mobility of SSG-TiO2 systems upon nanoparticles addition, confirmed the adsorption of TiO2 on the SSG macromolecule...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Teng Gao, Gregory James Gillispie, Joshua S Copus, Anil Kumar Pallickaveedu Rajan Asari, Young-Joon Seol, Anthony Atala, James J Yoo, Sang Jin Jin Lee
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has emerged as a promising technique in tissue engineering applications through the precise deposition of cells and biomaterials in a layer-by-layer fashion. However, the limited availability of hydrogel bioinks is frequently cited as a major issue for the advancement of cell-based extrusion bioprinting technologies. It is well known that highly viscous materials maintain their structure better, but also have decreased cell viability due to the higher forces which are required for extrusion...
June 20, 2018: Biofabrication
Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed on two imidazolium-based ionic liquids, one of which possesses a long alkyl chain whereas the other does not, and the coupling between the liquid structure and the shear stress is examined by means of cross-correlation analysis. The former liquid exhibits a prepeak representing the polar-nonpolar domain structure whereas the latter does not. The relaxation of the intermediate scattering function at the prepeak is slower than those of other microscopic structures...
June 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yi-Zhou Zhang, Kang Hyuck Lee, Dalaver H Anjum, Rachid Sougrat, Qiu Jiang, Hyunho Kim, Husam N Alshareef
The development of wearable electronics, point-of-care testing, and soft robotics requires strain sensors that are highly sensitive, stretchable, capable of adhering conformably to arbitrary and complex surfaces, and preferably self-healable. Conductive hydrogels hold great promise as sensing materials for these applications. However, their sensitivities are generally low, and they suffer from signal hysteresis and fluctuation due to their viscoelastic property, which can compromise their sensing performance...
June 2018: Science Advances
Domenico de Ceglia, Michael Scalora, Maria A Vincenti, Salvatore Campione, Kyle Kelley, Evan L Runnerstrom, Jon-Paul Maria, Gordon A Keeler, Ting S Luk
Optical nonlocalities are elusive and hardly observable in traditional plasmonic materials like noble and alkali metals. Here we report experimental observation of viscoelastic nonlocalities in the infrared optical response of epsilon-near-zero nanofilms made of low-loss doped cadmium-oxide. The nonlocality is detectable thanks to the low damping rate of conduction electrons and the virtual absence of interband transitions at infrared wavelengths. We describe the motion of conduction electrons using a hydrodynamic model for a viscoelastic fluid, and find excellent agreement with experimental results...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clodomiro Cafolla, Kislon Voïtchovsky
The behaviour of ionic solutions confined in nanoscale gaps is central to countless processes, from biomolecular function to electrochemistry, energy storage and lubrication. However, no clear link exists between the molecular-level behaviour of the liquid and macroscopic observations. The problem mainly comes from the difficulty to interrogate a small number of liquid molecules. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to investigate the viscoelastic behaviour of pure water and ionic solutions down to the single ion level...
June 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Boran Wu, Meng Zhou, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai
This study visually tracked the micro-spatial water distribution in bio-flocs of waste activated sludge through in situ synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography. Primarily, the two fractions of bound water, the vicinal water adhering to the surface of organic compositions and the interstitial water mechanically trapped in the net-like structure of bio-flocs, were proposed based on the cross-section imaging results. Furthermore, the determinants on bound water occurrences were explored in terms of viscoelastic acoustic responses of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)...
June 5, 2018: Water Research
Andrea L Grant, Hayley L Letson, Jodie L Morris, Peter McEwen, Kaushik Hazratwala, Matthew Wilkinson, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is commonly used in orthopedic surgery to reduce excessive bleeding and transfusion requirements. Our aim was to examine if TXA was required in all osteoarthritis patients undergoing TKA surgery, and its possible effects on systemic inflammation and coagulation properties. METHODS: Twenty-three patients (Oxford Score 22-29) were recruited consecutively; 12 patients received TXA before (IV, 1.2 g/90 kg) and immediately after surgery (intra-articular, 1...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Jingjie Hu, Yuxiao Zhou, John D Obayemi, Jing Du, Winston O Soboyejo
An improved understanding of the evolution of cell structure and viscoelasticity with cancer malignancy could enable the development of a new generation of biomarkers and methods for cancer diagnosis. Hence, in this study, we present the viscoelastic properties (moduli and viscosities) and the actin cytoskeletal structures of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells with different metastatic potential. These include: MCF-10A normal breast cells (studied as a control); MDA-MB-468 cells (less metastatic TNBC cells), and MDA-MB-231 cells (highly metastatic TNBC cells)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Kazuhisa Maeda, Yuuka Ogino, Ayano Nakamura, Keiji Nakata, Manabu Kitagawa, Seiki Ito
Rice miso contains many ingredients derived from rice koji and has been a valuable source of nutrition since ancient times. We found that the consumption of rice miso led to improvements in the moisture content of cheek stratum corneum, skin viscoelasticity, and skin texture. Further, rice miso extract was found to increase the mRNA expression and activity of β-glucocerebrosidase (β-GCase), an enzyme involved in ceramide synthesis in the stratum corneum, in cultures. In this study, we identified the lipid-derived components of rice koji that increase the β-GCase activity in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes...
June 18, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Luyun Cai, Minjie Cao, Ailing Cao, Joe Regenstein, Jianrong Li, Rongfa Guan
Ultrasound assisted vacuum thawing (UVT) or microwave vacuum thawing (MVT) with red seabream fillets were compared to fresh, chill storage thawing, vacuum thawing, microwave thawing and ultrasound thawing. The thermal stability and gelation properties were studied with DSC and dynamic rheology, respectively. Raman spectra before and after H/D isotope exchange and intrinsic fluorescence were used to measure protein secondary and tertiary structure. Low-field NMR was done to measure water migration. The two thawing techniques both retained actin thermal stability and generally retained more stable tertiary structures than the other thawing methods...
October 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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