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G A Basheed, Komal Jain, Saurabh Pathak, R P Pant
We investigate the effect of dilution on dipolar interaction with linear and non-linear rheological properties of kerosene based magnetic fluid. The steady-state behavior demonstrate a shear thinning behavior and corroborated with a power law, (η = c <mml:math display="block"> <mml:mover accent="true"> <mml:mi>γ</mml:mi> <mml:mo>˙</mml:mo> </mml:mover></mml:math>n + η∞) exponent, n ≤ 1. The shear-induced-breakup (separation) of nanoparticles and the yielding behavior has been explained by Bingham model...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Juha Välimäki
PURPOSE: Cataract surgery has been reported to adversely affect the IOP control in eyes with the glaucoma drainage implant (GDI). One reason might be the flow of lens debris/viscoelastic material through the GDI tube into the bleb. This pilot study was conducted to determine the clinical results of a novel technique for temporary occlusion of the GDI tube with an iris retractor hook during phacoemulsification. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 15 patients (control group) who underwent phacoemulsification between January 2005 and December 2010 and 17 patients (treatment group) who underwent phacoemulsification with the hooked tube technique between January 2011 and April 2016 with a minimum 1-year follow-up...
February 13, 2018: International Ophthalmology
V Tanaydin, J Beugels, A Andriessen, J H Sawor, R R W J van der Hulst
BACKGROUND: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for postsurgical incision treatment has demonstrated benefits. A prospective randomized study was developed including 32 patients who underwent bilateral breast reduction mammoplasty. Patients served as their own control and received NPWT to one breast and fixation strips to the other breast. METHODS: The primary outcome was the number of wound healing complications within 21 days when comparing NPWT treatment with fixation strips...
February 13, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Ahmet Talha Uzumcu, Orhan Guney, Oguz Okay
We present mechanically strong and self-healable clay hydrogels containing 2 to 8 w/v% ds-DNA together with a synthetic biocompatible polymer, poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide). Clay nanoparticles in the hydrogels act like a chemical cross-linker and promote their elastic behavior while DNA contributes to their viscoelastic energy dissipation. The extent of mechanical hysteresis during cyclic tensile tests reveals that the strength of intermolecular bonds in DNA/clay hydrogels is in the range of the strength of hydrogen bonds...
February 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fernando Vidal, Huina Lin, Cecilia Morales, Frieder Jäkle
The use of thermo-reversible Lewis Pair (LP) interactions in the formation of transient polymer networks is still greatly underexplored. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane/polystyrene (PDMS/PS) blends that form dynamic Lewis acid-Lewis base adducts resulting in reversible crosslinks. Linear PS containing 10 mol % of di-2-thienylboryl pendant groups randomly distributed was obtained in a two-step one-pot functionalization reaction from silyl-functionalized PS, while ditelechelic PDMS with pyridyl groups at the chain-termini was directly obtained via thiol-ene "click" chemistry from commercially available vinyl-terminated PDMS...
February 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Louise Walker, Prashant Sood, Megan D Lenardon, Gillian Milne, Jon Olson, Gerard Jensen, Julie Wolf, Arturo Casadevall, Jill Adler-Moore, Neil A R Gow
The fungal cell wall is a critically important structure that represents a permeability barrier and protective shield. We probed Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans with liposomes containing amphotericin B (AmBisome), with or without 15-nm colloidal gold particles. The liposomes have a diameter of 60 to 80 nm, and yet their mode of action requires them to penetrate the fungal cell wall to deliver amphotericin B to the cell membrane, where it binds to ergosterol. Surprisingly, using cryofixation techniques with electron microscopy, we observed that the liposomes remained intact during transit through the cell wall of both yeast species, even though the predicted porosity of the cell wall (pore size, ~5...
February 6, 2018: MBio
Aparna Banerjee, Shalini Gaur Rudra, Koushik Mazumder, Vinod Nigam, Rajib Bandopadhyay
Exopolysaccharide produced by a unique avirulent Bacillus anthracis strain PFAB2 of hot spring origin has been characterized and its functional properties are investigated which is a first report. Maximum yield of EPS is 7.66 g/l with 2% glucose and 1% peptone as optimum carbon and nitrogen source respectively. The EPS is found to be a homopolymer consisting of only glucose as principle monosaccharide component. Through 1H NMR study, different dextran-like proton peaks are observed. Molecular weight of the EPS resembles low molecular weight bacterial origin polysaccharides...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Oguz Kaan Ozturk, Behic Mert
This study presents the potential of microfluidization as a value adding process to corn gluten meal (CGM), which is often used as animal feed and is underutilized in food industry. In this study, we aimed to improve water holding ability of corn gluten and to investigate possibility of using this zein-rich byproduct as the main ingredient in gluten-free bread formulations. For this reason, microfluidization as a milling process for CGM, and its effects on rheological and textural properties of gluten-free bread formulations were investigated...
March 2018: Food Research International
Robert C Gosselin, Dorothy M Adcock, Shannon M Bates, Jonathan Douxfils, Emmanuel J Favaloro, Isabelle Gouin-Thibault, Cecilia Guillermo, Yohko Kawai, Edelgard Lindhoff-Last, Steve Kitchen
This guidance document was prepared on behalf of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) for providing haemostasis-related guidance documents for clinical laboratories. This inaugural coagulation ICSH document was developed by an ad hoc committee, comprised of international clinical and laboratory direct acting oral anticoagulant (DOAC) experts. The committee developed consensus recommendations for laboratory measurement of DOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban), which would be germane for laboratories assessing DOAC anticoagulation...
February 12, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Brayan F García, Soheil Saraji
HYPOTHESIS: The relaxation time in viscoelastic surfactant solutions is a function of temperature, salt/surfactant concentrations, resting conditions, as well as shear frequency. The simplistic assumption of a single and constant relaxation time is not representative of all relaxation modes in these solutions especially at high frequencies. EXPERIMENTS: Steady-state and oscillatory measurements are carried out to study the effects of high temperature, concentration and resting condition on the rheology of surfactants/salt mixtures including a non-ionic and a zwitterionic/anionic surfactant system...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Semih E Bezci, Ananth Eleswarapu, Eric O Klineberg, Grace D O'Connell
Stresses applied to the spinal column are distributed between the intervertebral disc and facet joints. Structural and compositional changes alter stress distributions within the disc and between the disc and facet joints. These changes influence the mechanical properties of the disc joint, including its stiffness, range of motion, and energy absorption under quasi-static and dynamic loads. There have been few studies evaluating the role of facet joints in torsion. Furthermore, the relationship between biochemical composition and torsion mechanics is not well understood...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Roy Altman, Asheesh Bedi, Ajay Manjoo, Faizan Niazi, Peter Shaw, Philip Mease
Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading causes of disability in the adult population. Common nonoperative treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), intra-articular corticosteroids, and intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA). HA is found intrinsically within the knee joint providing viscoelastic properties to the synovial fluid. HA therapy provides anti-inflammatory relief through a number of different pathways, including the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
February 1, 2018: Cartilage
Caterina Branca, Khaoula Khouzami, Ulderico Wanderlingh, Giovanna D'Angelo
HYPOTHESIS: The thermoreversible gel-like behavior of pluronics can be affected by the presence of drugs or cosolvents. So far, the effects of polysaccharides and of clays singularly added on a pluronic water dispersion were investigated and the gelation and viscoelastic properties tuned by properly varying the concentration of the additives. The combined addition of chitosan and montmorillonite opens the possibility to join the properties of the single constituents to formulate bio-based temperature-sensitive vehicles...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Nitesh Dhar Badgayan, Santosh Kumar Sahu, Sutanu Samanta, P S Rama Sreekanth
A thrust on improvement of different properties of polymer has taken a contemporary route with advent of nanofillers. Although several nanofillers are existent; MultiWalled Carbon Nanotubes- (MWCNTs) and h-Boron Nitride nanoplatelets-(h-BNNPs) unique combination of 1D and 2D dimensional geometry aids an advantage of B-C-N triad elemental effects on properties of tested samples. The current study aims to investigate the effects of MWCNT and h-BNNP reinforcement in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) for high load bearing areas of medical applications requiring both elastic and viscous behavior...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Dawit G Seifu, Sébastien Meghezi, Larry Unsworth, Kibret Mequanint, Diego Mantovani
Since collagen is one of the major extracellular matrix components in vascular tissues, its use for vascular tissue engineering has several advantages. However, collagen extraction and processing for tissue engineering application alters its structure. As a result, collagen-based vascular constructs show poor mechanical properties compared to native tissues. In this work, multi-layer (single, double, and triple) vascular tissue constructs were engineered from porcine smooth muscle cells (PSMCs) entrapped in collagen gel by concentrically and sequentially layering after compaction of the previous layer(s)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ramin Oftadeh, Brianne K Connizzo, Hadi Tavakoli Nia, Christine Ortiz, Alan J Grodzinsky
In this study, a poroviscoelastic finite element model (FEM) was developed and used in conjunction with an AFM-based wide-bandwidth nanorheology system to predict the frequency-dependent mechanical behavior of tendon and dermis subjected to compression via nanoindentation. The aim was to distinguish between loading rates that are dominated by either poroelasticity, viscoelasticity, or the superposition of these processes. Using spherical probe tips having different radii, the force and tip displacement were measured and the magnitude, |E∗|, and phase angle, ϕ, of the dynamic complex modulus were evaluated for mouse supraspinatus tendon and mouse dermis...
February 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Kristine M Fischenich, Jackson T Lewis, Travis S Bailey, Tammy L Haut Donahue
Hydrogels are a class of synthetic biomaterials composed of a polymer network that swells with water and as such they have both an elastic and viscous component making them ideal for soft tissue applications. This study characterizes the compressive, tensile, and shear properties of a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) hydrogel and compares the results to published literature values for soft tissues such as articular cartilage, the knee meniscus, and intervertebral disc components. The results show the TPE hydrogel material is viscoelastic, strain rate dependent, has similar surface and bulk properties, displays minimal damping under dynamic load, and has tension-compression asymmetry...
March 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Jiheong Kang, Donghee Son, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang, Yuxin Liu, Jeffrey Lopez, Yeongin Kim, Jin Young Oh, Toru Katsumata, Jaewan Mun, Yeongjun Lee, Lihua Jin, Jeffrey B-H Tok, Zhenan Bao
An electronic (e-) skin is expected to experience significant wear and tear over time. Therefore, self-healing stretchable materials that are simultaneously soft and with high fracture energy, that is high tolerance of damage or small cracks without propagating, are essential requirements for the realization of robust e-skin. However, previously reported elastomers and especially self-healing polymers are mostly viscoelastic and lack high mechanical toughness. Here, a new class of polymeric material crosslinked through rationally designed multistrength hydrogen bonding interactions is reported...
February 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Md Hasan Turabee, Thavasyappan Thambi, Huu Thuy Trang Duong, Ji Hoon Jeong, Doo Sung Lee
Sustained delivery of protein therapeutics is limited owing to the fragile nature of proteins. Despite its great potential, delivery of proteins without any loss of bioactivity remains a challenge in the use of protein therapeutics in the clinic. To surmount this shortcoming, we report a pH- and temperature-responsive in situ-forming injectable hydrogel based on comb-type polypeptide block copolymers for the controlled delivery of proteins. Polypeptide block copolymers, composed of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG), temperature-responsive poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) (PBLG), and pH-responsive oligo(sulfamethazine) (OSM), exhibit pH- and temperature-induced sol-to-gel transition behavior in aqueous solutions...
February 9, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Samantha L Lipman, Ned C Rouze, Mark L Palmeri, Kathryn R Nightingale
Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) characterizes the mechanical properties of human tissues to differentiate healthy from diseased tissue. Commercial scanners tend to reconstruct shear wave speeds for a region of interest using time-of-flight methods reporting a single shear wave speed (or elastic modulus) to the end user under the assumptions that tissue is elastic and shear wave speeds are not dependent on the frequency content of the shear waves. Human tissues, however, are known to be viscoelastic, resulting in dispersion and attenuation...
February 5, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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