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Artemisinin toxicity

Blessing Atim Aderibigbe
Artemisinin and its derivatives have been reported to be experimentally effective for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers without developing drug resistance, they are useful for the treatment of malaria, other protozoal infections and they exhibit antiviral activity. However, they are limited pharmacologically by their poor bioavailability, short half-life in vivo, poor water solubility and long term usage results in toxicity. They are also expensive for the treatment of malaria when compared to other antimalarials...
February 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Amit K Gupta, Kanika Varshney, Vivek Kumar, Kumkum Srivastava, Aditya B Pant, Sunil K Puri, Anil K Saxena
A series of substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes were synthesized and evaluated for their antimalarial potential, in silico ADME properties and cytotoxicity on neuronal cell lines. Among the 15 synthesized substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes, two compounds (compound 15, IC50  = 25.71 nM; compound 21, IC50  = 19.6 nM) exhibited promising in vitro antimalarial potential comparable to those of the existing drugs chloroquine and artemisinin. Both of these compounds were found to be nontoxic up to 20 µM concentration in neuronal PC-12 cells...
February 16, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
Marco Pieroni, Elisa Azzali, Nicoletta Basilico, Silvia Parapini, Michal Zolkiewski, Claudia Beato, Giannamaria Annunziato, Agostino Bruno, Federica Vacondio, Gabriele Costantino
Malaria eradication is a global health priority, but current therapies are not always suitable for providing a radical cure. Artemisinin has paved the way for the current malaria treatment, the so-called Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). However, with the detection of resistance to ACT, innovative compounds active against multiple parasite species and at multiple life stages are needed. GlaxoSmithKline has recently disclosed the results of a phenotypic screening of an internal library, publishing a collection of 400 antimalarial chemotypes, termed the "Malaria Box"...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
André Silva-Pinto, Rogério Ruas, Francisco Almeida, Raquel Duro, André Silva, Cândida Abreu, António Sarmento
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based therapy is the current standard treatment for non-severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. The potential for asymptomatic liver toxicity of this therapy and its implication in clinical practice is currently unknown. The aim of this study is to assess the hepatic function in patients treated with a standard three-day artemisinin-based regimen and to compare it with the quinine-doxycycline regimen. METHODS: Retrospective and comparative study of returned adult travellers admitted with non-severe P...
January 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
Robert L Clark, Maureen Youreneff, Anthony M DeLise
The combination of artemether plus lumefantrine is a type of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) recommended by the World Health Organization for uncomplicated falciparum malaria except in the first trimester of pregnancy. The first trimester restriction was based on the marked embryotoxicity in animals (including embryo death and cardiac and skeletal malformations) of artemisinins such as artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether. Before recommending ACTs for use in the first trimester, the World Health Organization has requested that all information relevant to the assessment of risk of ACTs to the embryo be made available to the public...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part B, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
Xiaoguang Li, Yu Zhou, Yanling Liu, Xu Zhang, Tao Chen, Kerong Chen, Qian Ba, Jingquan Li, Hong Liu, Hui Wang
: Artemisinin (ARS) and its derivatives, which are clinically used antimalarial agents, have shown antitumor activities. Their therapeutic potencies, however, are limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Here, through a pharmacophore hybridization strategy, we synthesized ARS-drug conjugates, in which the marketed chemotherapeutic agents chlorambucil, melphalan, flutamide, aminoglutethimide, and doxifluridine, were separately bonded to Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) through various linkages...
December 2016: EBioMedicine
Tomasz Czechowski, Tony R Larson, Theresa M Catania, David Harvey, Geoffrey D Brown, Ian A Graham
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone produced by Artemisia annua glandular secretory trichomes, is the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria currently available. We identified a mutation that disrupts the amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase (CYP71AV1) enzyme, responsible for a series of oxidation reactions in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Detailed metabolic studies of cyp71av1-1 revealed that the consequence of blocking the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway is the redirection of sesquiterpene metabolism to a sesquiterpene epoxide, which we designate arteannuin X...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Abebe Genetu Bayih, Asongna Folefoc, Abu Naser Mohon, Scott Eagon, Marc Anderson, Dylan R Pillai
BACKGROUND: The emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains poses a serious challenge to the control of malaria. This necessitates the development of new anti-malarial drugs. Previous studies have shown that the natural beta-carboline alkaloid harmine is a promising anti-malarial agent targeting the P. falciparum heat-shock protein 90 (PfHsp90). The aim of this study was to test the anti-malarial activity of harmine analogues. METHODS: Forty-two harmine analogues were synthesized and the binding of these analogues to P...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
Xiang Tai, Xiao-Bei Cai, Zhang Zhang, Rui Wei
The natural extract artemisinin and its derivatives have good anticancer activity. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of combined dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and doxorubicin (DOX) treatment on a variety of tumor cell lines (HeLa, OVCAR-3, MCF-7, PC-3 and A549), as well as the underlying mechanisms. In addition, the in vivo effects of DHA and DOX were evaluated using a mouse HeLa tumor model. The HeLa, OVCAR-3, MCF-7, PC-3 and A549 cells were treated with a combination of DHA and DOX, and the effect on cell viability was detected by Cell Counting kit-8...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
Zhe Li, Qin Li, Jun Wu, Manyuan Wang, Junxian Yu
Preclinical investigation and clinical experience have provided evidence on the potential anticancer effect of artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) in the recent two decades. The major mechanisms of action of ARTs may be due to toxic-free radicals generated by an endoperoxide moiety, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. It is very promising that ARTs are expected to be a new class of antitumor drugs of wide spectrum due to their detailed information regarding efficacy and safety...
October 7, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Beth Williamson, Mathias Lorbeer, Michael D Mitchell, Timothy G Brayman, Robert J Riley
The nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the expression of genes involved in the metabolism, hepatobiliary disposition, and toxicity of drugs and endogenous compounds. PXR is a promiscuous nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) with significant ligand and DNA-binding crosstalk with the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR); hence, defining the precise role of PXR in gene regulation is challenging. Here, utilising a novel PXR-knockout (KO) HepaRG cell line, real-time PCR analysis was conducted to determine PXR involvement for a range of inducers...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Rosine D K Chougouo, Yves M M Nguekeu, Jean P Dzoyem, Maurice D Awouafack, Jonas Kouamouo, Pierre Tane, Lyndy J McGaw, Jacobus N Eloff
BACKGROUND: Natural products, including those derived from higher plants have, over the years, contributed greatly to the development of modern therapeutic drugs. Due to the medicinal importance in traditional practice and the diversified biology and chemistry of the constituents from Artemisia spp., the genus has been receiving growing attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the ethanol extract, four fractions (F1-F4) and five compounds namely artemisinin (1), scopoletin (2), chrysosplenetin (3), eupatin (4) and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (5) isolated from A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Paktiya Teja-Isavadharm, Duangsuda Siriyanonda, Maneerat Rasameesoraj, Amporn Limsalakpeth, Nitima Chanarat, Natthasorn Komcharoen, Peter J Weina, David L Saunders, Montip Gettayacamin, R Scott Miller
BACKGROUND: The US Army designed artelinate/lysine salt (AL) to overcome the instability of sodium artesunate in aqueous solution (AS). To select the most efficacious artemisinin treatment, direct comparison was performed in an uncomplicated non-human primate malaria model. METHODS: Splenectomized rhesus monkeys were inoculated with Plasmodium coatneyi and on day six, single equimolar loading dose of IV AL (11.8 mg kg(-1)) or IV AS (8 mg kg(-1)) were administered followed by 1/2 the first dose once daily for 2 more days...
2016: Malaria Journal
Priyanka Prabhu, Shital Suryavanshi, Sulabha Pathak, Aditya Patra, Shobhona Sharma, Vandana Patravale
Patients with cerebral malaria (CM) are unable to take oral medication due to impaired consciousness and vomiting thus necessitating parenteral therapy. Quinine, artemether, and artesunate which are currently used for parenteral malaria therapy have their own drawbacks. The World Health Organization (WHO) has now banned monotherapy and recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment. However, presently there is no intravenous formulation available for combination therapy of malaria. Artemether-Lumefantrine (ARM-LFN) is a WHO approved combination for oral malaria therapy...
November 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Caroline Gomes, Ana Cláudia Boareto, Paulo Roberto Dalsenter
Malaria in pregnancy is a clinically wasting infectious disease, where drug therapy has to be promptly initiated. Currently, the treatment of this infection depends on the use of artemisinin derivatives. The World Health Organization does not recommend the use of these drugs in the first trimester of pregnancy due to non-clinical findings that have shown embryolethality and teratogenic effects. Nevertheless, until now, this toxicity has not been proved in humans. Artemisinin derivatives mechanisms of embryotoxicity are related to depletion of circulating embryonic primitive erythroblasts...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Suk Hee Kim, Seong Hee Kang, Bo Sun Kang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Artemisinin, a natural product isolated from Gaeddongssuk (artemisia annua L.) and its main active derivative, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), have long been used as antimalarial drugs. Recent studies reported that artemisinin is efficacious for curing diseases, including cancers, and for improving the immune system. Many researchers have shown the therapeutic effects of artemisinin on tumors such as breast cancer, liver cancer and kidney cancer, but there is still insufficient data regarding glioblastoma (GBM)...
August 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Funmilayo I D Afolayan, Olayemi M Adegbolagun, Beatrice Irungu, Lucy Kangethe, Jennifer Orwa, Chiaka I Anumudu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Lawsonia inermis are medicinal plants used in treating malaria in traditional medicine system. Previous studies however showed that their dichloromethane, methanol (1:1) extracts were more active against Plasmodium parasite than the aqueous extracts. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of dichloromethane, methanol (1:1) extracts of Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Lawsonia inermis in combination and evaluate their safety using acute limit toxicity test...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Soniya A Jain, Madhavi Awale, Sulabha Pathak, Geeta Vanage, Vandana B Patravale, Shobhona Sharma
Currently, artemisinin-based combination therapy is considered the best option in the treatment of malaria. However, toxicity of artemisinins limits their use in pregnancy. In the absence of sufficient toxicity data, the World Health Organization recommends that artemisinins are not to be used in the first trimester of pregnancy and can be used only in second and third trimesters, when other treatments are not available. We have recently observed that drugs loaded in nanolipid carriers are selectively taken up in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes with a concomitant reduction in the dose required to cure animals...
July 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
Dongdong Wang, Jiajia Zhou, Ruhui Chen, Ruohong Shi, Gaozheng Zhao, Guoliang Xia, Ren Li, Zhenbang Liu, Jie Tian, Huijuan Wang, Zhen Guo, Haibao Wang, Qianwang Chen
Theranostic nanoagents which integrate diagnostic and therapeutic moieties into a single platform have attracted broad attention in cancer therapy, however the development of more effective and less toxic diagnostic and therapeutic interventions is still of great urgency. Herein, novel core-shell PB@MIL-100(Fe) dual metal-organic-frameworks (d-MOFs) nanoparticles are fabricated and their combined theranostic effects in vitro and in vivo are investigated. The d-MOFs nanoparticles can serve as a T1-T2 dual-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast and fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) agent due to the existence of inner PB MOFs and outer MIL-100(Fe) MOFs...
September 2016: Biomaterials
Swaroop Kumar Pandey, Subhasish Biswas, Sarika Gunjan, Bhavana Singh Chauhan, Sunil Kumar Singh, Kumkum Srivastava, Sarika Singh, Sanjay Batra, Renu Tripathi
Aiming to develop new artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for malaria, antimalarial effect of a new series of pyrrolidine-acridine hybrid in combination with artemisinin derivatives was investigated. Synthesis, antimalarial and cytotoxic evaluation of a series of hybrid of 2-(3-(substitutedbenzyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)alkanamines and acridine were performed and mode of action of the lead compound was investigated. In vivo pharmacodynamic properties (parasite clearance time, parasite reduction ratio, dose and regimen determination) against multidrug resistant (MDR) rodent malaria parasite and toxicological parameters (median lethal dose, liver function test, kidney function test) were also investigated...
September 2016: Parasitology
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