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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656546/a-guide-to-il-1-family-cytokines-in-adjuvanticity
#1
REVIEW
Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Ed C Lavelle
Growing awareness of the multiplicity of roles for the IL-1 family in immune regulation has prompted research exploring these cytokines in the context of vaccine-induced immunity. While tightly regulated, cytokines of the IL-1 family are normally released in response to cellular stress and in combination with other danger/damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), triggering potent local and systemic immune responses. In the context of infection or autoimmunity, engagement of IL-1 family receptors links robust innate responses to adaptive immunity...
April 15, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656544/an-overview-on-the-identification-of-mait-cell-antigens
#2
Lars Kjer-Nielsen, Alexandra J Corbett, Zhenjun Chen, Ligong Liu, Jeffrey Y W Mak, Dale I Godfrey, Jamie Rossjohn, David P Fairlie, James McCluskey, Sidonia B G Eckle
Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are restricted by the monomorphic MHC class I-like molecule, MHC-related protein-1 (MR1). Until 2012, the origin of the MAIT cell antigens (Ags) was unknown, although it was established that MAIT cells could be activated by a broad range of bacteria and yeasts, possibly suggesting a conserved Ag. Using a combination of protein chemistry, mass spectrometry, cellular biology, structural biology and chemistry, we discovered MAIT cell ligands derived from folic acid (vitamin B9) and from an intermediate in the microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin (vitamin B2)...
April 14, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656492/pd-1-blockade-cellular-vesicles-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
Xudong Zhang, Chao Wang, Jinqiang Wang, Quanyin Hu, Benjamin Langworthy, Yanqi Ye, Wujin Sun, Jing Lin, Tianfu Wang, Jason Fine, Hao Cheng, Gianpietro Dotti, Peng Huang, Zhen Gu
Cancer cells resist to the host immune antitumor response via multiple suppressive mechanisms, including the overexpression of PD-L1 that exhausts antigen-specific CD8+ T cells through PD-1 receptors. Checkpoint blockade antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 have shown unprecedented clinical responses. However, limited host response rate underlines the need to develop alternative engineering approaches. Here, engineered cellular nanovesicles (NVs) presenting PD-1 receptors on their membranes, which enhance antitumor responses by disrupting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis, are reported...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656444/predicting-therapeutic-response-to-fingolimod-treatment-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#4
Bibiana Quirant-Sánchez, José V Hervás-García, Aina Teniente-Serra, Luis Brieva, Ester Moral-Torres, Antonio Cano, Elvira Munteis, María J Mansilla, Silvia Presas-Rodriguez, Juan Navarro-Barriuso, Cristina Ramo-Tello, Eva M Martínez-Cáceres
AIMS: Fingolimod, an orally active immunomodulatory drug for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), sequesters T cells in lymph nodes through functional antagonism of the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, reducing the number of potential autoreactive cells that migrate to the central nervous system. However, not all RRMS patients respond to this therapy. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that by immune-monitoring RRMS patient's leukocyte subpopulations it is possible to find biomarkers associated with clinical response to fingolimod...
April 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656320/the-role-of-mesothelin-as-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-target-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-comprehensive-review
#5
Federico Nichetti, Antonio Marra, Francesca Corti, Alessandro Guidi, Alessandra Raimondi, Natalie Prinzi, Filippo de Braud, Sara Pusceddu
Mesothelin is a tumor differentiation antigen, which is highly expressed in several solid neoplasms, including pancreatic cancer. Its selective expression on malignant cells and on only a limited number of healthy tissues has made it an interesting candidate for investigation as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and as a therapeutic target. Based on a strong preclinical rationale, a number of therapeutic agents targeting mesothelin have entered clinical trials, including immunotoxins, monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, cancer vaccines, and adoptive T cell therapies with chimeric antigen receptors...
April 14, 2018: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656307/alveolar-bone-protective-effect-of-hiziki-extracts-on-the-progression-of-periodontitis
#6
Don-Gil Lee, Yu-Kyong Shin, Jae-Hee Park, Sang-Yong Park, Eunson Hwang, Jung-Eun Yang, Hae Jo, Ki-Young Kim, Gafurjon T Mavlonov, Tae-Hoo Yi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hiziki extract on alveolar bone loss, inflammation, and osteo-biomarker expression in hPDL cells (10, 50, 100 μg/ml final concentrations in culture medium) and on a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model (50, 100, 200 mg/kg with oral administration). Hiziki extract increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation in hPDL cell. In western blot analysis, hiziki extract resulted in increased expression of osteoblast markers, including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in hDPL cells...
April 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656238/terminal-deoxynucleotidyltransferase-the-story-of-an-untemplated-dna-polymerase-capable-of-dna-bridging-and-templated-synthesis-across-strands
#7
REVIEW
Jérôme Loc'h, Marc Delarue
Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) is a member of the polX family which is involved in DNA repair. It has been known for years as an untemplated DNA polymerase used during V(D)J recombination to generate diversity at the CDR3 region of immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. Recently, however, TdT was crystallized in the presence of a complete DNA synapsis made of two double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), each with a 3' protruding end, and overlapping with only one micro-homology base-pair, thus giving structural insight for the first time into DNA synthesis across strands...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656117/baicalin-modulates-the-treg-teff-balance-to-alleviate-uveitis-by-activating-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#8
Wenjie Zhu, Xiaoqing Chen, Jianfeng Yu, Yichen Xiao, Yingqi Li, Shangtao Wan, Wenru Su, Dan Liang
Autoimmune uveitis is a sight-threatening ocular inflammatory disorder. Immunological inflammation is regarded as the key to pathogenesis in autoimmune uveitis. Baicalin, the major bioactive component of Scutellaria baicalensis, possesses immunomodulatory properties. However, the role of baicalin in uveitis and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we found that baicalin treatment obviously inhibited the intraocular inflammatory process in mice with experimental autoimmune uveitis, along with clear declines in infiltrated inflammatory cells and inflammatory cytokine transcription in the retina and draining lymph nodes...
April 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655961/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-for-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#9
REVIEW
Armin Ghobadi
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic malignancy. More than 20,000 people in United States, more than 37,000 people in Europe and more than 199,000 people worldwide die of NHL every year. Recent advances in immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer have resulted in development of new classes of very effective immunotherapeutic approaches including chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy that are designed to bypass cancer immune evasion. Here, we review recent advances in CAR-T cell therapy for NHL...
April 11, 2018: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655658/elucidating-the-mechanisms-of-action-of-saponin-derived-adjuvants
#10
REVIEW
Dante J Marciani
Numerous triterpenoid saponins are adjuvants that modify the activities of T cells and antigen-presenting cells, like dendritic cells (DCs). Saponins can induce either proinflammatory Th1/Th2 or sole anti-inflammatory Th2 immunities. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) have shown that imine-forming carbonyl groups are needed for T cell activation leading to induction of Th1/Th2 immunities. While saponins having different triterpenoid aglycons and oligosaccharide chains can activate DCs to induce Th1/Th2 immunoresponses, fucopyranosyl residues from their oligosaccharides by binding to the DC-SIGN receptor can bias DCs toward a sole Th2 immunity...
April 11, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655570/interleukin-7-enhances-anti-tumor-activity-of-cd8-t-cells-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Dengke Teng, Lei Ding, Bo Cai, Qiang Luo, Hui Wang
Interleukin (IL)-7 stimulation improves virus- and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. However, the role of IL-7 in modulation of dysfunctional CD8+ T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was not completely understood. In this study, a total of 37 HLA-A2 restricted patients with HCC and 16 healthy individuals were enrolled. IL-7 expression and its receptor α chain CD127 level was measured. The regulatory activity of IL-7 to peripheral and liver-resident CD8+ T cells was investigated in co-culture systems which were directly or indirectly contacted with HCC cell line HepG2 in vitro...
April 11, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653236/chromosome-1q23-3q31-1-deletion-associated-with-decreased-newborn-screening-of-t-cell-receptor-rearrangement-circles-trecs
#12
Julia S Lee, Bradley A Becker, Amelia Kirby, Alan P Knutsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653110/sirna-mediated-lrp-lr-knock-down-reduces-cellular-viability-of-malignant-melanoma-cells-through-the-activation-of-apoptotic-caspases
#13
Thalia M Rebelo, Leila Vania, Eloise Ferreira, Stefan F T Weiss
The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is over-expressed in tumour cells and has been implicated in several tumourigenic processes such as metastasis and telomerase activation, however, more importantly the focus of the present study is on the maintenance of cellular viability and the evasion of apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (A375) and late stage (A375SM) malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that A375SM cells contain more cell-surface and total LRP/LR levels in comparison to the A375 cells, respectively...
April 10, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651892/the-intracerebral-hemorrhage-blood-transcriptome-in-humans-differs-from-the-ischemic-stroke-and-vascular-risk-factor-control-blood-transcriptomes
#14
Boryana Stamova, Bradley P Ander, Glen Jickling, Farah Hamade, Marc Durocher, Xinhua Zhan, Da Zhi Liu, Xiyuan Cheng, Heather Hull, Alan Yee, Kwan Ng, Natasha Shroff, Frank R Sharp
Understanding how the blood transcriptome of human intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) differs from ischemic stroke (IS) and matched controls (CTRL) will improve understanding of immune and coagulation pathways in both disorders. This study examined RNA from 99 human whole-blood samples using GeneChip® HTA 2.0 arrays to assess differentially expressed transcripts of alternatively spliced genes between ICH, IS and CTRL. We used a mixed regression model with FDR-corrected p(Dx) < 0.2 and p < 0.005 and |FC| > 1...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651744/prospects-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-in-ovarian-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Vishal Jindal, Ena Arora, Sorab Gupta, Amos Lal, Muhammad Masab, Rashmika Potdar
Despite advances in various chemotherapy regimens, current therapeutic options are limited for ovarian cancer patients. Immunotherapy provides a promising and novel treatment option for ovarian cancer. Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown promising results in hematological tumors and current research is going on in various solid tumors like ovarian cancer. CAR T cells are genetically engineered T cells with major histocompatibility complex-independent, tumor-specific, immune-mediated cytolytic actions against cancer cells...
April 12, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651654/in-the-telencephalon-glun2c-nmda-receptor-subunit-mrna-is-predominately-expressed-in-glial-cells-and-glun2d-mrna-in-interneurons
#16
Hassan A Alsaad, Nicholas W DeKorver, Zhihao Mao, Shashank M Dravid, Jyothi Arikkath, Daniel T Monaghan
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are widely distributed in the brain with high concentrations in the telencephalon where they modulate synaptic plasticity, working memory, and other functions. While the actions of the predominate GluN2 NMDAR subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B are relatively well understood, the function of GluN2C and GluN2D subunits in the telencephalon is largely unknown. To better understand the possible role of GluN2C subunits, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) together with multiple cell markers to define the distribution and type of cells expressing GluN2C mRNA...
April 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651444/an-updated-review-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-in-drug-hypersensitivity
#17
REVIEW
Chun-Bing Chen, Riichiro Abe, Ren-You Pan, Chuang-Wei Wang, Shuen-Iu Hung, Yi-Giien Tsai, Wen-Hung Chung
Drug hypersensitivity may manifest ranging from milder skin reactions (e.g., maculopapular exanthema and urticaria) to severe systemic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), or Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Current pharmacogenomic studies have made important strides in the prevention of some drug hypersensitivity through the identification of relevant genetic variants, particularly for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651165/the-mitochondrial-citrate-carrier-slc25a1-drives-stemness-and-therapy-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Harvey R Fernandez, Shreyas M Gadre, Mingjun Tan, Garrett T Graham, Rami Mosaoa, Martin S Ongkeko, Kyu Ah Kim, Rebecca B Riggins, Erika Parasido, Iacopo Petrini, Simone Pacini, Amrita Cheema, Rency Varghese, Habtom W Ressom, Yuwen Zhang, Christopher Albanese, Aykut Üren, Mikell Paige, Giuseppe Giaccone, Maria Laura Avantaggiati
Therapy resistance represents a clinical challenge for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which still remains an incurable disease. There is growing evidence that cancer-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSCs) provide a reservoir of slow-growing dormant populations of cells with tumor-initiating and unlimited self-renewal ability that are left behind by conventional therapies reigniting post-therapy relapse and metastatic dissemination. The metabolic pathways required for the expansion of CSCs are incompletely defined, but their understanding will likely open new therapeutic opportunities...
April 12, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651132/compositional-characteristics-of-human-peripheral-trbv-pseudogene-rearrangements
#19
Bin Shi, Long Ma, Xiaoyan He, Peipei Wu, Peng Wang, Xiaomei Wang, Rui Ma, Xinsheng Yao
The diversity of the T cell receptor (TCR) complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) repertoire is the result of random combinations, insertions and deletions during recombination of the germline V, D and J gene fragments. During evolution, some human TCR beta chain variable (TRBV) pseudogenes have been retained. Many previous studies have focused on functional TRBV genes, while little attention has been given to TRBV pseudogenes. To describe the compositional characteristics of TRBV pseudogene rearrangements, we compared and analysed TRBV pseudogenes, TRBV open reading frames (ORFs) and functional TRBV genes via high-throughput sequencing of DNA obtained from the peripheral blood of 4 healthy volunteers and 4 patients...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651051/collagen-iv-conveyed-signals-can-regulate-chemokine-production-and-promote-liver-metastasis
#20
George Vaniotis, Roni F Rayes, Shu Qi, Simon Milette, Ni Wang, Stephanie Perrino, France Bourdeau, Hanna Nyström, Yi He, Nathalie Lamarche-Vane, Pnina Brodt
Liver metastases remain a major cause of death from gastrointestinal tract cancers as well as from other malignancies such as breast and lung carcinomas and melanoma. Understanding the underlying biology is essential for the design of effective targeted therapies. We previously reported that collagen IV α1/α2 overexpression in non-metastatic lung carcinoma (M27colIV ) cells increased their metastatic ability, specifically to the liver and documented high collagen IV levels in surgical resections of liver metastases from diverse tumor types...
April 13, 2018: Oncogene
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