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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458191/a-novel-neuropilin-1-binding-sequence-in-the-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-envelope-glycoprotein
#1
Hideki Kusunoki, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Toshiyuki Kohno, Kazuhiko Matsuhashi, Kazuo Hosoda, Kaori Wakamatsu, Isao Hamaguchi
Entry of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) into host cells is mainly mediated by interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein surface unit (SU) and three host receptors: glucose transporter type 1, heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and neuropilin-1 (Nrp1). Here, we analyzed the interaction between HTLV-1 SU and Nrp1 using nuclear magnetic resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. We found that two SU peptides, residues 85-94 and residues 304-312, bound directly to the Nrp1 b1 domain with affinities of 7...
February 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458077/reciprocal-regulation-of-the-cadherin-11-stat3-axis-by-caveolin-1-in-mouse-fibroblasts-and-lung-carcinoma-cells
#2
M Geletu, R Mohan, R Arulanandam, A Berger-Becvar, I R Nabi, P T Gunning, L Raptis
Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is an integral plasma membrane protein and a complex regulator of signal transduction. The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 (Stat3) is activated by a number of receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases and is positively implicated in cancer. Despite extensive efforts, the relationship between Cav1 and Stat3 has been a matter of controversy. We previously demonstrated that engagement of E- or N-cadherin or cadherin-11 cell to cell adhesion molecules, as occurs with confluence of cultured cells, triggers a dramatic increase in the levels of tyr705 phosphorylated ie activated Stat3, by a mechanism requiring the cRac1 small GTPase...
February 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457657/semaphorin4a-and-h-ferritin-utilize-tim-1-on-human-oligodendrocytes-a-novel-neuro-immune-axis
#3
Brian Chiou, Elisabeth Lucassen, Michael Sather, Asha Kallianpur, James Connor
Deficiency of trophic factors relating to the survival of oligodendrocytes, combined with direct interactions with the immune system, are favored paradigms that are increasingly implicated in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. We and others have previously shown that Sema4A and H-ferritin interact through the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim-2) receptor in mice. H-ferritin has been identified as the iron delivery protein for oligodendrocytes, whereas Sema4A causes a direct cytotoxic effect...
February 19, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457550/mir-505-3p-controls-chemokine-receptor-up-regulation-in-macrophages-role-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#4
Rafael Escate, Pedro Mata, Jose Maria Cepeda, Teresa Padró, Lina Badimon
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) conveys a high risk of premature atherosclerosis as a result of lifelong exposure to high LDL cholesterol levels that are not fully reduced by standard-of-care lipid-lowering treatment. Inflammatory mediators have played a role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Here, we investigated whether innate immunity cells in patients with FH have a specific proinflammatory phenotype that is distinct from that of cells in normal participants. To this end, miR-505-3p-a microRNA related to chronic inflammation-and its target genes were investigated in monocyte-derived macrophages (MACs) of patients with FH (FH-MACs) and non-FH controls (co-MACs)...
February 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457279/lysophosphatidylserine-suppression-of-t-cell-activation-via-gpr174-requires-g%C3%AE-s-proteins
#5
Michael J Barnes, Jason G Cyster
G protein-coupled receptors regulate diverse aspects of T cell activity and effector function. Recently, we showed that GPR174 mediates the suppression of T cell proliferation in vitro induced by the polar lipid lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS). Here, we investigated the in vivo activity of this pathway and characterized the mechanisms involved. Using in vivo models of T cell proliferation induced by sublethal irradiation or regulatory T cell depletion, we show that GPR174 expression can constrain T cell proliferation...
February 19, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456737/distinctive-profiles-of-tumor-infiltrating-immune-cells-and-association-with-intensity-of-infiltration-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Yugang Wu, Lei Yuan, Qicheng Lu, Haiyan Xu, Xiaozhou He
Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are heterogeneous and consist of characteristic compartments, including T helper (Th)1 and regulatory T (Treg) cells that exhibit distinctive biological functions. The present study investigated the profile of infiltrating immune cells from surgically removed tumor tissues from patients with colorectal cancer. The characteristic transcription factors of Th1 and Th2 cells, Treg cells, Th17 cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells were analyzed. The results demonstrated that a marked increased number of Treg cells presented in tumor infiltrates when compared with non-tumor adjacent tissues...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456538/an-uncoupling-of-canonical-phenotypic-markers-and-functional-potency-of-ex-vivo-expanded-natural-killer-cells
#7
Nicole A P Lieberman, Kole DeGolier, Kristen Haberthur, Harrison Chinn, Kara W Moyes, Myriam N Bouchlaka, Kirsti L Walker, Christian M Capitini, Courtney A Crane
Recent advances in cellular therapies for patients with cancer, including checkpoint blockade and ex vivo -expanded, tumor-specific T cells, have demonstrated that targeting the immune system is a powerful approach to the elimination of tumor cells. Clinical efforts have also demonstrated limitations, however, including the potential for tumor cell antigenic drift and neoantigen formation, which promote tumor escape and recurrence, as well as rapid onset of T cell exhaustion in vivo . These findings suggest that antigen unrestricted cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, may be beneficial for use as an alternative to or in combination with T cell based approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456534/critical-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-il-2-receptor-signaling-in-foxp3-induction-by-an-inhibitor-of-dna-methylation
#8
Kristin Freudenberg, Nadja Lindner, Sebastian Dohnke, Annette I Garbe, Sonja Schallenberg, Karsten Kretschmer
Under physiological conditions, CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 are generated in the thymus [thymus-derived Foxp3+ Treg (tTregs) cells] and extrathymically at peripheral sites [peripherally induced Foxp3+ Treg (pTreg) cell], and both developmental subsets play non-redundant roles in maintaining self-tolerance throughout life. In addition, a variety of experimental in vitro and in vivo modalities can extrathymically elicit a Foxp3+ Treg cell phenotype in peripheral CD4+ Foxp3- T cells, which has attracted much interest as an approach toward cell-based therapy in clinical settings of undesired immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456532/a-stretch-of-negatively-charged-amino-acids-of-linker-for-activation-of-t-cell-adaptor-has-a-dual-role-in-t-cell-antigen-receptor-intracellular-signaling
#9
Mikel M Arbulo-Echevarria, Isaac Narbona-Sánchez, Cecilia M Fernandez-Ponce, Inmaculada Vico-Barranco, Mª Dolores Rueda-Ygueravide, Michael L Dustin, Arkadiusz Miazek, Mª Carmen Duran-Ruiz, Francisco García-Cózar, Enrique Aguado
The adaptor protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT) has an essential role transducing activatory intracellular signals coming from the TCR/CD3 complex. Previous reports have shown that upon T-cell activation, LAT interacts with the tyrosine kinase Lck, leading to the inhibition of its kinase activity. LAT-Lck interaction seemed to depend on a stretch of negatively charged amino acids in LAT. Here, we have substituted this segment of LAT between amino acids 113 and 126 with a non-charged segment and expressed the mutant LAT (LAT-NIL) in J...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456530/donor-genotype-in-the-interleukin-7-receptor-%C3%AE-chain-predicts-risk-of-graft-versus-host-disease-and-cytomegalovirus-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
Katrine Kielsen, Christian Enevold, Carsten Heilmann, Henrik Sengeløv, Anders Elm Pedersen, Lars P Ryder, Klaus Müller
The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is challenged by acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD and cGVHD) and viral infections due to long-lasting immunodeficiency. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine essential for de novo T cell generation in thymus and peripheral T cell homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the impact of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs6897932 in the IL-7 receptor α-chain (IL-7Rα) which has previously been associated with several autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456508/the-molecular-determinants-of-small-molecule-ligand-binding-at-p2x-receptors
#11
Gaia Pasqualetto, Andrea Brancale, Mark T Young
P2X receptors are trimeric eukaryotic ATP-gated cation channels. Extracellular ATP-their physiological ligand-is released as a neurotransmitter and in conditions of cell damage such as inflammation, and substantial evidence implicates P2X receptors in diseases including neuropathic pain, cancer, and arthritis. In 2009, the first P2X crystal structure, Danio rerio P2X4 in the apo - state, was published, and this was followed in 2012 by the ATP-bound structure. These structures transformed our understanding of the conformational changes induced by ATP binding and the mechanism of ligand specificity, and enabled homology modeling of mammalian P2X receptors for ligand docking and rational design of receptor modulators...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456405/role-of-ptpn2-22-polymorphisms-in-pathophysiology-of-crohn-s-disease
#12
Robert C Sharp, Shazia A Beg, Saleh A Naser
AIM: To establish the relationship of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 and 22 ( PTPN2/22 ) polymorphisms and mycobacterial infections in Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: All 133 subjects' blood samples were genotyped for nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PTPN2/22 using TaqMan™ genotyping, while the effect of the SNPs on PTPN2/22 and IFN- γ gene expression was determined using RT-PCR. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) IS900 gene was done by nPCR after DNA extraction from the isolated leukocytes of each subjects' blood samples...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456044/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-functionalized-with-hyaluronic-acid-effect-of-the-biopolymer-chain-length-on-cell-internalization
#13
Valentina Nairi, Silvia Magnolia, Marco Piludu, Mariella Nieddu, Cristian Antonio Caria, Valeria Sogos, Maria Vallet-Regì, Maura Monduzzi, Andrea Salis
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were functionalized with amino groups (MSN-NH2 ) and then with hyaluronic acid, a biocompatible biopolymer which can be recognized by CD44 receptors in tumor cells, to obtain a targeting drug delivery system. To this purpose, three hyaluronic acid samples differing for the molecular weight, namely HAS (8-15 kDa), HAM (30-50 kDa) and HAL (90-130 kDa), were used. The MSN-HAS , MSN-HAM , and MSN-HAL materials were characterized through zeta potential and dynamic light scattering measurements at pH = 7...
February 12, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455848/caveolin-1-the-unnoticed-player-in-tcr-and-bcr-signaling
#14
Gina J Fiala, Susana Minguet
T and B lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system. They recognize pathogenic cues via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) to get activated and execute their protective function. TCR and BCR signaling are initiated at the plasma membrane and subsequently propagated into the cell, ultimately leading to cell activation and a protective immune response. However, inappropriate activation of T and B cells can be detrimental to the host resulting in autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and cancer...
2018: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455665/pten-ptenp1-regulating-the-regulator-of-rtk-dependent-pi3k-akt-signalling-new-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Nahal Haddadi, Yiguang Lin, Glena Travis, Ann M Simpson, Eileen M McGowan, Najah T Nassif
Regulation of the PI-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway is essential for maintaining the integrity of fundamental cellular processes, cell growth, survival, death and metabolism, and dysregulation of this pathway is implicated in the development and progression of cancers. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are major upstream regulators of PI3K/Akt signalling. The phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), a well characterised tumour suppressor, is a prime antagonist of PI3K and therefore a negative regulator of this pathway...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455241/cox-2-derived-pge-2-triggers-hyperplastic-renin-expression-and-hyperreninemia-in-aldosterone-synthase-deficient-mice
#16
Christian Karger, Katharina Machura, André Schneider, Christian Hugo, Vladimir T Todorov, Armin Kurtz
Pharmacological inhibition or genetic loss of function defects of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) causes compensatory renin cell hyperplasia and hyperreninemia. The triggers for the compensatory stimulation of renin synthesis and secretion in this situation may be multimodal. Since cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the macula densa is frequently increased in states of a defective RAAS, we have investigated a potential role of COX-2 and its derived prostaglandins for renin expression and secretion in aldosterone synthase-deficient mice (AS-/- ) as a model for a genetic defect of the RAAS...
February 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455176/late-diagnosis-a-case-of-rapidly-progressive-extranodal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-nasal-type
#17
Hiroyuki Mori, Kei Ebisawa, Mitsushige Nishimura, Kenji Kanazawa
Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma, nasal type is a condition that has poor prognosis. Accurate diagnosis of lymphoma is made by pathological findings. We report a case of extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type affecting the lung and liver and which was difficult to diagnose because of negative biopsy results from multiple sites. A 39-year-old man who had dry cough and fever for 1 month was referred to our hospital. He had pancytopenia and elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and soluble interleukin-2 receptor...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455019/ocular-myasthenia-induced-by-rivaroxaban-in-patient-with-deep-vein-thrombosis
#18
Enrique M San Norberto, Irene García-Saiz, Diana Gutiérrez, Liliana Domingos, Carlos Vaquero
The non-VKA oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban is indicated in prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. A 60-year-old male patient complained of bilateral ptosis after administration of rivaroxaban for deep vein thrombosis. Myasthenia gravis was confirmed by positive serum antiacetylcholine receptor antibody test. No mediastinal thymoma was found. The ocular myasthenia reversed after discontinuing rivaroxaban treatment. Nevertheless, ptosis recurred and chronic oral pyridostigmine bromide treatment was necessary...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454968/ess2-bridges-transcriptional-regulators-and-spliceosomal-complexes-via-distinct-interacting-domains
#19
Ichiro Takada, Megumi Tsuchiya, Kaori Yanaka, Shinya Hidano, Sayuri Takahashi, Takashi Kobayashi, Hidesato Ogawa, Sinichi Nakagawa, Makoto Makishima
Transcription and pre-mRNA splicing are complex, coupled processes that involve transcriptional co-regulators. Ess2 (also termed Dgcr14) is a nuclear protein that enhances the transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma/gamma-t (Rorγ/γt). Ess2 is also a component of the spliceosomal C complex (containing U2, U5 and U6 snRNAs). However, the domains in Ess2 that function in splicing and transcription have not been identified. To elucidate the roles of Ess2 in splicing and transcription, we performed RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays to detect Ess2-interacting snRNAs...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454964/nek3-mediated-snap29-phosphorylation-modulates-its-membrane-association-and-snare-fusion-dependent-processes
#20
Debora Rapaport, Boris Fichtman, Hilla Weidberg, Eli Sprecher, Mia Horowitz
Intracellular membrane fusion depends on the presence of specific mediators, the vesicle (v-) and the target (t-) SNAREs (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, NSF, attachment protein SNAP receptors), whose interaction brings apposing membranes to close proximity and initiates their fusion. SNAP29 (synaptosomal-associated protein 29), a t-SNARE protein, is involved in multiple fusion events during intracellular transport and affects structure of organelles such as the Golgi apparatus and focal adhesions...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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