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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237788/naat-quantitation-as-predictor-of-toxin-presence-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
M J T Crobach, N Duszenko, E M Terveer, C M Verduin, E J Kuijper
Multi-step algorithmic testing in which a sensitive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is followed by a specific toxin A and B Enzyme Immunoassay (Tox A/B EIA) is among the most accurate methods for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis. The obvious shortcoming of this approach is that multiple tests must be performed to establish a CDI diagnosis, which may delay treatment. As such, we sought to determine whether a preliminary diagnosis could be made on the basis of the quantitative result of the first test in algorithmic testing, which provides a measure of organism burden...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223960/systematic-reviews-of-point-of-care-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-urogenital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infections
#2
REVIEW
Helen Kelly, Cordelia E M Coltart, Nitika Pant Pai, Jeffrey D Klausner, Magnus Unemo, Igor Toskin, Rosanna W Peeling
BACKGROUND: WHO estimates that 131 million new cases of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections occur globally every year. Most infections are asymptomatic. Untreated infection in women can lead to severe complications. Screening and treatment of at-risk populations is a priority for prevention and control. OBJECTIVES: To summarise systematic reviews of the performance characteristics of commercially available point-of-care tests (POCT) for screening and diagnosis of urogenital CT infection...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223959/performance-and-operational-characteristics-of-point-of-care-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-urogenital-gonococcal-infections
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca J Guy, Louise M Causer, Jeffrey D Klausner, Magnus Unemo, Igor Toskin, Anna M Azzini, Rosanna W Peeling
BACKGROUND: In 2012, there was an estimated 78 million new cases of gonorrhoea globally. Untreated infection may lead to reproductive and neonatal morbidity and facilitate HIV transmission. Diagnosis and treatment are a priority for control and prevention, yet use of point-of-care tests (POCTs) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is limited. OBJECTIVES: To review the performance and operational characteristics of NG POCTs for diagnosis of urogenital gonorrhoea. METHODS: We compiled and synthesised findings from two separate systematic reviews which included evaluations published until August 2015...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198179/screening-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infection-among-asymptomatic-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-bangkok-thailand
#4
Sarika Pattanasin, Eileen F Dunne, Punneeporn Wasinrapee, Jaray Tongtoyai, Wannee Chonwattana, Anuwat Sriporn, Pikunchai Luechai, Philip A Mock, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Timothy H Holtz, Marcel E Curlin
We report positivity rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection at each anatomic site among asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM). We calculated the number needed to screen (NNS) to detect CT and NG infection at each anatomic site. From 2006 to 2010, we enrolled Thai MSM, age ≥ 18 years into the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study. Participants underwent physical examination and had rectal, urethral, and pharyngeal screening for CT and NG infection using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190821/overexpression-of-native-ferritin-gene-musafer1-enhances-iron-content-and-oxidative-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-banana-plants
#5
Karuna Yadav, Prashanti Patel, Ashish Kumar Srivastava, T R Ganapathi
Iron is an indispensable element for plant growth and defense and hence it is essential to improve the plant's ability to accumulate iron. Besides, it is also an important aspect for human health. In view of this, we attempted to increase the iron content in banana cultivar Rasthali using MusaFer1 as a candidate gene. Initially, the expression of all five genes of the MusaFer family (MusaFer1-5) was quantified under iron-excess and -deficient conditions. The supplementation of 250 and 350 μM iron enhanced expression of all MusaFer genes; however, MusaFer1 was increased maximally by 2- and 4- fold in leaves and roots respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170443/should-we-screen-for-the-sexually-transmitted-infection-mycoplasma-genitalium-evidence-synthesis-using-a-transmission-dynamic-model
#6
Ruthie Birger, John Saunders, Claudia Estcourt, Andrew John Sutton, Catherine H Mercer, Tracy Roberts, Peter J White
There is increasing concern about Mycoplasma genitalium as a cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are becoming available, and their use in screening for M. genitalium has been advocated, but M. genitalium's natural history is poorly-understood, making screening's effectiveness unclear. We used a transmission-dynamic compartmental model to synthesise evidence from surveillance data and epidemiological and behavioural studies to better understand M...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167292/clinical-evaluation-of-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-tv-assay-for-detection-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-with-prospectively-collected-female-and-male-specimens
#7
Jane R Schwebke, C A Gaydos, T Davis, J Marrazzo, D Furgerson, S N Taylor, B Smith, L H Bachmann, R Ackerman, T Spurrell, D Ferris, C A Burnham, H Reno, J Lebed, D Eisenberg, P Kerndt, S Philip, J Jordan, N Quigley
Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). It has been associated with preterm birth and acquisition/transmission of HIV. Recently, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been FDA-cleared in the United States for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) in specimens from both women and men. This current study reports the results of a multicenter study recently conducted using the Xpert TV Assay to test specimens from both men and women. On-demand results were available in as little as 40 minutes for positive specimens...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161262/the-value-of-confirmatory-testing-in-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-programmes-in-south-africa-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#8
Lorna Dunning, Jordan A Francke, Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Martina Penazzato, Taige Hou, Landon Myer, Elaine J Abrams, Rochelle P Walensky, Valériane Leroy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Andrea Ciaranello
BACKGROUND: The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) used for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is <100%, leading some HIV-uninfected infants to be incorrectly identified as HIV-infected. The World Health Organization recommends that infants undergo a second NAAT to confirm any positive test result, but implementation is limited. Our objective was to determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of confirmatory HIV testing for EID programmes in South Africa...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133523/sampling-technique-and-detection-rates-of-oropharyngeal-and-anorectal-gonorrhoea-using-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#9
Tim Z T Yang, Marcus Y Chen, Tim R H Read, Robert Needleman, Catriona S Bradshaw, Ria Fortune, Christopher K Fairley, Eric P F Chow
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between clinicians' self-reported sampling technique and the detection rate of gonorrhoea at the oropharynx and anorectum using a highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). METHODS: We analysed oropharyngeal and anorectal gonorrhoea swab results among men who have sex with men attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between March 2015 and December 2016. Swabs were tested by NAAT using the Aptima Combo 2 transcription-mediated amplification assay due to its high sensitivity...
November 13, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082569/deep-facial-mycosis-due-to-trichophyton-verrucosum-molecular-genetic-identification-of-the-dermatophyte-in-paraffin-embedded-tissue-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
U Wollina, G Hansel, S Uhrlaß, C Krüger, J Schönlebe, U-C Hipler, P Nenoff
Deep trichophytosis is relatively uncommon. The infection of the bearded area is also known as sycosis barbae or tinea barbae and can be caused by various fungal species, most often zoophilic fungi. We report on an 80-year-old male patient with severe sycosis barbae who had no animal contact and was treated with systemic antibiosis without improvement. Microbial and mycological investigations using swabs from oozing lesions revealed Staphylococcus hemolyticus and Candida parapsilosis. Histology demonstrated fungal elements in hair follicles...
October 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074030/reliable-rapid-assay-for-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-emergency-department
#11
Sean P Wilson, Taher Vohra, Jared Goldberg, Christopher Price, Sean Calo, Meredith Mahan, Joseph Miller
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are common sexually transmitted infections seen in the emergency department (ED). Due to an inability to reliably make accurate diagnosis by physical examination, concern for unreliable follow-up, and current delays in diagnostic nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), presumptive treatment active against CT and NG, as described by Centers for Disease Control clinical practice guidelines, is often performed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a rapid, urine NAAT performed in the ED is noninferior in its diagnostic sensitivity compared with a traditional, swab NAAT assay...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069373/detection-of-influenza-c-viruses-among-outpatients-and-patients-hospitalized-for-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-minnesota-2013-2016
#12
Beth K Thielen, Hannah Friedlander, Sarah Bistodeau, Bo Shu, Brian Lynch, Karen Martin, Erica Bye, Kathyrn Como-Sabetti, David Boxrud, Anna K Strain, Sandra S Chaves, Andrea Steffens, Ashley L Fowlkes, Stephen Lindstrom, Ruth Lynfield
Background: Existing literature suggests that influenza C typically causes mild respiratory tract disease. However, clinical and epidemiological data are limited. Methods: Four outpatient clinics and three hospitals submitted clinical data and respiratory specimens through a surveillance network for acute respiratory infection (ARI) during May 2013 through December 2016. Specimens were tested using multi-target nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for 19-22 respiratory pathogens, including influenza C...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016320/comparison-of-platforms-for-testing-antibody-responses-against-the-chlamydia-trachomatis-antigen-pgp3
#13
Sarah Gwyn, Gretchen Cooley, Brook Goodhew, Stephan Kohloff, Natalie Banniettis, Ryan Wiegand, Diana L Martin
Antibody responses to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antigens may be useful tools for surveillance of trachoma by estimating cumulative prevalence of infection within a population. Data were compared from three different platforms-multiplex bead array (MBA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and lateral flow assay (LFA)-measuring antibody responses against the CT antigen protein plasmid gene product 3 (Pgp3). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of specimens testing antibody positive from a set of dried blood spots from Tanzanian 1-9-year olds who were positive for CT nucleic acid of all nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive individuals (N = 103)...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954901/evaluation-of-the-cobas%C3%A2-cdiff-test-for-the-detection-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-in-stool-samples
#14
Lance R Peterson, Stephen A Young, Thomas E Davis, Zi-Xuam Wang, John Duncan, Christopher Noutsios, Oliver Liesenfeld, John C Osiecki, Michael A Lewinski
Nucleic acid amplification tests are reliable tools for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile from unformed (liquid or soft) stool samples. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of the cobas® Cdiff Test on the cobas® 4800 System using prospectively collected stool specimens from patients suspected of C. difficile infection (CDI). Performance of the cobas® Cdiff Test was compared to the combined results of direct and broth enriched toxigenic culture in a large, multicenter clinical trial...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934342/monitoring-therapy-success-of-urogenital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infections-in-women-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#15
Bart Versteeg, Sylvia M Bruisten, Titia Heijman, Wilma Vermeulen, Martijn S van Rooijen, Alje P van Dam, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Henry J C de Vries, Maarten Scholing
INTRODUCTION: The use of a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) as a test of cure after treatment is subject to discussion, as the presence of C. trachomatis nucleic acids after treatment may be prolonged and intermittent without presence of infectious bacteria. We used cell culture to assess if a positive RNA- or DNA-based NAAT after treatment indicates the presence of viable C. trachomatis. METHODS: We included women with asymptomatic urogenital C. trachomatis infection visiting the Amsterdam STI clinic from September 2015 through June 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911360/evaluation-of-the-tb-lamp-assay-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-northern-india
#16
R Yadav, N Sharma, R Khaneja, P Agarwal, A Kanga, D Behera, S Sethi
SETTING: A tertiary care hospital in North India. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a commercial kit-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (TB-LAMP) assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). DESIGN: A total of 530 patients presenting with PTB symptoms were enrolled and one sputum sample was collected from each patient. The TB-LAMP assay (Loopamp™ MTBC Detection kit) was performed on the raw sputum sample. The remaining sample was used for smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869986/diagnostic-accuracy-of-novel-and-traditional-rapid-tests-for-influenza-infection-compared-with-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Joanna Merckx, Rehab Wali, Ian Schiller, Chelsea Caya, Genevieve C Gore, Caroline Chartrand, Nandini Dendukuri, Jesse Papenburg
Background: Rapid and accurate influenza diagnostics can improve patient care. Purpose: To summarize and compare accuracy of traditional rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), digital immunoassays (DIAs), and rapid nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in children and adults with suspected influenza. Data Sources: 6 databases from their inception through May 2017. Study Selection: Studies in English, French, or Spanish comparing commercialized rapid tests (that is, providing results in <30 minutes) with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction reference standard for influenza diagnosis...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822976/persistence-after-treatment-of-pharyngeal-gonococcal-infections-in-patients-of-the-sti-clinic-amsterdam-the-netherlands-2012-2015-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
I Putu Yuda Hananta, Henry John Christiaan De Vries, Alje P van Dam, Martijn Sebastiaan van Rooijen, Hardyanto Soebono, Maarten Franciscus Schim van der Loeff
INTRODUCTION: Infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx (pharyngeal Ng) is associated with gonococcal transmission and development of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed proportion of and determinants for persistence after treatment of pharyngeal Ng. METHODS: At the STI clinic of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, females-at-risk and men who have sex with men are routinely screened for pharyngeal Ng using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2)...
August 19, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798195/cross-sectional-study-to-evaluate-trichomonas-vaginalis-positivity-in-women-tested-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-attending-genitourinary-medicine-and-primary-care-clinics-in-bristol-south-west-england
#19
Jane E Nicholls, Katy M E Turner, Paul North, Ralph Ferguson, Margaret T May, Karen Gough, John Macleod, Peter Muir, Patrick J Horner
BACKGROUND: Highly sensitive, commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for Trichomonas vaginalis have only recently been recommended for use in the UK. While testing for T. vaginalis is routine in symptomatic women attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, it is rare in asymptomatic women or those attending primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positivity of T. vaginalis using a commercial NAAT, in symptomatic and asymptomatic women undergoing testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in GUM and primary care settings...
August 10, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789704/immuno-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-sputum-and-reduction-of-timelines-for-its-positive-cultures-to-within-3%C3%A2-h-by-pathogen-specific-thymidylate-kinase-expression-assays
#20
Misaki Wayengera, Ivan Mwebaza, Johnson Welishe, Alice Bayiyana, David P Kateete, Eddie Wampande, Samuel Kirimunda, Edgar Kigozi, Fred Katabazi, Carol Musubika, Samuel Kyobe, Peace Babirye, Benon Asiimwe, Moses L Joloba
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) is traditionally based on microscopy and or culture. Microscopy is however, only sensitive to a specified degree of bacillary load not present in HIV co-infected persons. Traditional cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), on the other hand, take weeks to read-thereby delaying the critical decision whether or not, to treat. Although nucleic acids amplification tests (NAATS) applied directly on sputum or cultures can increase the sensitivity for TB diagnosis among those with HIV co-infection as well as reduce time-lines for positive culture detection, they do not replace the need for smear microscopy and culture...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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