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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455403/aseptic-central-nervous-system-infections-in-adults-what-predictor-for-unknown-etiological-diagnosis
#1
Jacopo Monticelli, Nicholas Geremia, Pierlanfranco D'Agaro, Vincenzo Petix, Roberto Luzzati
Despite the availability of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), most of aseptic acute meningitides, encephalitides, and meningoencephalitides (AAMEMs) in adults remain of unknown etiology so far. To shed light on such topic, we aimed to evaluate potential predictors for AAMEMs of unknown origin. We collected retrospectively data from all consecutive cases of AAMEMs in adults discharged from an Italian referral hospital, from January 2004 to December 2016. Laboratory analysis included common immunometric methods and NAATs...
February 17, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455185/performance-evaluation-of-cobas-hbv-real-time-pcr-assay-on-roche-cobas-4800-system-in-comparison-with-cobas-ampliprep-cobas-taqman-hbv-test
#2
Hanah Kim, Mina Hur, Eunsin Bae, Kyung-A Lee, Woo-In Lee
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is important for the diagnosis and management of HBV infection. We evaluated the analytical performance of the cobas HBV NAAT (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) on the cobas 4800 System in comparison with COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test (CAP/CTM HBV). METHODS: Precision was evaluated using three levels of cobas HBV/HCV/HIV-1 Control Kit, and linearity was evaluated across the anticipated measuring range (10...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428547/evaluation-of-4-molecular-assays-as-part-of-a-2-step-algorithm-for-the-detection-of-clostridium-difficile-in-stool-specimens
#3
Adam J Caulfield, Catherine M Bolster LaSalle, Yu-Hui H Chang, Thomas E Grys
Detection of Clostridium difficile infection is important for clinical laboratories, owing to debilitating disease, severe outcomes, patient awareness, and public reporting of hospital data. This study evaluated the performance of 4 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) assays as part of a 2-step algorithm that involves reflexive NAAT following enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing that is indeterminate for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A/B (GDH+/toxin- or GDH-/toxin+). A total of 500 stool specimens from consecutive patients were tested by each of the 5 methods and also evaluated as part of a 2-step algorithm...
January 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420445/frequency-of-nucleic-acid-amplification-test-positivity-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-returning-for-a-test-of-cure-visit-7-to-30-days-after-treatment-of-laboratory-confirmed-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infection-at-2-public-sexual-health-clinics-new-york-city-2013
#4
Ebiere Okah, Emily F Westheimer, Kelly Jamison, Julia A Schillinger
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2015 Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines recommend that clinicians consider cephalosporin treatment failure in patients who deny interval sexual exposure and are nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) at least 7 days after adequate treatment. We evaluate the real-world implications of the interval the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends for a NAAT test-of-cure (TOC), by ascertaining the frequency of NG NAAT positivity at different anatomic sites among men who have sex with men (MSM) at TOC 7 to 30 days after treatment...
March 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399559/molecular-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis
#5
REVIEW
Fariz Nurwidya, Diah Handayani, Erlina Burhan, Faisal Yunus
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of adult death in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Indonesia. As an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), TB remains a major public health issue especially in developing nations due to the lack of adequate diagnostic testing facilities. Diagnosis of TB has entered an era of molecular detection that provides faster and more cost-effective methods to diagnose and confirm drug resistance in TB cases, meanwhile, diagnosis by conventional culture systems requires several weeks...
January 2018: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396306/a-30-min-nucleic-acid-amplification-point-of-care-test-for-genital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-in-women-a-prospective-multi-center-study-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#6
E M Harding-Esch, E C Cousins, S-L C Chow, L T Phillips, C L Hall, N Cooper, S S Fuller, A V Nori, R Patel, S Thomas-William, G Whitlock, S J E Edwards, M Green, J Clarkson, B Arlett, J K Dunbar, C M Lowndes, S T Sadiq
BACKGROUND: Rapid Point-Of-Care Tests for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) may reduce onward transmission and reproductive sexual health (RSH) sequelae by reducing turnaround times between diagnosis and treatment. The io® single module system (Atlas Genetics Ltd.) runs clinical samples through a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-based CT cartridge, delivering results in 30min. METHODS: Prospective diagnostic accuracy study of the io® CT-assay in four UK Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM)/RSH clinics on additional-to-routine self-collected vulvovaginal swabs...
January 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394288/high-risk-exposure-to-hiv-among-sexually-active-individuals-who-tested-negative-on-rapid-hiv-tests-in-the-tshwane-district-of-south-africa-the-importance-of-behavioural-prevention-measures
#7
Simnikiwe H Mayaphi, Desmond J Martin, Steve A S Olorunju, Brian G Williams, Thomas C Quinn, Anton C Stoltz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of HIV risk behaviour among sexually active HIV sero-negative individuals in the Tshwane district of South Africa (SA). METHODS: Demographic and HIV risk behaviour data were collected on a questionnaire from participants of a cross-sectional study that screened for early HIV infection using pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). The study enrolled individuals who tested negative on rapid HIV tests performed at five HIV counseling and testing (HCT) clinics, which included four antenatal clinics and one general HCT clinic...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367295/validation-of-active-surveillance-testing-for-clostridium-difficile-colonization-using-the-cobas%C3%A2-cdiff-test
#8
Parul A Patel, Donna M Schora, Kamaljit Singh, Lance R Peterson
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is not declining in the United States. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) are used as part of active surveillance testing programs to prevent healthcare associated infection. The objective of this study was to validate the cobas® Cdiff Test on the cobas® 4800 System (cobas®) within a 4-hospital system using prospectively collected peri-rectal swabs from asymptomatic patients at admission and during monthly intensive care unit (ICU) screening in an Infection Control CDI reduction program...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297448/score-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-clinical-presumption-of-tuberculosis-in-a-low-prevalence-area
#9
T Delory, H Ferrand, N Grall, E Casalino, M Lafarge, B Melot, D Hajage, C Charpentier, M Aubier, F Tubach, E Bouvet, N Gault, Y Yazdanpanah
OBJECTIVES: To develop a diagnostic predictive model for the identification of patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at high risk for active disease and those requiring nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) testing and/or preventive respiratory isolation in low-incidence, high-income countries. DESIGN: A 1:1 case-control study was conducted in consecutive immunocompetent patients with presumed PTB hospitalised between 2009 and 2012 in Paris, France...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237788/naat-quantitation-as-predictor-of-toxin-presence-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
M J T Crobach, N Duszenko, E M Terveer, C M Verduin, E J Kuijper
Multi-step algorithmic testing in which a sensitive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is followed by a specific toxin A and B Enzyme Immunoassay (Tox A/B EIA) is among the most accurate methods for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis. The obvious shortcoming of this approach is that multiple tests must be performed to establish a CDI diagnosis, which may delay treatment. As such, we sought to determine whether a preliminary diagnosis could be made on the basis of the quantitative result of the first test in algorithmic testing, which provides a measure of organism burden...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223960/systematic-reviews-of-point-of-care-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-urogenital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infections
#11
REVIEW
Helen Kelly, Cordelia E M Coltart, Nitika Pant Pai, Jeffrey D Klausner, Magnus Unemo, Igor Toskin, Rosanna W Peeling
BACKGROUND: WHO estimates that 131 million new cases of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections occur globally every year. Most infections are asymptomatic. Untreated infection in women can lead to severe complications. Screening and treatment of at-risk populations is a priority for prevention and control. OBJECTIVES: To summarise systematic reviews of the performance characteristics of commercially available point-of-care tests (POCT) for screening and diagnosis of urogenital CT infection...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223959/performance-and-operational-characteristics-of-point-of-care-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-urogenital-gonococcal-infections
#12
REVIEW
Rebecca J Guy, Louise M Causer, Jeffrey D Klausner, Magnus Unemo, Igor Toskin, Anna M Azzini, Rosanna W Peeling
BACKGROUND: In 2012, there was an estimated 78 million new cases of gonorrhoea globally. Untreated infection may lead to reproductive and neonatal morbidity and facilitate HIV transmission. Diagnosis and treatment are a priority for control and prevention, yet use of point-of-care tests (POCTs) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is limited. OBJECTIVES: To review the performance and operational characteristics of NG POCTs for diagnosis of urogenital gonorrhoea. METHODS: We compiled and synthesised findings from two separate systematic reviews which included evaluations published until August 2015...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198179/screening-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infection-among-asymptomatic-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-bangkok-thailand
#13
Sarika Pattanasin, Eileen F Dunne, Punneeporn Wasinrapee, Jaray Tongtoyai, Wannee Chonwattana, Anuwat Sriporn, Pikunchai Luechai, Philip A Mock, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Timothy H Holtz, Marcel E Curlin
We report positivity rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection at each anatomic site among asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM). We calculated the number needed to screen (NNS) to detect CT and NG infection at each anatomic site. From 2006 to 2010, we enrolled Thai MSM, age ≥ 18 years into the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study. Participants underwent physical examination and had rectal, urethral, and pharyngeal screening for CT and NG infection using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190821/overexpression-of-native-ferritin-gene-musafer1-enhances-iron-content-and-oxidative-stress-tolerance-in-transgenic-banana-plants
#14
Karuna Yadav, Prashanti Patel, Ashish Kumar Srivastava, T R Ganapathi
Iron is an indispensable element for plant growth and defense and hence it is essential to improve the plant's ability to accumulate iron. Besides, it is also an important aspect for human health. In view of this, we attempted to increase the iron content in banana cultivar Rasthali using MusaFer1 as a candidate gene. Initially, the expression of all five genes of the MusaFer family (MusaFer1-5) was quantified under iron-excess and -deficient conditions. The supplementation of 250 and 350 μM iron enhanced expression of all MusaFer genes; however, MusaFer1 was increased maximally by 2- and 4- fold in leaves and roots respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170443/should-we-screen-for-the-sexually-transmitted-infection-mycoplasma-genitalium-evidence-synthesis-using-a-transmission-dynamic-model
#15
Ruthie Birger, John Saunders, Claudia Estcourt, Andrew John Sutton, Catherine H Mercer, Tracy Roberts, Peter J White
There is increasing concern about Mycoplasma genitalium as a cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are becoming available, and their use in screening for M. genitalium has been advocated, but M. genitalium's natural history is poorly-understood, making screening's effectiveness unclear. We used a transmission-dynamic compartmental model to synthesise evidence from surveillance data and epidemiological and behavioural studies to better understand M...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167292/clinical-evaluation-of-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-tv-assay-for-detection-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-with-prospectively-collected-female-and-male-specimens
#16
Jane R Schwebke, C A Gaydos, T Davis, J Marrazzo, D Furgerson, S N Taylor, B Smith, L H Bachmann, R Ackerman, T Spurrell, D Ferris, C A Burnham, H Reno, J Lebed, D Eisenberg, P Kerndt, S Philip, J Jordan, N Quigley
Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). It has been associated with preterm birth and acquisition/transmission of HIV. Recently, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been FDA-cleared in the United States for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) in specimens from both women and men. This current study reports the results of a multicenter study recently conducted using the Xpert TV Assay to test specimens from both men and women. On-demand results were available in as little as 40 minutes for positive specimens...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161262/the-value-of-confirmatory-testing-in-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-programmes-in-south-africa-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#17
Lorna Dunning, Jordan A Francke, Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Martina Penazzato, Taige Hou, Landon Myer, Elaine J Abrams, Rochelle P Walensky, Valériane Leroy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Andrea Ciaranello
BACKGROUND: The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) used for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is <100%, leading some HIV-uninfected infants to be incorrectly identified as HIV-infected. The World Health Organization recommends that infants undergo a second NAAT to confirm any positive test result, but implementation is limited. Our objective was to determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of confirmatory HIV testing for EID programmes in South Africa...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133523/sampling-technique-and-detection-rates-of-oropharyngeal-and-anorectal-gonorrhoea-using-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#18
Tim Z T Yang, Marcus Y Chen, Tim R H Read, Robert Needleman, Catriona S Bradshaw, Ria Fortune, Christopher K Fairley, Eric P F Chow
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between clinicians' self-reported sampling technique and the detection rate of gonorrhoea at the oropharynx and anorectum using a highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). METHODS: We analysed oropharyngeal and anorectal gonorrhoea swab results among men who have sex with men attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between March 2015 and December 2016. Swabs were tested by NAAT using the Aptima Combo 2 transcription-mediated amplification assay due to its high sensitivity...
November 13, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082569/deep-facial-mycosis-due-to-trichophyton-verrucosum-molecular-genetic-identification-of-the-dermatophyte-in-paraffin-embedded-tissue-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
U Wollina, G Hansel, S Uhrlaß, C Krüger, J Schönlebe, U-C Hipler, P Nenoff
Deep trichophytosis is relatively uncommon. The infection of the bearded area is also known as sycosis barbae or tinea barbae and can be caused by various fungal species, most often zoophilic fungi. We report on an 80-year-old male patient with severe sycosis barbae who had no animal contact and was treated with systemic antibiosis without improvement. Microbial and mycological investigations using swabs from oozing lesions revealed Staphylococcus hemolyticus and Candida parapsilosis. Histology demonstrated fungal elements in hair follicles...
October 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074030/reliable-rapid-assay-for-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-emergency-department
#20
Sean P Wilson, Taher Vohra, Jared Goldberg, Christopher Price, Sean Calo, Meredith Mahan, Joseph Miller
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are common sexually transmitted infections seen in the emergency department (ED). Due to an inability to reliably make accurate diagnosis by physical examination, concern for unreliable follow-up, and current delays in diagnostic nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), presumptive treatment active against CT and NG, as described by Centers for Disease Control clinical practice guidelines, is often performed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a rapid, urine NAAT performed in the ED is noninferior in its diagnostic sensitivity compared with a traditional, swab NAAT assay...
December 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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