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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077697/point-counterpoint-what-is-the-optimal-approach-for-detection-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Ferric C Fang, Christopher R Polage, Mark H Wilcox
In 2010, we published an initial point-counterpoint on laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). At that time, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) were just becoming commercially available, and the idea of algorithmic approaches to CDI was being explored. Now there are numerous NAATs in the marketplace and based on recent proficiency test surveys, they have become the predominant method used for CDI diagnosis in the United States. At the same time, there is a body of literature that suggests that NAATs lack clinical specificity and thus inflate CDI rates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077695/stability-studies-on-dry-swabs-and-wet-mailed-swabs-for-the-detection-of-c-trachomatis-and-n-gonorrhoeae-in-the-aptima-assays
#2
Jeanne Moncada, Carey B Clark, Jeffrey Holden, Edward W Hook, Charlotte A Gaydos, Julius Schachter
The Aptima Combo2 (AC2) and Aptima CT (ACT) (Hologic Inc., San Diego, CA) are nucleic acid amplified tests (NAATs) that detect Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). AC2 also detects Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). Storage and temperature conditions may impact the utility of NAATs in some settings and screening programs. We evaluated specimen stability for use beyond the Aptima package insert temperature and duration of storage specifications (between 2° to 30°C, 60 days) in two studies: 1) dry CT seeded swabs were used with ACT after storage at 4°C, 23°C or 36°C for up to 84 days and 2) swabs seeded with CT and NG then placed in transport media were tested with AC2, after mailing via the U...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076298/comparison-of-abbott-realtime-genotype-ii-genematrix-restriction-fragment-mass-polymorphism-and-sysmex-hiscl-hcv-gr-assays-for-hepatitis-c-virus-genotyping
#3
Mi-Soon Han, Yongjung Park, Hyon-Suk Kim
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is a predictive marker for treatment response. We sequentially evaluated the performances of two nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and one serology assay for HCV genotype: Abbott RealTime genotype II (RealTime II), GeneMatrix restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP), and Sysmex HISCL HCV Gr (HISCL Gr). METHODS: We examined 281 clinical samples with three assays. The accuracy was assessed using the HCV Genotype Performance Panel PHW204 (SeraCare Life Sciences) for two NAATs...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055571/a-review-of-methods-for-detection-of-hepatozoon-infection-in-carnivores-and-arthropod-vectors
#4
David Modrý, Relja Beck, Kristýna Hrazdilová, Gad Baneth
Vector-borne protists of the genus Hepatozoon belong to the apicomplexan suborder Adeleorina. The taxonomy of Hepatozoon is unsettled and different phylogenetic clades probably represent evolutionary units deserving the status of separate genera. Throughout our review, we focus on the monophyletic assemblage of Hepatozoon spp. from carnivores, classified as Hepatozoon sensu stricto that includes important pathogens of domestic and free-ranging canine and feline hosts. We provide an overview of diagnostic methods and approaches from classical detection in biological materials, through serological tests to nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs)...
January 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053213/calibration-of-bk-virus-nucleic-acid-amplification-testing-to-the-1st-who-international-standard-for-bk-virus
#5
Susanna K Tan, Stephen Milligan, Malaya K Sahoo, Nathaniel Taylor, Benjamin A Pinsky
Significant inter-assay variability in the quantification of BK virus (BKV) DNA precludes establishing broadly applicable thresholds for the management of BKV infection in transplantation. The 1(st) WHO International Standard for BKV (primary standard) was introduced in 2016 as a common calibrator to improve the harmonization of BKV nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and allow comparison of biological measurements worldwide. Here we discuss the evaluation of the Altona RealStar® BKV assay (Altona) and calibration of results to the International Unit (IU) using the Exact Diagnostics® BKV Verification Panel, a secondary standard traceable to the primary standard...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043179/the-cobas%C3%A2-6800-8800-system-a-new-era-of-automation-in-molecular-diagnostics
#6
Bryan Cobb, Christian O Simon, Susan L Stramer, Barbara Body, P Shawn Mitchell, Natasa Reisch, Wendy Stevens, Sergio Carmona, Louis Katz, Stephen Will, Oliver Liesenfeld
Molecular diagnostics is a key component of laboratory medicine. Here, the authors review key triggers of ever-increasing automation in nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) with a focus on specific automated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing and platforms such as the recently launched cobas® 6800 and cobas® 8800 Systems. The benefits of such automation for different stakeholders including patients, clinicians, laboratory personnel, hospital administrators, payers, and manufacturers are described...
January 3, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029400/diagnostic-testing-methods-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-statewide-survey-of-ohio-acute-care-hospitals
#7
Ken Koon Wong, Byungwoo Choi, Thomas G Fraser, Curtis J Donskey, Abhishek Deshpande
We surveyed Ohio acute care hospitals on laboratory testing used for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Of 146 hospitals surveyed, 109 (84%) used nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) as stand-alone diagnostic assays. Only 53 (42.4%) hospitals using NAATs had a mechanism in place to prevent repeat CDI testing.
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984552/increased-detection-of-pharyngeal-and-rectal-gonorrhea-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-after-transition-from-culture-to-nucleic-acid-amplification-testing
#8
Vincent J Cornelisse, Eric P F Chow, Sarah Huffam, Christopher K Fairley, Melanie Bissessor, Vesna De Petra, Benjamin P Howden, Ian Denham, Catriona S Bradshaw, Deborah Williamson, Marcus Y Chen
BACKGROUND: This before-and-after study measured the impact of a change in testing methods from culture to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) on the detection of pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhea in men who have sex with men (MSM) on a sexual health service level, including the effect on subgroups anticipated to have higher rates of gonorrhea. METHODS: In March 2015, Melbourne Sexual Health Centre changed its laboratory method for gonococcal testing from culture to NAAT using the Aptima Combo 2 and Aptima GC tests...
December 14, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981387/-non-viral-sexually-transmitted-infections-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-diagnostics-and-therapy-part%C3%A2-2-chlamydia-and-mycoplasma
#9
REVIEW
P Nenoff, A Manos, I Ehrhard, C Krüger, U Paasch, P Helmbold, W Handrick
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common pathogen of sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide. Every year in Germany approximately 300,000 new infections are to be expected. Chlamydia infections occur nearly exclusively in the postpubertal period. The peak age group is 15-25 years. The infection usually runs an asymptomatic course and the diagnosis is made by nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) often after chlamydial screening or if complications occur. For treatment of chlamydial infections oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily over 7 days is initially used or alternatively oral azithromycin 1...
December 15, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957506/use-of-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-in-tuberculosis-patients-in-california-2010-2013
#10
Gianna Peralta, Pennan Barry, Lisa Pascopella
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been used as a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis (TB) in the United States for many years. We sought to assess NAAT use in TB patients in California during a period of time when NAAT availability increased throughout the world. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of surveillance data from 6051 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB who were reported to the California TB registry during 2010-2013...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940948/clinical-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-xpert-mtb-rif-testing-in-hospitalized-patients-with-presumptive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-united-states
#11
James F Cowan, Aldine S Chandler, Elizabeth Kracen, David R Park, Carolyn K Wallis, Emelline Liu, Chao Song, David H Persing, Ferric C Fang
BACKGROUND: Microscopic examination of acid-fast stained sputum smears is the current standard of care in the United States to determine airborne infection isolation (AII) of inpatients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) with the Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay (Xpert) may be more efficient and less costly. METHOD: This prospective observational cohort study enrolled a consecutive sample of 318 AII-eligible inpatients from a public hospital in Seattle, Washington from March 2012 to October 2013...
December 10, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927919/clinical-evaluation-and-cost-analysis-of-the-great-basin-shiga-toxin-direct-molecular-assay-for-the-detection-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-in-diarrheal-stool-specimens
#12
Matthew L Faron, Nathan A Ledeboer, Jessica Connolly, Paul A Granato, Brenda R Alkins, Jennifer Dien Bard, Judy A Daly, Stephen Young, Blake W Buchan
The Shiga Toxin Direct molecular assay (ST Direct) relies on nucleic acid amplification and solid array-based amplicon detection to identify Shiga toxin-encoding E. coli (STEC) in preserved stool specimens. Genes encoding Shiga toxin (stx1, stx2), as well as the E. coli serotype O:157-specific marker rfbE, are simultaneously detected within 2 hours. ST Direct was evaluated using 1,084 prospectively collected preserved stool specimens across five clinical centers. An additional 55 retrospectively collected, frozen specimens were included to increase the number of positive specimens evaluated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876339/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-c-diff-colitis-review-of-the-literature-and-a-perspective-in-gynecologic-oncology
#13
REVIEW
Kristin N Taylor, Michael T McHale, Cheryl C Saenz, Steven C Plaxe
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Colonization in a susceptible individual, with risk factors such as prior antibiotic use, advanced age, or medical comorbidities, may result in symptomatic infection. Although patients with a gynecologic malignancy may be at a higher risk of developing CDI due to an increased likelihood of having one or more risk factors, data do not consistently support the idea that chemotherapy or cancer itself are independently associated with CDI...
November 19, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864473/a-recommendation-for-timing-of-repeat-chlamydia-trachomatis-test-following-infection-and-treatment-in-pregnant-and-nonpregnant-women
#14
Gweneth B Lazenby, Jeffrey E Korte, Sarah Tillman, Florence K Brown, David E Soper
The objective of this study was to describe the time required to obtain a negative chlamydia test in pregnant and nonpregnant women following treatment to inform test-of-cure collection and recommend an abstinence period to avoid reinfection. Seventy-two women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection, 36 pregnant and 36 nonpregnant, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Women were excluded less than 18 years of age, if they had been treated for chlamydia, reported an allergy to macrolide antibiotics, or if they had Myasthenia Gravis...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862349/lymphogranuloma-venereum-with-only-proximal-rectal-involvement-mimicking-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall
#15
LETTER
F Rob, J Kašpírková, K Jůzlová, M Pešta, J Hercogová
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835626/genotype-specific-concordance-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infection-within-heterosexual-partnerships
#16
Julia A Schillinger, Barry P Katz, Lauri E Markowitz, Phillip G Braslins, Lydia A Shrier, Guillermo Madico, Barbara Van Der Pol, Donald P Orr, Peter A Rice, Byron E Batteiger
BACKGROUND: Sexual transmission rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) cannot be measured directly; however, the study of concordance of Ct infection in sexual partnerships (dyads) can help to illuminate factors influencing Ct transmission. METHODS: Heterosexual men and women with Ct infection and their sex partners were enrolled and partner-specific coital and behavioral data collected for the prior 30 days. Microbiological data included Ct culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction, and ompA genotyping...
December 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812208/viability-pcr-shows-that-naat-detects-a-high-proportion-of-dna-from-non-viable-chlamydia-trachomatis
#17
Kevin J H Janssen, Christian J P A Hoebe, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers, Lisanne Eppings, Mayk Lucchesi, Petra F G Wolffs
OBJECTIVES: According to the current guidelines for laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the preferred diagnostic method for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections. However, NAATs amplify the available target DNA without discriminating between DNA originating from viable or non-viable CT. Assessing CT viability will provide more insights in the clinical and public health relevance of a CT positive test result. The aim of this study was to technically validate and implement viability-PCR (V-PCR) to asses CT viability...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809795/leucocyte-esterase-dip-stick-test-as-a-point-of-care-diagnostic-for-urogenital-chlamydia-in-male-patients-a-multi-center-evaluation-in-two-sti-outpatient-clinics-in-paramaribo-and-amsterdam
#18
Menne Bartelsman, Henry J C de Vries, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Leslie O A Sabajo, Jannie J van der Helm
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) tests are an important strategy to address the epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The leucocyte esterase test (LET) can be used as a POC test for chlamydia. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the LET to detect urogenital chlamydia among men at STI clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Recruitment of patients took place in 2008-2010 in Suriname and in 2009-2010 in the Netherlands...
November 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764165/detection-of-acute-and-early-hiv-1-infections-in-an-hiv-hyper-endemic-area-with-limited-resources
#19
Simnikiwe H Mayaphi, Desmond J Martin, Thomas C Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker, Steve A S Olorunju, Gregory R Tintinger, Anton C Stoltz
BACKGROUND: Two thirds of the world's new HIV infections are in sub-Saharan Africa. Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the time of virus acquisition until the appearance of HIV antibodies. Early HIV infection, which includes AHI, is the interval between virus acquisition and establishment of viral load set-point. This study aimed to detect acute and early HIV infections in a hyper-endemic setting. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional diagnostic study that enrolled individuals who had negative rapid HIV results in five clinics in South Africa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745553/failure-of-risk-adjustment-by-test-method-for-c-difficile-laboratory-identified-event-reporting
#20
Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond, Bradley A Ford, Loreen A Herwaldt, Abdullah R Algwizani, Daniel J Diekema
Using an algorithm including both enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis, we found that the use of NAAT versus EIA almost doubled our hospital-onset CDI laboratory-identified (LabID) event standardized infection ratio (SIR). We recommend that the current risk adjustment approach be modified. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016:1-3.
October 17, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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