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Simnikiwe H Mayaphi, Desmond J Martin, Thomas C Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker, Steve A S Olorunju, Gregory R Tintinger, Anton C Stoltz
BACKGROUND: Two thirds of the world's new HIV infections are in sub-Saharan Africa. Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the time of virus acquisition until the appearance of HIV antibodies. Early HIV infection, which includes AHI, is the interval between virus acquisition and establishment of viral load set-point. This study aimed to detect acute and early HIV infections in a hyper-endemic setting. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional diagnostic study that enrolled individuals who had negative rapid HIV results in five clinics in South Africa...
2016: PloS One
Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond, Bradley A Ford, Loreen A Herwaldt, Abdullah R Algwizani, Daniel J Diekema
Using an algorithm including both enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis, we found that the use of NAAT versus EIA almost doubled our hospital-onset CDI laboratory-identified (LabID) event standardized infection ratio (SIR). We recommend that the current risk adjustment approach be modified. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016:1-3.
October 17, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Carolien M Wind, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Magnus Unemo, Rob Schuurman, Alje P van Dam, Henry J C de Vries
BACKGROUND: Performing a test of cure (TOC) could demonstrate success or failure of antimicrobial treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, but recommendations for the timing of a TOC using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are inconsistent. We assessed time to clearance of C. trachomatis after treatment, using modern RNA- and DNA-based NAATs. METHODS: We analysed data from patients with a C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection who visited the STI Clinic Amsterdam, The Netherlands, from March through October 2014...
October 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Thomas Meyer
The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria...
August 5, 2016: Microorganisms
K Hokynar, S Korhonen, P Norja, J Paavonen, M Puolakkainen
: We studied whether antibody to two chlamydial proteins (TroA and HtrA) could be used as biomarkers of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. METHODS: Recombinant proteins C. trachomatis TroA and HtrA were used as antigens in enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Both IgG and IgA antibody responses were studied. RESULTS: IgG or IgA antibody to either protein was infrequently detected in sera from healthy blood donors or virgin girls. Patients attending the STI Clinic and patients with perihepatitis had often IgG antibody against TroA (25 and 50 % respectively) and HtrA (21 and 38 % respectively)...
September 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Rashmi Dixit, Slade Matthews, Gulam Khandaker, Karen Walker, Marino Festa, Robert Booy
BACKGROUND: Oseltamivir is the only antiviral treatment recommended for influenza in young children over the age of 1 year. There is scant data on oseltamivir pharmacokinetics (PK) in infants <1 year. We set out to perform PK measurements in infants who received oseltamivir. METHODS: This study was a prospective, uncontrolled, open label evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir metabolism, safety of oseltamivir, viral clearance in infants <12 months diagnosed with influenza by nasopharyngeal influenza nucleic acid antigen test (NAAT)...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Agatha N Jassem, Frank Chou, Cathevine Yang, Matthew A Croxen, Katarina D M Pintar, Ana Paccagnella, Linda Hoang, Natalie Prystajecky
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associated enteric illness is attributed to O157 and non-O157 serotypes, however, traditional culture-based methods under-detect non-O157 STEC. Labor and consumable costs are major barriers for implementation of CDC recommendation of testing all stools for both O157 and non-O157. We evaluated the feasibility of a pooled nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) as an approach for screening of stool specimens for STEC. For retrospective evaluation, 300 stool specimens were used to create pools of 10...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Harald Moi, Nils Reinton, Ivana Randjelovic, Elina J Reponen, Line Syvertsen, Amir Moghaddam
A non-syndromic approach to treatment of people with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) requires identification of pathogens and understanding of the role of those pathogens in causing disease. The most commonly detected and isolated micro-organisms in the male urethral tract are bacteria belonging to the family of Mycoplasmataceae, in particular Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum To better understand the role of these Ureaplasma species in NGU, we have performed a prospective analysis of male patients voluntarily attending a drop in STI clinic in Oslo...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Lisa K Lafleur, Joshua D Bishop, Erin K Heiniger, Ryan P Gallagher, Maxwell D Wheeler, Peter Kauffman, Xiaohong Zhang, Enos C Kline, Joshua R Buser, Sujatha Kumar, Samantha A Byrnes, Nicolaas M J Vermeulen, Noah K Scarr, Yevgeniy Belousov, Walt Mahoney, Bhushan J Toley, Paula D Ladd, Barry R Lutz, Paul Yager
The prototype demonstrated here is the first fully integrated sample-to-result diagnostic platform for performing nucleic acid amplification tests that requires no permanent instrument or manual sample processing. The multiplexable autonomous disposable nucleic acid amplification test (MAD NAAT) is based on two-dimensional paper networks, which enable sensitive chemical detection normally reserved for laboratories to be carried out anywhere by untrained users. All reagents are stored dry in the disposable test device and are rehydrated by stored buffer...
October 7, 2016: Lab on a Chip
J S Jensen, M Cusini, M Gomberg, H Moi
Mycoplasma genitalium infection contributes to 10-35% of non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis in men. In women, M. genitalium is associated with cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Transmission of M. genitalium occurs through direct mucosal contact. Asymptomatic infections are frequent. In women, symptoms include vaginal discharge, dysuria or symptoms of PID - abdominal pain and dyspareunia. In men, urethritis, dysuria and discharge predominates. Besides symptoms, indication for laboratory test is a high-risk sexual behaviour...
August 9, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Shankar Kumar, Richard Pollok, Ivan Muscat, Timothy Planche
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a potentially life-threatening cause of diarrhoea. Correct laboratory diagnosis is essential to differentiate CDI from other causes of diarrhoea. A positive faecal C.difficile toxin (CDT) is the best indicator of CDI, but the significance of a positive faecal nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) remains unclear. Our aim was to elucidate the significance of CDI diagnostics in patients in Jersey. METHODS: A retrospective, 5-year study was conducted at an island district general hospital of patients who developed CDI...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers, Petra F G Wolffs, Lisanne Eppings, Hannelore M Götz, Sylvia M Bruisten, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Kevin Janssen, Mayk Lucchesi, Titia Heijman, Birgit H van Benthem, Jan E van Bergen, Servaas A Morre, Jos Herbergs, Gerjo Kok, Mieke Steenbakkers, Arjan A Hogewoning, Henry J de Vries, Christian J P A Hoebe
BACKGROUND: In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment detection of CT at both anatomic sites has been demonstrated. It is unknown whether anorectal CT may play a role in post-treatment transmission. This study, called FemCure, in women who receive routine treatment (either azithromycin or doxycycline) aims to understand the post-treatment transmission of anorectal CT infections, i...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Laura Dize, Perry Barnes, Mathilda Barnes, Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Vincent Marsiglia, Della Duncan, Justin Hardick, Charlotte A Gaydos
Men were enrolled in a study to assess the performance and acceptability of self-collected penile meatal swabs as compared to clinician-collected urethral swabs for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We expected penile-meatal swabs to perform favorably to urethral swabs for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) detection by nucleic acid amplification assays (NAATs). Of 203 swab pairs tested; for CT, penile-meatal swab sensitivity was 96...
October 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Emilio Bouza, Luis Alcalá, Elena Reigadas
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and is associated with a considerable health and cost burden. However, there is still not a clear consensus on the best laboratory diagnosis approach and a wide variation of testing methods and strategies can be encountered. AREAS COVERED: We aim to review the most practical aspects of CDI diagnosis providing our own view on how to optimize CDI diagnosis. Expert commentary: Laboratory diagnosis in search of C...
September 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Preeti Pathela, Kelly Jamison, Sarah L Braunstein, Julia A Schillinger, Jay K Varma, Susan Blank
We examined five annual cohorts (2007-2011) of men who have sex with men (MSM) attending New York City STD clinics who had negative HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) on the day of clinic visit. Annual HIV incidence was calculated using HIV diagnoses within 1 year of negative NAAT, determined by matching with the citywide HIV registry. Predictors (demographic; behavioral; bacterial STD from citywide STD registry match) of all new HIV diagnoses through 2012 were calculated from Cox proportional hazards models...
July 23, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Bobbi S Pritt, Robin Patel, Thomas J Kirn, Richard B Thomson
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have frequently been the standard diagnostic approach when specific infectious agents are sought in a clinic specimen. They can be applied for specific agents such as S. pyogenes, or commercial multiplex NAATs for detection of a variety of pathogens in gastrointestinal, bloodstream, and respiratory infections may be used. NAATs are both rapid and sensitive. For many years, S. pyogenes testing algorithms used a rapid and specific group A streptococcal antigen test to screen throat specimens, followed, in some clinical settings, by a throat culture for S...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jessica Gentry, Sara Blosser, Kathleen Backfish, Michael Cross, Marta Cruz, Edwin Hartle, Erica Vecchio, Erika Chapman, Caitlin Conrad, Joan Duwve, Romeo Galang, Daniel Hillman, Yury Khudyakov, Philip J Peters, Pam Pontones, Jeremy Roseberry, Michelle Sandoval, William Switzer, Judith Lovchik, Lixia Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Fred Arthur Zar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Christina A Muzny, Greer A Burkholder, Karen R Fry, Erika L Austin, Jane R Schwebke
BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection. T. vaginalis nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) recently became available at the University of Alabama at Birmingham human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of T. vaginalis NAAT testing among clinic providers during the first year of test availability in addition to T. vaginalis prevalence and predictors based on NAAT results. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of HIV+ women and men ages ≥16 years at the University of Alabama at Birmingham HIV Clinic, including those receiving a T...
August 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Ian McGowan, Ross D Cranston, Kenneth H Mayer, Irma Febo, Kathryn Duffill, Aaron Siegel, Jarret C Engstrom, Alexyi Nikiforov, Seo-Young Park, Rhonda M Brand, Cindy Jacobson, Rebecca Giguere, Curtis Dolezal, Timothy Frasca, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Jill L Schwartz, Alex Carballo-Diéguez
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of Project Gel was to determine the safety and acceptability of rectal microbicides in young men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) at risk of HIV infection. METHODS: MSM and TGW aged 18-30 years were enrolled at three sites; Pittsburgh, PA; Boston, MA; and San Juan, PR. Stage 1A was a cross-sectional assessment of sexual health and behavior in MSM and TGW. A subset of participants from Stage 1A were then enrolled in Stage 1B, a 12-week evaluation of the safety and acceptability of a placebo rectal gel...
2016: PloS One
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