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Ana V Ibarra-Meneses, Israel Cruz, Carmen Chicharro, Carmen Sánchez, Sylvain Biéler, Tobias Broger, Javier Moreno, Eugenia Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have proven to be advantageous in the diagnosis of leishmaniases, allowing sensitive diagnosis of: (i) cutaneous leishmaniasis in long duration lesions and (ii) visceral leishmaniasis using a less-invasive sample like peripheral blood, in opposition to tissue aspiration required for parasite demonstration by microscopy. Despite their benefits, the implementation of NAATs for leishmaniasis diagnosis at the point-of-care has not been achieved yet, mostly due to the complexity and logistical issues associated with PCR-based methods...
April 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Christina Yen, Paul Holtom, Susan M Butler-Wu, Noah Wald-Dickler, Ira Shulman, Brad Spellberg
We conducted a quality improvement project at a large public tertiary-care academic hospital to reduce reported hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates. We introduced diagnostic stewardship and provider education, resulting in a 2-fold reduction in C. difficile nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) orders and markedly lower hospital CDI rate.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
April 3, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Husain Poonawala, Surbhi Leekha, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Mala Filippell, J Kristie Johnson, Robert R Redfield, Kapil K Saharia
BACKGROUNDHospitalized patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB) are placed in airborne isolation until 3 sputum smear samples are negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The Xpert MTB/RIF assay ("Xpert") nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA and resistance to rifampicin is superior to AFB sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of TB.OBJECTIVETo compare the performance of a single Xpert to AFB smear microscopy for time to airborne infection isolation (AII) discontinuation...
March 27, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Xi Liu, Xing-Fang Hou, Lei Gao, Guo-Fang Deng, Ming-Xia Zhang, Qun-Yi Deng, Tao-Sheng Ye, Qian-Ting Yang, Bo-Ping Zhou, Zhi-Hua Wen, Hai-Ying Liu, Hardy Kornfeld, Xin-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in clinic, especially for sputum negative pulmonary TB. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has higher sensitivity than sputum for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, bronchoscopy is invasive and costly, and not suitable for all patients. In order to make TB patients get more benefit from BALF for diagnosis, we explore which indicator might be used to optimize the choice of bronchoscopy...
March 24, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
E Casari, C De Luca, M Calabrò, C Scuderi, C Daleno, A Ferrario
Background: Clostridium difficile infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality but the optimal method of diagnosis for both patient management and infection prevention remains controversial. Methods: Our hospital made a decision to switch from the use of toxin immunoassay to a stand-alone nucleic acid test. This change was accompanied by the provision of clear sampling guidance and rejection criteria and this study aimed to assess the impact of that change...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Ludwig Apers, Eric Florence, Tania Crucitti, Nabila Anwar
Objective of this study was to describe the patient characteristics and clinical presentation of laboratory confirmed lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases, diagnosed at the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium. Demographic and biomedical characteristics of all patients with chlamydia-positive sample results were retrieved for the years 2013 and 2014. Samples were obtained from both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who consulted at the HIV/STI clinic. Fifty four patients with laboratory confirmed LGV were detected among 3885 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) performed for the detection of chlamydia during the two years under review...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Saahir Khan, Audrey Nakasone, Minoo Ghajar, Mariam Zhowandai, Sunita Prabhu, Rick Alexander, Julie Low, Ellena Peterson, Lauri Thrupp
For 94 patients with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, time-to-detection (TTD), acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results were reviewed. All 12 patients whose first specimen was negative by AFB smear and NAAT had prolonged TTD, indicating low transmissibility and supporting discontinuing isolation for low-risk patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Karteek Kadimisetty, Jinzhao Song, Aoife M Doto, Young Hwang, Jing Peng, Michael G Mauk, Frederic D Bushman, Robert Gross, Joseph N Jarvis, Changchun Liu
Molecular diagnostics that involve nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are crucial for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we developed a simple, inexpensive, disposable, fully 3D printed microfluidic reactor array that is capable of carrying out extraction, concentration and isothermal amplification of nucleic acids in variety of body fluids. The method allows rapid molecular diagnostic tests for infectious diseases at point of care. A simple leak-proof polymerization strategy was developed to integrate flow-through nucleic acid isolation membranes into microfluidic devices, yielding a multifunctional diagnostic platform...
March 10, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Joseph D Yao, Stephen Young, Gabrielle M Heilek, Enrique Marino, Ellen E Paxinos, Ed G Marins, Alexandra Valsamakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accurate, sensitive, and specific tests for detection and monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA concentrations are essential for diagnosis and management of HCV infections. We evaluated the next-generation reverse-transcription real-time PCR test, cobas® HCV test for use with the cobas® 6800/8800 systems ("cobas HCV") by determining its analytical performance characteristics and clinical utility for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of chronic HCV infections...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
L Apers, E Florence, T Crucitti, N Anwar
Objective of this study was to describe the patient characteristics and clinical presentation of laboratory confirmed lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases, diagnosed at the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium. Demographic and biomedical characteristics of all patients with chlamydia-positive sample results were retrieved for the years 2013 and 2014. Samples were obtained from both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who consulted at the HIV/STI clinic. Fifty four patients with laboratory confirmed LGV were detected among 3885 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) performed for the detection of chlamydia during the two years under review...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Michael G Mauk, Jinzhao Song, Changchun Liu, Haim H Bau
Designs and applications of microfluidics-based devices for molecular diagnostics (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests, NAATs) in infectious disease testing are reviewed, with emphasis on minimally instrumented, point-of-care (POC) tests for resource-limited settings. Microfluidic cartridges ('chips') that combine solid-phase nucleic acid extraction; isothermal enzymatic nucleic acid amplification; pre-stored, paraffin-encapsulated lyophilized reagents; and real-time or endpoint optical detection are described...
February 26, 2018: Biosensors
Vincent J Cornelisse, Lei Zhang, Matthew Law, Marcus Y Chen, Catriona S Bradshaw, Clare Bellhouse, Christopher K Fairley, Eric P F Chow
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe anatomic site-specific concordance of gonococcal infections in partnerships of men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from MSM partnerships attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and February 2015. Logistic regression models (random effect) were used to examine the association between gonococcal infections of the urethra, rectum and pharynx. Gonococci were detected by culture at all anatomic sites...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Leandro Mena, Richard A Crosby, Nicholas Chamberlain
OBJECTIVES: This study of young Black MSM (YBMSM) assessed the prevalence of extra-genital chlamydia and gonorrhea among those testing negative for urethral infections, and compared prevalence of both by HIV status. METHODS: A convenience sample of 609 YBMSM was recruited for a cross-sectional study from two sexual health clinics located in Jackson, MS. To detect C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, NAAT was performed on urine, rectal swabs, and oral swabs. OraSure was used to detect HIV...
October 19, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Johan H Melendez, Justin Hardick, Mathilda Barnes, Perry Barnes, Christopher D Geddes, Charlotte A Gaydos
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is a major public health concern. In the era of nucleic acid amplifications tests (NAATs), rapid and accurate molecular approaches are needed to help increase surveillance, guide antimicrobial stewardship, and prevent outbreaks. METHODS: Residual urethral swabs, collected prospectively in the Baltimore City Health Department during a six-month period, were analyzed by real-time PCR assays for NG DNA and AMR determinants to fluoroquinolones, penicillin, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs)...
November 7, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
I Putu Yuda Hananta, Henry John Christiaan de Vries, Alje Pieter van Dam, Martijn Sebastiaan van Rooijen, Hardyanto Soebono, Maarten Franciscus Schim van der Loeff
INTRODUCTION: Pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are mostly asymptomatic, yet sustain ongoing gonococcal transmission. We assessed the proportion of pharyngeal gonorrhea that spontaneously clears and identified determinants of clearance. METHODS: At the sexually transmitted infections clinic Amsterdam, at-risk females and men who have sex with men were routinely screened for pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2®)...
February 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Jacopo Monticelli, Nicholas Geremia, Pierlanfranco D'Agaro, Vincenzo Petix, Roberto Luzzati
Despite the availability of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), most of aseptic acute meningitides, encephalitides, and meningoencephalitides (AAMEMs) in adults remain of unknown etiology so far. To shed light on such topic, we aimed to evaluate potential predictors for AAMEMs of unknown origin. We collected retrospectively data from all consecutive cases of AAMEMs in adults discharged from an Italian referral hospital, from January 2004 to December 2016. Laboratory analysis included common immunometric methods and NAATs...
February 17, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Hanah Kim, Mina Hur, Eunsin Bae, Kyung-A Lee, Woo-In Lee
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is important for the diagnosis and management of HBV infection. We evaluated the analytical performance of the cobas HBV NAAT (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) on the cobas 4800 System in comparison with COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test (CAP/CTM HBV). METHODS: Precision was evaluated using three levels of cobas HBV/HCV/HIV-1 Control Kit, and linearity was evaluated across the anticipated measuring range (10...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Adam J Caulfield, Catherine M Bolster LaSalle, Yu-Hui H Chang, Thomas E Grys
Detection of Clostridium difficile infection is important for clinical laboratories, owing to debilitating disease, severe outcomes, patient awareness, and public reporting of hospital data. This study evaluated the performance of 4 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) assays as part of a 2-step algorithm that involves reflexive NAAT following enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing that is indeterminate for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A/B (GDH+ /toxin- or GDH- /toxin+ ). A total of 500 stool specimens from consecutive patients were tested by each of the 5 methods and also evaluated as part of a 2-step algorithm...
January 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Ebiere Okah, Emily F Westheimer, Kelly Jamison, Julia A Schillinger
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2015 Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines recommend that clinicians consider cephalosporin treatment failure in patients who deny interval sexual exposure and are nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) at least 7 days after adequate treatment. We evaluate the real-world implications of the interval the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends for a NAAT test-of-cure (TOC), by ascertaining the frequency of NG NAAT positivity at different anatomic sites among men who have sex with men (MSM) at TOC 7 to 30 days after treatment...
March 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Fariz Nurwidya, Diah Handayani, Erlina Burhan, Faisal Yunus
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of adult death in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Indonesia. As an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), TB remains a major public health issue especially in developing nations due to the lack of adequate diagnostic testing facilities. Diagnosis of TB has entered an era of molecular detection that provides faster and more cost-effective methods to diagnose and confirm drug resistance in TB cases, meanwhile, diagnosis by conventional culture systems requires several weeks...
January 2018: Chonnam Medical Journal
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