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Marion Marrel, Ulla Jörn Good, Miriam Marks, Daniel B Herren, Jörg Goldhahn
STUDY DESIGN: Bench research-biomechanical study. INTRODUCTION: Static progressive orthotic devices are efficient in treating contractures. However, current outriggers are unable to keep force transmission and the force application angle (FAA) constant. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the biomechanical performance of the Isoforce outrigger, a novel extension orthosis. METHODS: A hand model was used to measure the required force at the outrigger and FAA, while simulating resolution of different contracture angles...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Charlotte Jensen, Gerry M Raghoebar, Wouter Kerdijk, Henny J A Meijer, Marco S Cune
OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits of implant support to Removable Partial Dentures (RPD) in patients with a bilateral free-ending situation in the mandible and to determine the most favorable implant position: the premolar (PM) or the molar (M) region. METHODS: Thirty subjects with a bilateral unbounded posterior saddle received 2 PM and 2M Implants. A new RPD was placed. Implant support was provided 3 months later. Two PM implants supported the RPD. After 3 months the 2M implants were used or vice versa...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Sarah A Moore, Ruth Da Silva, Madelaine Balaam, Lianne Brkic, Dan Jackson, Dan Jamieson, Thomas Ploetz, Helen Rodgers, Lisa Shaw, Frederike van Wijck, Christopher Price
BACKGROUND: Loss of upper limb function affects up to 85 % of acute stroke patients. Recovery of upper limb function requires regular intensive practise of specific upper limb tasks. To enhance intensity of practice interventions are being developed to encourage patients to undertake self-directed exercise practice. Most interventions do not translate well into everyday activities and stroke patients continue to find it difficult remembering integration of upper limb movements into daily activities...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Noritoshi Fukushima, Shigeru Inoue, Yuki Hikihara, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Hiroki Sato, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Shigeho Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Providing large-scale descriptive data of objectively measured physical activity in youth is informative for practitioners, epidemiologists, and researchers. The purpose of this study was to present the pedometer-determined physical activity among Japanese youth using the Tokyo Metropolitan Survey of Physical Fitness, Physical Activity and Lifestyle 2011. METHODS: This study used a school-based survey. The Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education originally collected pedometer-determined steps per day in the fall of 2011...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Debarun Dutta, Ajay K Vijay, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To determine the ability of antimicrobial peptide melimine-coated contact lenses to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis (MK) in a rabbit model of contact lens wear. Methods: In vitro antimicrobial activity of melimine-coated contact lenses was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by viable count and a radiolabeled assay. The amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with bacteria bound to melimine-coated and control lenses was determined...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Joshua F Wiley, Bei Bei, Julienne E Bower, Annette L Stanton
OBJECTIVES: Allostatic load (AL) represents cumulative wear-and-tear on the body and is operationalized as a multisystem index of biomarkers. Allostatic load is associated with morbidities and mortality, leading to a growing body of literature that uses AL as an outcome in its own right. Psychosocial resources (PSRs), such as mastery and social support, may influence health outcomes in part via AL, and the current review seeks to characterize the relations between PSRs and AL. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Embase for studies examining the relation between PSR(s) and AL in humans...
October 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Loretta B Szczotka-Flynn, Sara Debanne, Beth Ann Benetz, Tawnya Wilson, Noel Brennan
PURPOSE: This study hypothesized that a traditional high-water contact lens of moderate oxygen transmissibility (Dk/t) is noninferior to common silicone hydrogel (SH) lenses worn for daily wear with respect to measures of hypoxic stress. METHODS: Thirty-six habitual contact lens wearers completed wear of three lens types worn in a randomized order: etafilcon A (ACUVUE 2, control), lotrafilcon B (Air Optix Aqua), and comfilcon A (Biofinity). Central corneal thickness (CT) and limbal hyperemia were measured >2 hr after waking and after 6 to 8 hr of wear on days 1 and 7...
October 20, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Beatriz de Luis Eguileor, Jaime Etxebarria Ecenarro, Alaitz Santamaria Carro, Raquel Feijoo Lera
OBJECTIVES: To assess visual function in patients with irregular cornea who do not tolerate gas permeable (GP) corneal contact lenses and are fitted with GP scleral contact lenses (Rose K2 XL). METHODS: In this prospective study, we analyzed 15 eyes of 15 patients who did not tolerate GP corneal contact lenses and were fitted with scleral contact lenses (Rose K2 XL). We assessed visual function using visual acuity and the visual function index (VF-14); we used the VF-14 as an indicator of patient satisfaction...
October 20, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Helena Jahncke, Patrik Björkeholm, John E Marsh, Johan Odelius, Patrik Sörqvist
BACKGROUND: Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound...
October 17, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Jacinto Santodomingo-Rubido, César Villa-Collar, Bernard Gilmartin, Ramón Gutiérrez-Ortega, Keiji Sugimoto
PURPOSE: The primary outcome of this study is to compare the axial length growth of white European myopic children wearing orthokeratology contact lenses (OK) to a control group (CT) over a 7-year period. METHODS: Subjects 6-12 years of age with myopia -0.75 to -4.00DS and astigmatism ≤1.00DC were prospectively allocated OK or distance single-vision spectacles (SV) correction. Measurements of axial length (Zeiss IOLMaster), corneal topography, and cycloplegic refraction were taken at 6-month intervals over a 2-year period...
October 21, 2016: Current Eye Research
L K Bandlish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
F Spear
Some of the most challenging patients to produce a pleasing smile for are those who present with inadequate tooth display (either due to tooth position, the patient has normal size teeth, but they aren't exposed adequately to fill out the smile) or due to tooth size (the teeth are small, often due to tooth wear). The key to understanding how to manage these patients is to learn to understand the possible aetiologies that could produce the condition, and learn how to diagnose which aetiologies exist for your patient...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
A C Paulus, S Haßelt, V Jansson, A Giurea, H Neuhaus, T M Grupp, S Utzschneider
Introduction. Increasing interest developed in the use of carbon-fiber-reinforced-poly-ether-ether-ketones (CFR-PEEK) as an alternative bearing material in knee arthroplasty. The effects of CFR-PEEK wear in in vitro and animal studies are controversially discussed, as there are no data available concerning human tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze human tissue containing CFR-PEEK as well as UHMWPE wear debris. The authors hypothesized no difference between the used biomaterials. Methods and Materials...
2016: BioMed Research International
Prashant K Sharma, Tineke P Willems, Daan J Touw, Willem Woudstra, Michiel E Erasmus, Tjark Ebels
BACKGROUND: Three European centers have recently reported dramatic failures of the STRATOS titanium system, approved in Europe and the United States since 2007 and meant for pectus repair, without detailed exploration of its causes. METHODS: Failed implants (fractures or loosened crimp connectors) were surgically explanted from 12 patients and biopsies taken from surrounding discolored tissue. Detailed failure analysis was performed to find the cause of failures...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Stefanie M Chan, Tatyana F Svitova, Meng C Lin
Contact lens discomfort is a common problem that can lead to unsuccessful or limited contact lens wear. Although many factors may contribute to contact lens discomfort, limited research has explored the influence of ethnicity-related differences in the anatomy and physiology of the ocular surface. Therefore, we performed a search of the literature in PubMed using key words related to "ocular surface" paired with the terms "race" and "ethnicity." The goal of this review was to determine potential areas of research regarding ethnicity differences, particularly between Asian and non-Asian eyes, in ocular surface integrity to advance our understanding of contact lens discomfort...
October 19, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Jacinto Santodomingo-Rubido, César Villa-Collar, Bernard Gilmartin, Ramón Gutiérrez-Ortega
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between short-term and long-term changes in power at different corneal locations relative to the change in central corneal power and the 2-year change in axial elongation relative to baseline in children fitted with orthokeratology contact lenses (OK). METHODS: Thirty-one white European subjects 6 to 12 years of age and with myopia -0.75 to -4.00 DS and astigmatism ≤1.00 DC were fitted with OK. Differences in refractive power 3 and 24 months post-OK in comparison with baseline and relative to the change in central corneal power were determined from corneal topography data in eight different corneal regions (i...
October 19, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Herenia P Lawrence, Jaime Cidro, Sonia Isaac-Mann, Sabrina Peressini, Marion Maar, Robert J Schroth, Janet N Gordon, Laurie Hoffman-Goetz, John R Broughton, Lisa Jamieson
This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Nicholas A Campitelli, Scott A Spencer, Kaitlyn Bernhard, Kristen Heard, Alan Kidon
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of Vibram FiveFingers Bikila minimalist shoes on intrinsic foot musculature. We hypothesized that a gradual transition into minimalist shoes will increase the thickness of the abductor hallucis muscle. METHODS: Forty-one individuals were divided into four groups: control (traditional shod) (n = 9), restricted walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11), running in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 10), and unlimited walking in Vibram FiveFingers (n = 11)...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Gurmail Singh Paddan
INTRODUCTION: Measurements were made of the sound pressure levels on a military ship HMS Grimsby during firing of a Heavy Machine Gun (HMG) mounted on the starboard bridge wing. The measurement positions comprised three locations on the ship's bridge (the wheelhouse) and one location on the starboard bridge wing. Equipment and Procedure: The three locations on the bridge were the starboard door, centre and port door. A total of 255 burst firings were measured during the survey comprising 850 rounds with each burst encompassing from 1 to 10 rounds...
September 2016: Noise & Health
Ming Han Lincoln Liow, Young-Min Kwon
The potential advantages of contemporary MoM THA implants include less volumetric wear with subsequent reduction of polyethylene wear-induced osteolysis and greater component stability with use of large-diameter femoral heads. However, there have been concerns regarding significantly elevated revision rates in MoM THA due to MoM-related complications such as adverse local tissue reaction (pseudotumour) formation. The increased failure rate in MoM hip arthroplasty is associated with the generation of biologically active, nanometer sized metal particles from the MoM bearing surfaces and taper junctions, which result in the development of a localized, adverse periprosthetic soft tissue response...
October 20, 2016: International Orthopaedics
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