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Bengt Zöller, Xinjun Li, Henrik Ohlsson, Jianguang Ji, Ashfaque A Memon, Peter J Svensson, Karolina Palmér, Björn Dahlbäck, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Familial aggregation (clustering) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the clustering of VTE within a family. Though several genes, such as antithrombin, protein C, protein S, factor V, and prothrombin are associated with the familial clustering of VTE, these loci only partially explain the familial aggregation of VTE. The epidemiology of the familial aggregation of VTE exhibits typical characteristics of complex traits. The family history of VTE in first-degree relatives is associated with a two to three times increased familial relative risk (FRR)...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Jana Jakubikova, Danka Cholujova, Teru Hideshima, Paulina Gronesova, Andrea Soltysova, Takeshi Harada, Jungnam Joo, Sun-Young Kong, Raphael E Szalat, Paul G Richardson, Nikhil C Munshi, David M Dorfman, Kenneth C Anderson
Specific niches within the tumor bone marrow (BM) microenvironment afford a sanctuary for multiple myeloma (MM) clones due to stromal cell-tumor cell interactions, which confer survival advantage and drug resistance. Defining the sequelae of tumor cell interactions within the MM niches on an individualized basis may provide the rationale for personalized therapies. To mimic the MM niche, we here describe a new 3D co-culture ex-vivo model in which primary MM patient BM cells are co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a hydrogel 3D system...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Lydia Edjekouane, Samira Benhadjeba, Maïka Jangal, Hubert Fleury, Nicolas Gévry, Euridice Carmona, André Tremblay
Chromosomal and genome abnormalities at the 3p21.3 locus are frequent events linked to epithelial cancers, including ovarian and breast cancers. Genes encoded in the 3p21.3 cluster include HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 members of hyaluronidases involved in the breakdown of hyaluronan, an abundant component of the vertebrate extracellular matrix. However, the transcriptional regulation of HYAL genes is poorly defined. Here, we identified the estrogen receptor ERα as a negative regulator of HYAL1 expression in breast cancer cells...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Sheel Shah, Eric Lubeck, Wen Zhou, Long Cai
Identifying the spatial organization of tissues at cellular resolution from single-cell gene expression profiles is essential to understanding biological systems. Using an in situ 3D multiplexed imaging method, seqFISH, we identify unique transcriptional states by quantifying and clustering up to 249 genes in 16,958 cells to examine whether the hippocampus is organized into transcriptionally distinct subregions. We identified distinct layers in the dentate gyrus corresponding to the granule cell layer and the subgranular zone and, contrary to previous reports, discovered that distinct subregions within the CA1 and CA3 are composed of unique combinations of cells in different transcriptional states...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Zhizhao Che, Panagiotis E Theodorakis
Surface nanobubbles are stable gaseous phases in liquids that form on solid substrates. While their existence has been confirmed, there are many open questions related to their formation and dissolution processes along with their structures and properties, which are difficult to investigate experimentally. To address these issues, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations based on atomistic force fields for systems comprised of water, air (N2 and O2), and a Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) substrate...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Linda Garton, Amalie Dyda, Rebecca Guy, Bronwyn Silver, Skye McGregor, Belinda Hengel, Alice Rumbold, Debbie Taylor-Thomson, Janet Knox, Lisa Maher, John Kaldor, James Ward
Background: Extremely high rates of diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) have been recorded in remote communities across northern and central Australia. Re-testing at 3 months, after treatment administered, of CT or NG is recommended to detect repeat infections and prevent morbidity and ongoing transmission. Methods: Baseline CT and NG laboratory data (2009-2010) from 65 remote health services participating in a cluster randomised trial was used to calculate the proportion of individuals re-tested after an initial CT or NG diagnosis at <2 months (not recommended), 2-4 months (recommended) and 5-12 months and the proportion with repeat positivity on re-test...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Qi-Lei Chen, Lin Zhu, Yi-Na Tang, Hiu-Yee Kwan, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Hu-Biao Chen, Tao Yi
Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz.(SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned "snow lotus" Chinese Materia Medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation...
October 20, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lisai Zhu, Haibing Lu, Yufeng Cao, Xiaochun Gai, Changming Guo, Yajing Liu, Jiaxu Liu, Xinping Wang
As one of the major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus caused a significant economic loss to the livestock industry worldwide. Although BVDV infections have increasingly been reported in China in recent years, the molecular aspects of those BVDV strains were barely characterized. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a novel BVDV isolate designated as SD-15 from cattle, which is associated with an outbreak characterized by severe hemorrhagic and mucous diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality in Shandong, China...
2016: PloS One
Kishore Polireddy, Ruochen Dong, Peter R McDonald, Tao Wang, Brendan Luke, Ping Chen, Melinda Broward, Anuradha Roy, Qi Chen
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has an enrichment of stem-like cancer cells (CSCs) that contribute to chemoresistant tumors prone to metastasis and recurrence. Drug screening assays based on cytotoxicity cannot identify specific CSC inhibitors, because CSCs comprise only a small portion of cancer cell population, and it is difficult to propagate stable CSC populations in vitro for high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. Based on the important role of cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in promoting CSCs, we hypothesized that inhibition of EMT can be a useful strategy for inhibiting CSCs, and therefore a feasible approach for HTS can be built for identification of CSC inhibitors, based on assays detecting EMT inhibition...
2016: PloS One
Leyla Ismayilova, Eleni Gaveras, Austin Blum, Alexice Tô-Camier, Rachel Nanema
OBJECTIVES: Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity...
2016: PloS One
Lingxiang Wu, Xiujie Chen, Denan Zhang, Wubing Zhang, Lei Liu, Hongzhe Ma, Jingbo Yang, Hongbo Xie, Bo Liu, Qing Jin
Analysis of gene sets has been widely applied in various high-throughput biological studies. One weakness in the traditional methods is that they neglect the heterogeneity of genes expressions in samples which may lead to the omission of some specific and important gene sets. It is also difficult for them to reflect the severities of disease and provide expression profiles of gene sets for individuals. We developed an application software called IGSA that leverages a powerful analytical capacity in gene sets enrichment and samples clustering...
2016: PloS One
Kazuo Kobayashi, Yu Kanesaki, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
Bacteria have developed various motility mechanisms to adapt to a variety of solid surfaces. A rhizosphere isolate, Paenibacillus sp. NAIST15-1, exhibited unusual motility behavior. When spotted onto 1.5% agar media, Paenibacillus sp. formed many colonies, each of which moved around actively at a speed of 3.6 μm/sec. As their density increased, each moving colony began to spiral, finally forming a static round colony. Despite its unusual motility behavior, draft genome sequencing revealed that both the composition and organization of flagellar genes in Paenibacillus sp...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Isabella C C von Holstein, Penelope Walton Rogers, Oliver E Craig, Kirsty E H Penkman, Jason Newton, Matthew J Collins
We investigate the origin of archaeological wool textiles preserved by anoxic waterlogging from seven medieval archaeological deposits in north-western Europe (c. 700-1600 AD), using geospatial patterning in carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N) and non-exchangeable hydrogen (δ2H) composition of modern and ancient sheep proteins. δ13C, δ15N and δ2H values from archaeological wool keratin (n = 83) and bone collagen (n = 59) from four sites were interpreted with reference to the composition of modern sheep wool from the same regions...
2016: PloS One
J L NDiaye, B Cissé, E H Ba, J F Gomis, C T Ndour, J F Molez, F B Fall, C Sokhna, B Faye, E Kouevijdin, F K Niane, M Cairns, J F Trape, C Rogier, O Gaye, B M Greenwood, P J M Milligan
BACKGROUND: It is recommended that children aged 3 months to five years of age living in areas of seasonal transmission in the sub-Sahel should receive Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SPAQ) during the malaria transmission season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of SMC with SPAQ in children when delivered by community health workers in three districts in Senegal where SMC was introduced over three years, in children from 3 months of age to five years of age in the first year, then in children up to 10 years of age...
2016: PloS One
Danielle Bloch, Nicole M Roth, Elba V Caraballo, Jorge Muñoz-Jordan, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Aidsa Rivera, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Brenda Rivera Garcia, Tyler M Sharp
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes and is the cause of an acute febrile illness characterized by potentially debilitating arthralgia. After emerging in the Caribbean in late 2013, the first locally-acquired case reported to public health authorities in Puerto Rico occurred in May 2014. During June-August 2014, household-based cluster investigations were conducted to identify factors associated with infection, development of disease, and case reporting...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jacob Herrmann, Merryn H Tawhai, David W Kaczka
Regional ventilation in the injured lung is heterogeneous and frequency-dependent, making it difficult to predict how an oscillatory flow waveform at a specified frequency will be distributed throughout the periphery. To predict the impact of mechanical heterogeneity on regional ventilation distribution and gas transport, we developed a computational model of distributed gas flow and CO2 elimination during oscillatory ventilation from 0.1 to 30 Hz. The model consists of a three dimensional airway network of a canine lung, with heterogeneous parenchymal tissues to mimic effects of gravity and injury...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Kubra Kaban, Emine Salva, Julide Akbuga
Changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression levels that play important roles in regulation lead to many pathological events such as cancer. The miR-200 family is an important target in cancer therapy. The aim of this study is to equilibrate endogenous levels between cancer and noncancerous cells to prevent serious side effects of miR-200c- and miR-141-like metastatic colonization. For the first time, the characterization of miR-200c and miR-141 cluster containing chitosan nanoplexes was shown, and the optimization of miRNA expression levels by conducting dose studies in breast cancer cell lines was made...
October 20, 2016: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Jing-Jing Khoo, Fang-Shiang Lim, Fezshin Chen, Wai-Hong Phoon, Chee-Sieng Khor, Brian L Pike, Li-Yen Chang, Sazaly AbuBakar
Recent studies have shown that ticks harbor Coxiella-like bacteria, which are potentially tick-specific endosymbionts. We recently described the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria and possibly Coxiella burnetii in ticks found from rural areas in Malaysia. In the present study, we collected ticks, including Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Haemaphysalis hystricis, Dermacentor compactus, Dermacentor steini, and Amblyomma sp. from wildlife and domesticated goats from four different locations in Malaysia. Coxiella 16s rRNA genomic sequences were detected by PCR in 89% of ticks tested...
October 20, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
R M Islam, R J Bell, B Billah, M B Hossain, S R Davis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) in women in Bangladesh. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1590 Bangladeshi women, aged 30-59 years, was recruited using a multistage cluster sampling technique, between September 2013 and March 2014. Urinary incontinence (UI), fecal incontinence (FI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were assessed using validated questionnaires. The weighted prevalence and the factors associated with each PFD were investigated using multivariable weighted logistic regression...
October 20, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Huan-Ting Lin, Takashi Okumura, Yukinori Yatsuda, Satoru Ito, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Makoto Otsu
Stable gene transfer into target cell populations via integrating viral vectors is widely used in stem cell gene therapy (SCGT). Accurate vector copy number (VCN) estimation has become increasingly important. However, existing methods of estimation such as real-time quantitative PCR are more restricted in practicality, especially during clinical trials, given the limited availability of sample materials from patients. This study demonstrates the application of an emerging technology called droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in estimating VCN states in the context of SCGT...
October 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
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