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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630670/universal-structure-motifs-in-biominerals-a-lesson-from-nature-for-the-efficient-design-of-bioinspired-functional-materials
#1
REVIEW
Joe Harris, Corinna F Böhm, Stephan E Wolf
Biominerals are typically indispensable structures for their host organism in which they serve varying functions, such as mechanical support and protection, mineral storage, detoxification site, or as a sensor or optical guide. In this perspective article, we highlight the occurrence of both structural diversity and uniformity within these biogenic ceramics. For the first time, we demonstrate that the universality-diversity paradigm, which was initially introduced for proteins by Buehler et al. (Cranford & Buehler 2012 Biomateriomics; Cranford et al...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626758/a-novel-pan-flavivirus-detection-and-identification-assay-based-on-rt-qpcr-and-microarray
#2
Ariel Vina-Rodriguez, Konrad Sachse, Ute Ziegler, Serafeim C Chaintoutis, Markus Keller, Martin H Groschup, Martin Eiden
The genus Flavivirus includes arthropod-borne viruses responsible for a large number of infections in humans and economically important animals. While RT-PCR protocols for specific detection of most Flavivirus species are available, there has been also a demand for a broad-range Flavivirus assay covering all members of the genus. It is particularly challenging to balance specificity at genus level with equal sensitivity towards each target species. In the present study, a novel assay combining a SYBR Green-based RT-qPCR with a low-density DNA microarray has been developed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625846/biogenesis-of-the-flagellar-switch-complex-in-escherichia-coli-formation-of-sub-complexes-independently-of-the-basal-body-ms-ring
#3
Eun A Kim, Joseph Panushka, Trevor Meyer, Nicholas Ide, Ryan Carlisle, Samantha Baker, David F Blair
Direction switching in the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli is under the control of a complex on the rotor formed from the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN. FliG lies at the top of the switch complex (i.e., nearest the membrane) and is arranged with its C-terminal domain (FliGC) resting on the middle domain (FliGM) of the neighboring subunit. This organization requires the protein to adopt an open conformation that exposes the surfaces engaging in inter-subunit FliGC/FliGM contacts. In a recent study, Baker and coworkers [Nat...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622598/utilization-of-geant-to-calculation-of-production-yield-for-89-zr-by-charge-particles-interaction-on-89-y-nat-zr-and-nat-sr
#4
Mozhgan Sharifian, Mahdi Sadeghi, Behrouz Alirezapour
The (89)Zr, is one of the radionuclide with near-ideal properties for PET due to its suitable half-life and decay properties. The cross-section of (89)Zr via (89)Y(p,n)(89)Zr, (89)Y(d,2n)(89)Zr, (nat)Sr(α,xn)(89)Zr and (nat)Zr(p,pxn)(89)Zr, were calculated by the TALYS-1.8 code to predict the optimum range of charge particle energy. The Monte Carlo code GEANT4 was used to simulate the formation of (89)Zr in the target body. The simulated (89)Zr yield was in good agreement with published experimental results in the optimum energy range...
June 9, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621832/break-induced-replication-links-microsatellite-expansion-to-complex-genome-rearrangements
#5
REVIEW
Michael Leffak
The instability of microsatellite DNA repeats is responsible for at least 40 neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, Mirkin and co-workers presented a novel mechanism for microsatellite expansions based on break-induced replication (BIR) at sites of microsatellite-induced replication stalling and fork collapse. The BIR model aims to explain single-step, large expansions of CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeats in dividing cells. BIR has been characterized extensively in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a mechanism to repair broken DNA replication forks (single-ended DSBs) and degraded telomeric DNA...
June 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621327/dimeric-structure-of-the-uracil-proton-symporter-uraa-provides-mechanistic-insights-into-the-slc4-23-26-transporters
#6
Xinzhe Yu, Guanghui Yang, Chuangye Yan, Javier L Baylon, Jing Jiang, He Fan, Guifeng Lu, Kazuya Hasegawa, Hideo Okumura, Tingliang Wang, Emad Tajkhorshid, Shuo Li, Nieng Yan
The Escherichia coli uracil:proton symporter UraA is a prototypical member of the nucleobase/ascorbate transporter (NAT) or nucleobase/cation symporter 2 (NCS2) family, which corresponds to the human solute carrier family SLC23. UraA consists of 14 transmembrane segments (TMs) that are organized into two distinct domains, the core domain and the gate domain, a structural fold that is also shared by the SLC4 and SLC26 transporters. Here we present the crystal structure of UraA bound to uracil in an occluded state at 2...
June 16, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619019/life-after-prostate-cancer-treatment-a-mixed-methods-study-of-the-experiences-of-men-with-sexual-dysfunction-and-their-partners
#7
Jeffrey A Albaugh, Nat Sufrin, Brittany R Lapin, Jacqueline Petkewicz, Sandi Tenfelde
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in men and sexual dysfunction is the most frequently reported long-term side effect of prostate cancer surgery or radiation. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of men with sexual dysfunction and their partners following prostate cancer treatment. METHODS: Men with sexual dysfunction from either surgical removal or radiation therapy 1-5 years after treatment were interviewed, as well as their partners...
June 15, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617607/structural-transformations-in-two-dimensional-transition-metal-dichalcogenide-mos2-under-electron-beam-insights-from-first-principles-calculations
#8
Silvan Kretschmer, Hannu-Pekka Komsa, Peter Boggild, Arkady V Krasheninnikov
The polymorphism of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and different electronic properties of the polymorphs make TMDs particularly promising materials in the context of the applications in electronics. Recently, local transformations from the semi- conducting trigonal prismatic H phase to the metallic octahedral T phase in 2D MoS2 have been induced by electron irradiation [Nat. Nanotech. 9 (2014) 391], but the mechanism of the transformations remains elusive. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the energetics of the stable and metastable phases of 2D MoS2 when additional charge, mechanical strain and vacancies are present...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616237/higher-serum-concentrations-of-vimentin-and-dakp1-are-associated-with-aggressive-breast-tumour-phenotypes-in-ghanaian-women
#9
Benjamin Arko-Boham, Justice Tanihu Lomotey, Emmanuel Nomo Tetteh, Emmanuel Ayitey Tagoe, Nii Ayite Aryee, Ewurama Ampadu Owusu, Isaac Okai, Richard Michael Blay, Joe-Nat Clegg-Lamptey
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, exhibits aggressive behavior in indigenous African women evidenced by high histologic grade tumours with low hormone receptor positivity. Aggressive breast cancers grow quickly, easily metastasize and recur and often have unfavourable outcomes. The current study investigated candidate genes that may regulate tumour aggression in Ghanaian women. We hypothesize that increased expression and function of certain genes other than the widely-held view attributing breast cancer aggression in African populations to their younger population age may be responsible for the aggressive nature of tumours...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607148/autophagy-downstream-of-endosomal-toll-like-receptors-signaling-in-macrophages-is-a-key-mechanism-for-resistance-to-leishmania-major-infection
#10
Luis H Franco, Anna K A Fleuri, Nat Aacutelia C Pellison, Gustavo F S Quirino, Catarina V Horta, Renan V H de Carvalho, Sérgio C Oliveira, Dario S Zamboni
Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. In mammalians, these parasites survive and replicate in macrophages and parasite elimination by macrophages is critical for host resistance. Endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to be crucial for resistance to L. major in vivo. For example, mice in the resistant C57BL/6 genetic background that are triple-deficient for TLR3, -7 and -9 (Tlr3/7/9-/-) are highly susceptible to L. major infection. Tlr3/7/9-/- mice are as susceptible as mice deficient in MyD88 or UNC93B1, a chaperone required for appropriate localization of endosomal TLRs, but the mechanisms are unknown...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606603/identification-of-enzymes-responsible-for-nitrazepam-metabolism-and-toxicity-in-human
#11
Keigo Konishi, Tatsuki Fukami, Saki Gotoh, Miki Nakajima
Nitrazepam (NZP) is a hypnotic agent that rarely causes liver injuries in humans and teratogenicity in rodents. In humans, NZP is primarily metabolized to 7-aminonitrazepam (ANZP) by reduction and subsequently to 7-acetylamino nitrazepam (AANZP) by acetylation. ANZP can be regenerated from AANZP by hydrolysis in rodents, but it is still unclear whether this reaction occurs in humans. In rodents, AANZP may be associated with teratogenicity, while in humans, it is known that drug-induced liver injuries may be caused by NZP reactive metabolite(s)...
June 9, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605194/discovery-of-two-bacterial-nitric-oxide-responsive-proteins-and-their-roles-in-bacterial-biofilm-regulation
#12
Sajjad Hossain, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth M Boon
Bacterial biofilms form when bacteria adhere to a surface and produce an exopolysaccharide matrix ( Costerton Science 1999 , 284 , 1318 ; Davies Science 1998 , 280 , 295 ; Flemming Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2010 , 8 , 623 ). Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, they are problematic in many aspects of human health and welfare, causing, for instance, persistent fouling of medical implants such as catheters and artificial joints ( Brunetto Chimia 2008 , 62 , 249 ). They are responsible for chronic infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and in open wounds, such as those associated with burns and diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604612/aa-nat-mt1-and-mt2-correlates-with-cancer-stem-like-cell-markers-in-colorectal-cancer-study-of-the-influence-of-stage-and-p53-status-of-tumors
#13
Jorge Casado, Almudena Iñigo-Chaves, Sergio M Jiménez-Ruiz, Sandra Ríos-Arrabal, Ángel Carazo-Gallego, Cristina González-Puga, María Isabel Núñez, Ángeles Ruíz-Extremera, Javier Salmerón, Josefa León
The characterization of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) may help to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. p53 loss increases the pool of CSCs in colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent reports suggest that the oncostatic effects of melatonin could be related to its ability to kill CSCs. Although there are no data linking the loss of p53 function and melatonin synthesis or signaling in cancer, melatonin does activate the p53 tumor-suppressor pathway in this disease. In this work, we analyze whether the expression of melatonin synthesis and signaling genes are related to the expression of CSC markers and the implication of p53 status in samples from patients with CRC...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601749/waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-among-sexual-minorities-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-the-national-adult-tobacco-survey-2012-2014
#14
Kasim Ortiz, Jamal Mamkherzi, Ramzi Salloum, Alicia K Matthews, Wasim Maziak
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined differences in waterpipe smoking (both lifetime and current) comparing sexual minority populations - those identifying with lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity - to their heterosexual counterparts using a nationally representative dataset. METHODS: The current study used pooled data from the 2012-2013 & 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). Log-Poisson multivariable regression models were deployed to determine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking behavior among sexual minority individuals controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and stratified by current gender status...
June 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601287/cd4-cd8-ratio-during-natalizumab-treatment-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#15
Antonio Carotenuto, Giulia Scalia, Francesco Ausiello, Marcello Moccia, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Francesco Saccà, Anna De Rosa, Chiara Criscuolo, Luigi Del Vecchio, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Roberta Lanzillo
Although improved, the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a constant threat for patient affected by multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab. We performed a 24months longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the total WBC and lymphocytes subsets modifications and their correlations with anti-JCV antibody index after 1 and 2years of natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab induced an increase of WBC, total and C19+ lymphocytes together with a decrease of CD3+, CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4/CD8 ratio, which was positively related to anti-JCV antibodies index at month 0, 12 and 24...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599227/assessment-and-estimation-of-67-cu-production-yield-via-deuteron-induced-reactions-on-nat-zn-and-70-zn
#16
Seyedeh Fatemeh Hosseini, Mohammadreza Aboudzadeh, Mahdi Sadeghi, Ahmad Ahmadi Teymourlouy, Malihe Rostampour
(67)Cu radioisotope is a beta particle-emitting nuclide used in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) as well as for imaging, tracer kinetic studies and dosimetry. (67)Cu can be produced by bombarding (nat)Zn with deuterons. In this study, the physical yields of (67)Cu via (nat)Zn(d,x)(67)Cu reaction channel as well as via subreactions of (68)Zn(d,2pn)(67)Cu, (67)Zn(d,2p)(67)Cu, (70)Zn(d,2p3n)(67)Cu, (68)Zn(d,x)(67)Ni(T1/2=21s)→(67)Cu and (70)Zn(d,x)(67)Ni(T1/2=21s)→(67)Cu in the (nat)Zn target have been calculated by using the MCNPX-2...
May 31, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597489/development-of-a-web-based-application-and-multicountry-analysis-framework-for-assessing-interdicted-infections-and-cost-utility-of-screening-donated-blood-for-hiv-hcv-and-hbv
#17
B Custer, M P Janssen, G Hubben, M Vermeulen, M van Hulst
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most countries test donations for HIV, HCV and HBV using serology with or without nucleic acid testing (NAT). Cost-utility analyses provide information on the relative value of different screening options. The aim of this project was to develop an open access risk assessment and cost-utility analysis web-tool for assessing HIV, HCV and HBV screening options (http://www.isbtweb.org/working-parties/transfusion-transmitted-infectious-diseases/). An analysis for six countries (Brazil, Ghana, the Netherlands, South Africa, Thailand and USA) was conducted...
June 8, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597320/diagnostic-laparoscopy-prior-to-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-pancreatic-cancer-is-high-yield-an-analysis-of-outcomes-and-costs
#18
June S Peng, Jeffrey Mino, Rosebel Monteiro, Gareth Morris-Stiff, Noaman S Ali, Jane Wey, Kevin M El-Hayek, R Matthew Walsh, Sricharan Chalikonda
BACKGROUND: There is currently no standardized regimen for management of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC), and treatment includes varying sequences of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. This study examines the diagnostic yield and cost of performing staging diagnostic laparoscopy (SDL) prior to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) in BRPC. METHODS: Sequential patients treated for BRPC between January 2010 and October 2013 were included. SDL was adopted in a staged fashion due to surgeon preference, and included biopsy of visible lesions and washings for cytology...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595283/trends-over-time-in-tobacco-specific-nitrosamines-tsnas-in-whole-tobacco-and-smoke-emissions-from-cigarettes-sold-in-canada
#19
Christine D Czoli, David Hammond
Introduction: Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are potent carcinogens. Levels of TSNAs can be modified through manufacturing practices. In the 2000s, TSNA levels in cigarettes sold in Canada were reduced by changes in tobacco curing processes. The current study examined TSNA levels over the following decade to examine trends over time. Methods: Data submitted to Health Canada under the Tobacco Reporting Regulations were used to examine whole tobacco constituents for 1809 brands and mainstream smoke emissions for 191 brands manufactured by Canada's three leading cigarette companies from 2005 through 2011/12 using one-way analysis of variances (ANOVAs) and linear regression models...
June 8, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594639/spin-valley-dynamics-of-electrically-driven-ambipolar-carbon-nanotube-quantum-dots
#20
E N Osika, A Chacón, M Lewenstein, B Szafran
An ambipolar n-p double quantum dot defined by potential variation along a semiconducting carbon-nanotube is considered. We focus on the (1e,1h) charge configuration with a single excess electron of the conduction band confined in the n-type dot and a single missing electron in the valence band state of the p-type dot for which lifting of the Pauli blockade of the current was observed in the electric-dipole spin resonance (Laird et al 2013 Nat. Nanotechnol. 8 565). The dynamics of the system driven by periodic electric field is studied with the Floquet theory and the time-dependent configuration interaction method with the single-electron spin-valley-orbitals determined for atomistic tight-binding Hamiltonian...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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