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Leonid V Skripnikov, Stefan Schmidt, Johannes Ullmann, Christopher Geppert, Florian Kraus, Benjamin Kresse, Wilfried Nörtershäuser, Alexei F Privalov, Benjamin Scheibe, Vladimir M Shabaev, Michael Vogel, Andrey V Volotka
A recent measurement of the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of Li-like ^{208}Bi^{80+} has established a "hyperfine puzzle"-the experimental result exhibits a 7σ deviation from the theoretical prediction [J. Ullmann et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 15484 (2017)NCAOBW2041-172310.1038/ncomms15484; J. P. Karr, Nat. Phys. 13, 533 (2017)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys4159]. We provide evidence that the discrepancy is caused by an inaccurate value of the tabulated nuclear magnetic moment (μ_{I}) of ^{209}Bi...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Teresa Cruz-Bustos, Silvia N J Moreno, Roberto Docampo
Membrane proteins in trypanosomatids are, in general, weakly expressed and confirmation of their subcellular localization frequently requires their overexpression with epitope tags. However, overexpression can lead to mislocalization of the probes. Viswanathan et al. (Nat. Methods, 2015) described high performance tags for localization of weakly expressed proteins. We report here the use of these protein tags, named "spaghetti monster", for CRISPR /Cas9-mediated C-terminal endogenous tagging of Trypanosoma cruzi to localize two weakly expressed transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to acidic compartments...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Raquel M Schears, Zainab Farzal, Zehra Farzal, Anne C Fischer
BACKGROUND: The actual baseline of radiation exposure used in evaluating pediatric trauma is not known and has relied on estimates in the literature that may not reflect clinical reality. Our objectives were to determine the baseline amount of radiation delivered in a pediatric trauma evaluation and correlate radiation exposure with trauma activation status to identify the cohort most at risk. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated trauma patients (N = 1050) at an independent Level I children's hospital for each level of trauma activation (consults, alerts, stats) from June 2010 to January 2011...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Yuan-Yuan Ye, Jia-Wei Mei, Shan-Shan Xiang, Huai-Feng Li, Qiang Ma, Xiao-Ling Song, Zheng Wang, Yi-Chi Zhang, Yong-Chen Liu, Yun-Peng Jin, Yun-Ping Hu, Lin Jiang, Fa-Tao Liu, Yi-Jian Zhang, Ya-Juan Hao, Ying-Bin Liu
Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), the most common malignant tumour of the bile duct, is highly aggressive and has a poor prognosis. MicroRNA-30a-5p (miR-30a-5p) is an important tumour suppressor that participates in many aspects of carcinogenesis and cancer development. However, the role of miR-30a-5p in GBC development remains to be determined, as do the mechanisms underlying its effects in GBC. Using samples collected from 42 subjects with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), we showed decreased miR-30a-5p expression in the primary lesions vs...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Adolfo G Cuevas, Kasim Ortiz, Nancy Lopez, David R Williams
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between race and smoking behaviors among Latinos/Hispanics. DESIGN: Using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS), we implemented Log-Poisson regression models for each dependent variable (smoking pattern and menthol cigarette use). Each analysis adjusted for age, gender, marital status, employment status, and socioeconomic status (SES). Final pooled cross-sectional sample included 505 Black-Latinos and 9078 White-Latinos...
March 14, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Susan C Shelmerdine, John Ciaran Hutchinson, Safa Al-Sarraj, Nat Cary, Tim Dawson, Daniel Du Plessis, Paul G Ince, Siobhan McLaughlin, Liina Palm, Colin Smith, Neil Stoodley, Rick van Rijn, Owen J Arthurs, Thomas S Jacques
AIMS: To develop an expert consensus statement regarding appropriate clinical and forensic post-mortem neurological imaging. METHODS: An expert panel of clinicians were recruited from registered members of the British Neuropathological Society (BNS) and the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging (ISFRI) with post-mortem expertise. Following a focus group meeting, 16 core statements were incorporated into an online modified Delphi survey and each panellist was asked to score their level of agreement...
March 13, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Aneesh T Veetil, Maulik S Jani, Yamuna Krishnan
Membrane-initiated steroid signaling (MISS) is a recently discovered aspect of steroidal control over cell function that has proved highly challenging to study due to its rapidity and ultrasensitivity to the steroid trigger [Chow RWY, Handelsman DJ, Ng MKC (2010) Endocrinology 151:2411-2422]. Fundamental aspects underlying MISS, such as receptor binding, kinetics of ion-channel opening, and production of downstream effector molecules remain obscure because a pristine molecular technology that could trigger the release of signaling steroids was not available...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Penny E Morton, Maddy Parsons
Migration of leukocytes through epithelial monolayers represents an essential step in the generation of an inflammatory response and is often seen in inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease (Matthews et al., Toxicol Pathol 42:91-98, 2014) and asthma (Lambrecht and Hammad, Nat Med 18:684-692, 2012). Transepithelial migration involves adhesion to the basal surface of the epithelium before migration through the epithelial cell layer to the apical surface. Analyzing this process can present a technical challenge due to complications of using a coculture model and trying to recapitulate an intact monolayer...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matthew J O'Hara, Nathaniel J Murray, Jennifer C Carter, Samuel S Morrison
Zirconium-89 (89 Zr), produced by the (p, n) reaction from naturally monoisotopic yttrium (nat Y), is a promising positron emitting isotope for immunoPET imaging. Its long half-life of 78.4 h is sufficient for evaluating slow physiological processes. A prototype automated fluidic system, coupled to on-line and in-line detectors, has been constructed to facilitate development of new89 Zr purification methodologies. The highly reproducible reagent delivery platform and near-real time monitoring of column effluents allows for efficient method optimization...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Rok Sekirnik, Sarah E Wilkins, Jacob Bush, Hanna Tarhonskaya, Martin Münzel, Aayan Hussein, Emily Flashman, Shabaz Mohammed, Michael A McDonough, Christoph Loenarz, Christopher J Schofield
YcfD from Escherichia coli is a homologue of the human ribosomal oxygenases NO66 and MINA53, which catalyse histidyl-hydroxylation of the 60S subunit and affect cellular proliferation (Ge et al., Nat Chem Biol 12:960-962, 2012). Bioinformatic analysis identified a potential homologue of ycfD in the thermophilic bacterium Rhodothermus marinus (ycfDRM ). We describe studies on the characterization of ycfDRM , which is a functional 2OG oxygenase catalysing (2S,3R)-hydroxylation of the ribosomal protein uL16 at R82, and which is active at significantly higher temperatures than previously reported for any other 2OG oxygenase...
March 9, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Yangyang R Yu, Annalyn S DeMello, Christopher S Greeley, Charles S Cox, Bindi J Naik-Mathuria, David E Wesson
PURPOSE: This study examines non-accidental trauma (NAT) fatalities as a percentage of all injury fatalities and identifies injury patterns in NAT admissions to two level 1 pediatric trauma centers. METHODS: We reviewed all children (<5years old) treated for NAT from 2011 to 2015. Patient demographics, injury sites, and survival were obtained from both institutional trauma registries. RESULTS: Of 4623 trauma admissions, 557 (12%) were due to NAT...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Takayuki Amano, Tatsuki Fukami, Takuo Ogiso, Daisuke Hirose, Jeffrey P Jones, Tsuyoshi Taniguchi, Miki Nakajima
Dantrolene is used for malignant hyperthermia during anesthesia, and it sometimes causes severe liver injury as a side effect. Dantrolene is metabolized to acetylaminodantrolene, which is formed via the reduction of dantrolene to aminodantrolene and subsequent acetylation. Formation of hydroxylamine during the metabolic process may be associated with liver injury. We identified the enzymes responsible for dantrolene metabolism in humans to elucidate the mechanism of liver injury. Dantrolene reductase activity was not detected in human liver microsomes, but it was detected in cytosol...
March 6, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
A Ortega-Morales, J A Garza-Hernández, V H González-Álvarez, L M Hernández-Triana, M A Rodríguez-Pérez
Culex (Microculex) daumastocampa Dyar & Knab was originally described by Dyar and Knab (Proc US Nat Mus 35:53-70, 1908) from larvae collected at axils of bromeliads in Port San Felipe, Panama. Culex daumastocampa is found in Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Suriname, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, and Mexico, although its presence had not been reported suggesting its northernmost distribution. In Mexico, the subgenus Microculex had included Cx. rejector Dyar and Knab, and Cx. imitator Theobald. However, after that collection specimens were re-examined along with other specimens collected during 2016 in Chiapas (all specimens are available in the Culicidae Collection of the Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro Unidad Laguna [UAAAN-UL], Mexico)...
March 8, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Daniel Candotti, Syria Laperche
Over the past decades, the risk of HBV transfusion-transmission has been steadily reduced through the recruitment of volunteer donors, the selection of donors based on risk-behavior evaluation, the development of increasingly more sensitive hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) assays, the use of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) screening in some low-endemic countries, and the recent implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT). Despite this accumulation of blood safety measures, the desirable zero risk goal has yet to be achieved...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Liliana Stolarczyk, Sebastian Trinkl, Maite Romero-Exposito, Natalia Mojżeszek, Iva Ambrozova, Carles Domingo, Marie Davidkova, Jad Farah, Magdalena Kłodowska, Željka Knežević, Małgorzata Liszka, Marija Majer, Saveta Miljanic, Ondrej Ploc, Marco Schwarz, Roger Michael Harrison, Pawel Olko
Systematic 3-D mapping of out-of-field doses induced by a therapeutic proton pencil scanning beam (PBS) in a 300 × 300 × 600 mm3 water phantom was performed using a set of thermoluminescence detectors (TLD): MTS-7 (&lt;sup&gt;7&lt;/sup&gt;LiF:Mg,Ti), MTS-6 (&lt;sup&gt;6&lt;/sup&gt;LiF:Mg,Ti), MTS-N (&lt;sup&gt;nat&lt;/sup&gt;LiF:Mg,Ti) and TLD-700 (&lt;sup&gt;7&lt;/sup&gt;LiF:Mg,Ti), radiophotoluminescent detectors (RPL) GD-352M and GD-302M and polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC)-based (C&lt;sub&gt;12&lt;/sub&gt;H&lt;sub&gt;18&lt;/sub&gt;O&lt;sub&gt;7&lt;/sub&gt;) track-etched detectors...
March 6, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Wen He, Shanrong Zhao, Chi Zhang, Michael S Vincent, Baohong Zhang
Sequencing of transcribed RNA molecules (RNA-Seq) has been used wildly for studying cell transcriptomes in bulk or at the single-cell level (Wang et al., Nat Rev Genet, 10:57-63, 2009; Ozsolak and Milos, Nat Rev Genet, 12:87-98, 2011; Sandberg, Nat Methods, 11:22-24, 2014) and is becoming the de facto technology for investigating gene expression level changes in various biological conditions, on the time course, and under drug treatments. Furthermore, RNA-Seq data helped identify fusion genes that are related to certain cancers (Maher et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
S Takács, F Ditrói, Z Szűcs, M Aikawa, H Haba, Y Komori, M Saito
Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on iridium were investigated using a 51.2-MeV alpha particle beam. The standard stacked-foil target technique and the activation method were applied. The activity of the reaction products was assessed without chemical separation using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Excitation functions for production of gold, platinum and iridium isotopes (196m2 Au,196m,g Au,195m,g Au,194 Au,193 m,g Au,192 Au,191m,g Au,191 Pt,195m Pt,194g Ir,194m Ir,192g Ir,190g Ir and189 Ir) were determined and compared with available earlier measured experimental data and results of theoretical calculations using TALYS code system...
February 22, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Eli Coleman, Mariette Pathy Allen, Jessie V Ford
This article describes the gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation of male spirit mediums in Myanmar. Our analysis is based on ethnographic work, field observation, and 10 semi-structured interviews. These observations were conducted from 2010 to 2015, mostly in Mandalay, with some fieldwork in Yangon and Bagan. The focus of this investigation was specifically on achout (gender variant individuals) who were spirit mediums (nat kadaw). Semi-structured interviews explored the ways that participants understood their gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality in relation to their work as spirit mediums and broader social life...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Kai Siedenburg
Recent research has described strong effects of prior context on the perception of ambiguous pitch shifts of Shepard tones [Chambers, Akram, Adam, Pelofi, Sahani, Shamma, and Pressnitzer (2017). Nat. Commun. 8, 15027]. Here, similar effects are demonstrated for brightness shift judgments of harmonic complexes with cyclic spectral envelope components and fixed fundamental frequency. It is shown that frequency shifts of the envelopes are perceived as systematic shifts of brightness. Analogous to the work of Chambers et al...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Alexandra Iulia Irimie, Alina-Andreea Zimta, Cristina Ciocan, Nikolay Mehterov, Diana Dudea, Cornelia Braicu, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Previously ignored non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have become the subject of many studies. However, there is an imbalance in the amount of consideration that ncRNAs are receiving. Some transcripts such as microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have gained much attention, but it is necessary to investigate other "pieces of the RNA puzzle". These can offer a more complete view over normal and pathological cell behavior. The other ncRNA species are less studied, either due to their recent discovery, such as stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA), YRNA, miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNA), telomerase RNA component (TERC), natural antisense transcript (NAT), transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCR), and pseudogene transcript, or because they are still largely seen as non-coding transcripts with no relevance to pathogenesis...
March 1, 2018: Genes
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