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Elżbieta Wanowska, Magdalena Regina Kubiak, Wojciech Rosikiewicz, Izabela Makałowska, Michał Wojciech Szcześniak
Antisense transcription is a widespread phenomenon in mammalian genomes, leading to production of RNAs molecules referred to as natural antisense transcripts (NATs). NATs apply diverse transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms to carry out a wide variety of biological roles that are important for the normal functioning of living cells, but their dysfunctions can be associated with human diseases. In this review, we attempt to provide a molecular basis for the involvement of NATs in the etiology of human disorders such as cancers and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases...
January 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Sylvain Simon, Maud Charpentier, Ignacio Anegon, Nathalie Labarriere
This 22nd edition of the Nantes Actualités Transplantation annual meeting was co-organized for the second time with the LabEx Immuno-Graft Oncology network. This international meeting was held on 1 and 2 June 2017 in Nantes (western France). The topic of this 2-day meeting was 'Immunotherapies in transplantation and cancer'. This meeting brought together 17 international invited speakers, young researchers and 220 attendees mainly from Europe and North America. It was a unique opportunity to bring together the pioneers and leading immunologists in the fields of transplantation and cancer, focusing on shared mechanisms that control immune responses in organ or bone marrow transplantation and in cancer...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
John W Blunt, Anthony R Carroll, Brent R Copp, Rohan A Davis, Robert A Keyzers, Michèle R Prinsep
Covering: 2016. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2017, 34, 235-294This review covers the literature published in 2016 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 757 citations (643 for the period January to December 2016) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1277 in 432 papers for 2016), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin...
January 16, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Saifullah Khan Niazi, Maqbool Alam, Muhammad Sajid Yazdani, Eijaz Ghani, Muhammad Ali Rathore
BACKGROUND: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). METHODS: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Zhen Gao, Zhuoyuan Wang, Baile Zhang
It has been recently reported that the unit cell of wire media metamaterials can be tailored locally to shape the flow of electromagnetic waves at deep-subwavelength scales [Nat. Phys.9, 55 (2013)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys2480]. However, such bulk structures have a thickness of at least the order of wavelength, thus hindering their applications in the on-chip compact plasmonic integrated circuits. Here, based upon a Sievenpiper "mushroom" array [IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 2059 (1999)IETMAB0018-948010...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Louise A Brinton, Jonine D Figueroa, Daniel Ansong, Kofi M Nyarko, Seth Wiafe, Joel Yarney, Richard Biritwum, Michelle Brotzman, Jake E Thistle, Ernest Adjei, Francis Aitpillah, Florence Dedey, Lawrence Edusei, Nicholas Titiloye, Baffour Awuah, Joe Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Beatrice Wiafe-Addai, Verna Vanderpuye
Skin lighteners and hair relaxers, both common among women of African descent, have been suggested as possibly affecting breast cancer risk. In Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, we collected detailed information on usage patterns of both exposures among 1,131 invasive breast cancer cases and 2,106 population-controls. Multivariate analyses estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for breast cancer risk factors. Control usage was 25.8% for ever use of skin lighteners and 90.0% for use of hair relaxers for >1 year...
January 6, 2018: Carcinogenesis
C Chen, Y Wang, J F Mei, S S Li, H X Xu, H P Xiong, X H Wang, X He
Radiotherapy resistance remains the major factor limiting the radiotherapy efficacy in colorectal cancer. The Mre11-RAD50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is known to play a critical role in the DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathways and thus facilitates radioresistance. Targeting MRN function can sensitize cancer cells to irradiation in some malignancies. In this study, we stably knocked down RAD50 protein in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, HCT116 and DLD1, and evaluated their response to irradiation as well as the DSB repair dynamics...
2018: Neoplasma
Mohamed Boujnan, Ashley J Duits, Marco H G M Koppelman
BACKGROUND: Several countries have implemented safety strategies to reduce the risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission through blood transfusion. These strategies have included nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) of blood donations. In this study, a new real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay including internal control for the detection of ZIKV on the cobas omni Utility Channel (UC) on the cobas 6800 system is presented. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PCR conditions and primer/probe concentrations were optimized on the LightCycler 480 instrument...
January 10, 2018: Transfusion
Hakmook Kang, Allison Hainline, Lori R Arlinghaus, Stephanie Elderidge, Xia Li, Vandana G Abramson, Anuradha Bapsi Chakravarthy, Richard G Abramson, Brian Bingham, Kareem Fakhoury, Thomas E Yankeelov
Pathologic complete response following neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is used as a short-term surrogate marker of eventual outcome in patients with breast cancer. Analyzing voxel-level heterogeneity in MRI-derived parametric maps, obtained before and after the first cycle of NAT ([Formula: see text]), in conjunction with receptor status, may improve the predictive accuracy of tumor response to NAT. Toward that end, we incorporated two MRI-derived parameters, the apparent diffusion coefficient and efflux rate constant, with receptor status in a logistic ridge-regression model...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
T R Dinesha, J Boobalan, S Sivamalar, D Subashini, Sunil S Solomon, K G Murugavel, P Balakrishnan, Davey M Smith, S Saravanan
The study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among HIV infected persons, and to evaluate the use of a pooling strategy to detect occult HBV infection in the setting of HIV infection. Five hundred and two HIV positive individuals were tested for HBV, occult HBV, and Hepatitis C and D with serologic and nucleic acid testing (NAT). We also evaluated a pooled NAT strategy for screening occult HBV infection among the HIV-positive individuals. The prevalence of HBV infection among HIV positive individuals was 32 (6...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Bruno Bernardes de Jesus, Sérgio Pires Marinho, Sara Barros, António Sousa-Franco, Catarina Alves-Vale, Tânia Carvalho, Maria Carmo-Fonseca
Aging imposes a barrier to somatic cell reprogramming through poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we report that fibroblasts from old mice express higher levels of Zeb2, a transcription factor that activates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Synthesis of Zeb2 protein is controlled by a natural antisense transcript named Zeb2-NAT. We show that transfection of adult fibroblasts with specific LNA Gapmers induces a robust downregulation of Zeb2-NAT transcripts and Zeb2 protein and enhances the reprogramming of old fibroblasts into pluripotent cells...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Dong-Jun Kim, Chul-Yeon Jeon, Jong-Guk Choi, Jae Wook Lee, Srivathsava Surabhi, Jong-Ryul Jeong, Kyung-Jin Lee, Byong-Guk Park
The original version of this Article contained an error in ref. 27, which was incorrectly given with the wrong journal name as:Meyer, S. et al. Observation of the spin Nernst effect. Nat. Phys. 16, 977-981 (2017).The correct form of ref. 27 is:Meyer, S. et al. Observation of the spin Nernst effect. Nat. Mater. 16, 977-981 (2017).This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
January 5, 2018: Nature Communications
G F Quinteiro, Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler, Christian T Schmiegelow
The propagation of light beams is well described using the paraxial approximation, where field components along the propagation direction are usually neglected. For strongly inhomogeneous or shaped light fields, however, this approximation may fail, leading to intriguing variations of the light-matter interaction. This is the case of twisted light having opposite orbital and spin angular momenta. We compare experimental data for the excitation of a quadrupole transition in a single trapped ^{40}Ca^{+} ion from Schmiegelow et al...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Katelin A Mirkin, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Joyce Wong
Purpose: Guidelines in western countries recommend retrieving ≥15 lymph nodes (LNs) during gastric cancer resection. This study sought to determine whether the number of examined lymph nodes (eLNs), a proxy for lymphadenectomy, effects survival in node-negative disease. Materials and Methods: The US National Cancer Database (2003-2011) was reviewed for node-negative gastric adenocarcinoma. Treatment was categorized by neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) vs. initial resection, and further stratified by eLN...
December 2017: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Mark V Ivanov, Anna A Lobas, Lev I Levitsky, Sergei A Moshkovskii, Mikhail V Gorshkov
In a proteogenomic approach based on tandem mass spectrometry analysis of proteolytic peptide mixtures, customized exome or RNA-seq databases are employed for identifying protein sequence variants. However, the problem of variant peptide identification without personalized genomic data is important for a variety of applications. Following the recent proposal by Chick et al. (Nat. Biotechnol. 33, 743-749, 2015) on the feasibility of such variant peptide search, we evaluated two available approaches based on the previously suggested "open" search and the "brute-force" strategy...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Katsuaki Kojima, Jennifer Nimtz, Steven W Martin, Stephen R Guertin, Ellen C Cavenagh
We report a case of nonaccidental trauma (NAT) involving a 23-month-old boy who presented with seizures, acute subarachnoid hemorrhage, and acute subdural hemorrhage. Ophthalmologic examination showed bilateral intraretinal hemorrhages. Further evaluation revealed that he had bilateral thoracolumbar paravertebral calcifications. The Children's Protective Services agency was involved in the case. The child was discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation facility. Vertebral fracture associated with paravertebral calcification has been reported as a sign of NAT...
July 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Yulia N Kalugina, Pierre-Nicholas Roy
We present a five-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the HF@C60 system computed at the DF-LMP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. We also calculated a five-dimensional dipole moment surface (DMS) based on DFT(PBE0)/cc-pVTZ calculations. The HF and C60 molecules are considered rigid with bond length rHF = 0.9255 Å (gas phase ground rovibrational state geometry). The C60 geometry is of Ih symmetry. The ab initio points were fitted to obtain a PES in terms of bipolar spherical harmonics. The minimum of the PES corresponds to a geometry where the center of mass of HF is located 0...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Andrijana Burazin, Corina S Drapaca, Giuseppe Tenti, Siv Sivaloganathan
Although the mechanisms responsible for elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumours remain obscure, it seems clear that high IFP represents a barrier to drug delivery (since the resulting adverse pressure gradient implies a reduction in the driving force for transvascular exchange of both fluid and macromolecules). R. Jain and co-workers studied this problem, and although the conclusions drawn from their idealized mathematical models offered useful insights into the causes of elevated IFP, they by no means gave a definitive explanation for this phenomenon...
December 27, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Ting Shen, Huan Li, Yifan Song, Jun Yao, Miao Han, Ming Yu, Gang Wei, Ting Ni
Natural antisense transcripts (NAT) and alternative polyadenylation (APA) of messenger RNA (mRNA) are important contributors of transcriptome complexity, each playing a critical role in multiple biological processes. However, whether they have crosstalk and function collaboratively is unclear. We discovered that APA enriched in human sense-antisense (S-AS) gene pairs, and finally focused on RNASEH2C-KAT5 S-AS pair for further study. In cis but not in trans over-expression of the antisense KAT5 gene promoted the usage of distal polyA (pA) site in sense gene RNASEH2C, which generated longer 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) and produced less protein, accompanying with slowed cell growth...
December 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
Alison K Gillingham
Cells face a complex problem: how to transfer lipids and proteins between membrane compartments in an organized, timely fashion. Indeed, many thousands of membrane and secretory proteins must traffic out of the ER to different organelles to function, while others are retrieved from the plasma membrane having fulfilled their roles [Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (2013) 14, 382-392]. This process is highly dynamic and failure to target cargo accurately leads to catastrophic consequences for the cell, as is clear from the numerous human diseases associated with defects in membrane trafficking [Int...
December 22, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
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