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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732279/turbocharging-vaccines-emerging-adjuvants-for-dendritic-cell-based-therapeutic-cancer-vaccines
#1
REVIEW
Mansi Saxena, Nina Bhardwaj
Development of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been hindered by the many pro-tumorigenic mechanisms at play in cancer patients that serve to suppress both antigen presenting cells and T cells. In face of these obstacles, cancer vaccines are most likely to promote anti-tumorigenic immune responses only when formulated with strong adjuvants, and in combination with new immune interventions designed to reverse immune suppression and exhaustion of T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Dendritic cells (DCs) are often termed 'nature's adjuvant' due to their exceptional capacity for initiating both innate and adaptive immune responses...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732089/cx47-fine-tunes-the-handling-of-serum-lipids-but-is-dispensable-for-lymphatic-vascular-function
#2
Merlijn J Meens, Issa Kutkut, Viviane Rochemont, Juan Dubrot, Fouad R Kaladji, Amélie Sabine, Oliver Lyons, Stefanie Hendrikx, Jeremiah Bernier-Latmani, Friedemann Kiefer, Alberto Smith, Stéphanie Hugues, Tatiana V Petrova, Brenda R Kwak
Mutations in the gap junction protein connexin47 (Cx47) are associated with lymphedema. However, the role of Cx47 in lymphatic pathophysiology is unknown. We demonstrate that Cx47 is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells by whole-mount immunostaining and qPCR. To determine if Cx47 plays a role in lymphatic vessel function we analysed Cx47-/- mice. Cx47-deficiency did not affect lymphatic contractility (contractile amplitude or frequency) or lymphatic morphology (vessel diameter or number of valves). Interstitial fluid drainage or dendritic cell migration through lymphatic vessels was also not affected by Cx47-deficiency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731783/identification-of-sppl2a-inhibitors-by-multiparametric-analysis-of-a-high-content-ultra-high-throughput-screen
#3
Xian Zhang, Marjo Götte, Yvonne Ibig-Rehm, Ansgar Schuffenhauer, Marion Kamke, Dan Beisner, Danilo Guerini, Daniela Siebert, Ghislain M C Bonamy, Daniela Gabriel, Ursula Bodendorf
The intramembrane protease signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a) is a potential drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases due to an essential role in B cells and dendritic cells. To screen a library of 1.4 million compounds for inhibitors of SPPL2a, we developed an imaging assay detecting nuclear translocation of the proteolytically released cytosolic substrate fragment. The state-of-the-art hit calling approach based on nuclear translocation resulted in numerous false-positive hits, mainly interrupting intracellular protein trafficking...
July 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731516/mir-181d-regulates-human-dendritic-cell-maturation-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#4
Xian Wei Su, Gang Lu, Chi Kwan Leung, Qiang Liu, Yi Li, Kam Sze Tsang, Shi Dou Zhao, Danny Tat Ming Chan, Hsiang Fu Kung, Wai Sang Poon
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as the cellular regulators which post-transcriptionally modulate gene expression in diverse biological processes including cell development and immunity. In this study, we investigated functions of miR-181d in dendritic cells (DCs) maturation, and the underlying mechanisms were also explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here we did the miRNA screening in human DCs in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
July 21, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731337/sky-blue-emitting-dendritic-alkynylgold-iii-complexes-for-solution-processable-organic-light-emitting-devices
#5
Chin-Ho Lee, Man-Chung Tang, Yi-Chun Wong, Mei-Yee Chan, Vivian Wing-Wah Yam
A new class of tridentate ligand-containing cyclometalated gold(III) complexes featuring dendritic alkynyl ligands with carbazole moieties as dendrons and peripheral groups has been synthesized up to the third generation. High-performance solution-processable organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with maximum current efficiency of up to 23.7 cd A(-1) and external quantum efficiency of up to 6.9% have been realized by a simple spin-coating technique. With the incorporation of bulky carbazole moieties to form higher generation dendrimers, the undesirable excimeric emission could be effectively reduced, allowing the fine-tuning of the emission color toward the blue region...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731321/conjugation-dependent-interaction-of-folic-acid-with-folate-binding-protein
#6
Rachel Leah Merzel, Carolina Frey, Junjie Chen, Rachel Garn, Mallory A van Dongen, Casey A Dougherty, Ananda Kandaluru, Philip S Low, E Neil G Marsh, Mark M Banaszak Holl
Serum proteins play a critical role in the transport, uptake, and efficacy of targeted drug therapies, and here we investigate the interactions between folic acid-polymer conjugates and serum folate binding protein (FBP), the soluble form of the cellular membrane-bound folate receptor. We demonstrate that both choice of polymer and method of ligand conjugation affect the interactions between folic acid-polymer conjugates and serum FBP, resulting in changes in the folic acid-induced protein aggregation process...
July 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730637/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-an-odorant-receptor-in-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#7
Rui-Bin Zhang, Yang Liu, Shan-Chun Yan, Gui-Rong Wang
The sensitive olfactory system is necessary for survival of insects. Odorant receptors (ORs) are located on the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons and play a critical role in odor detection. Insect ORs are functionally analyzed via heterologous expression in a Xenopus oocyte system using a two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) electrophysiological recording. Here, we have identified a novel OR in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, then we cloned and named it ApisOR4. We analyzed the ApisOR4 tissue expression patterns and found expression only in antennae tissues...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730225/purkinje-cells-pathology-in-schizophrenia-a-morphometric-approach
#8
Ioannis Asterios Mavroudis, Foivos Petrides, Marina Manani, Fotios Chatzinikolaou, Alin Stelian Ciobică, Manuela Pădurariu, Dimitrios Kazis, Samuel Ndugu Njau, Vasiliki George Costa, Stavros John Baloyannis
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that affects more than 21 million people worldwide. Ventricle enlargement and reduction in the volume of the temporal lobe overall and in medial temporal structures constitutes the main macroscopic findings, whilst synaptic and spinal changes as well as gliosis in the hippocampal formation, the prefrontal and the entorhinal cortex stand among cardinal microscopic findings in the schizophrenic brains. In recent years, accumulated evidence comes to light about the role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730145/prokaryotic-rna-associated-to-bacterial-viability-induces-polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-activation
#9
Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Luis A Castillo, Verónica I Landoni, Daiana Martire-Greco, M Ayelén Milillo, Paula Barrionuevo, Gabriela C Fernández
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729941/hippocampal-slice-preparation-in-rats-acutely-suppresses-immunoreactivity-of-microtubule-associated-protein-map2-%C3%A2-and-glycogen-levels-without-affecting-numbers-of-glia%C3%A2-or-levels-of-the-glutamate-transporter-vglut1
#10
Liana R Stein, Charles F Zorumski, Yukitoshi Izumi
INTRODUCTION: With its preservation of cytoarchitecture and synaptic circuitry, the hippocampal slice preparation has been a critical tool for studying the electrophysiological effects of pharmacological and genetic manipulations. To analyze the maximum number of slices or readouts per dissection, long incubation times postslice preparation are commonly used. We were interested in how slice integrity is affected by incubation postslice preparation. METHODS: Hippocampal slices were prepared by three different methods: a chopper, a vibratome, and a rotary slicer...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729867/exposure-to-the-epstein-barr-viral-antigen-latent-membrane-protein-1-induces-myelin-reactive-antibodies-in-vivo
#11
Yakov Lomakin, Georgii Pavlovich Arapidi, Alexander Chernov, Rustam Ziganshin, Evgenii Tcyganov, Irina Lyadova, Ivan Olegovich Butenko, Maria Osetrova, Natalia Ponomarenko, Georgy Telegin, Vadim Markovich Govorun, Alexander Gabibov, Alexey Belogurov
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. Previously, we showed that monoclonal myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific antibodies from MS patients cross-react with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In this study, we report that exposure of mice to LMP1 results in induction of myelin-reactive autoantibodies in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729866/cytokine-induced-killer-cells-as-pharmacological-tools-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Xingchun Gao, Yajing Mi, Na Guo, Hao Xu, Lixian Xu, Xingchun Gou, Weilin Jin
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a heterogeneous population of effector CD3(+)CD56(+) natural killer T cells, which can be easily expanded in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CIK cells work as pharmacological tools for cancer immunotherapy as they exhibit MHC-unrestricted, safe, and effective antitumor activity. Much effort has been made to improve CIK cells cytotoxicity and treatments of CIK cells combined with other antitumor therapies are applied. This review summarizes some strategies, including the combination of CIK with additional cytokines, dendritic cells, check point inhibitors, antibodies, chemotherapeutic agents, nanomedicines, and engineering CIK cells with a chimeric antigen receptor...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729735/the-wnt-receptor-ryk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-mammalian-dendrite-morphogenesis
#13
Vanessa Lanoue, Michael Langford, Amanda White, Kai Sempert, Lily Fogg, Helen M Cooper
The unique dendritic architecture of a given neuronal subtype determines its synaptic connectivity and ability to integrate into functional neuronal networks. It is now clear that abnormal dendritic structure is associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, however, the nature of the extrinsic factors that limit dendritic growth and branching within predetermined boundaries in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here we identify the Wnt receptor Ryk as a novel negative regulator of dendritic arborisation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729536/weakened-il-15-production-and-impaired-mtor-activation-alter-dendritic-epidermal-t-cell-homeostasis-in-diabetic-mice
#14
Zhongyang Liu, Guangping Liang, Li Gui, Yashu Li, Meixi Liu, Yang Bai, Xiaorong Zhang, Xiaohong Hu, Jian Chen, Chibing Huang, Xusheng Liu, Gaoxing Luo, Jun Wu, Weifeng He
Diabetes is associated with impaired wound healing, which may be caused primarily by a deficiency in dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs). In the epidermis, IL-15, IGF-1, and mTOR are known to regulate the maintenance of DETCs; however, it is unclear how these molecules may intersect to regulate DETC homeostasis in diabetes. Here, we show that the reduction of DETCs in the epidermis of diabetic mice is caused by altered homeostasis mediated by a reduction in IL-15 levels. Both impaired mTOR activation and reduction of IL-15 in the epidermis play important roles in DETC homeostasis...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729535/pld1-promotes-dendritic-spine-development-by-inhibiting-adam10-mediated-n-cadherin-cleavage
#15
Li-Da Luo, Gang Li, Yun Wang
Synapses are the basic units of information transmission, processing and integration in the nervous system. Dysfunction of the synaptic development has been recognized as one of the main reasons for mental dementia and psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. However, the underlying mechanisms of the synapse formation are far from clear. Here we report that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) promotes the development of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. We found that overexpressing PLD1 increases both the density and the area of dendritic spines...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729358/targeting-c-type-lectin-receptors-a-high-carbohydrate-diet-for-dendritic-cells-to-improve-cancer-vaccines
#16
REVIEW
Dieke van Dinther, Dorian A Stolk, Rieneke van de Ven, Yvette van Kooyk, Tanja D de Gruijl, Joke M M den Haan
There is a growing understanding of why certain patients do or do not respond to checkpoint inhibition therapy. This opens new opportunities to reconsider and redevelop vaccine strategies to prime an anticancer immune response. Combination of such vaccines with checkpoint inhibitors will both provide the fuel and release the brake for an efficient anticancer response. Here, we discuss vaccine strategies that use C-type lectin receptor (CLR) targeting of APCs, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. APCs are a necessity for the priming of antigen-specific cytotoxic and helper T cells...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729150/impact-of-dendritic-cell-recovery-on-outcomes-after-umbilical-cord-blood-and-sibling-donor-transplantation-for-hematologic-malignancies
#17
Waseem Touma, Claudio G Brunstein, Michael R Verneris, Qing Cao, Julie Curtsinger, Jeffrey S Miller, Veronika Bachanova
Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate immune responses after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied the association of donor myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) recovery in the landmark analysis of umbilical cord blood (UCB) and matched related donor (RD) HCT. Eighty patients (42 UCB and 38 RD recipients) with a day 100 (D+100) blood sample were included in the analysis. Median age was 51 years (20-71). Most patients had acute leukemia (50%) or lymphoma (23%) and received reduced-intensity conditioning (75%)...
July 17, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728878/a-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomic-analysis-of-homer2-interacting-proteins-in-the-mouse-brain
#18
Scott P Goulding, Karen K Szumlinski, Candice Contet, Michael J MacCoss, Christine C Wu
In the brain, the Homer protein family modulates excitatory signal transduction and receptor plasticity through interactions with other proteins in dendritic spines. Homer proteins are implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and addiction. Since Homers serve as scaffolding proteins, identifying their interaction partners is an important first step in understanding their biological function and could help design novel therapeutic strategies. The present study set out to document Homer2-interacting proteins in the mouse brain using a co-immunoprecipitation-based mass spectrometry approach...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726884/lithium-dendrite-growth-mechanisms-in-polymer-electrolytes-and-prevention-strategies
#19
Pallab Barai, Kenneth Higa, Venkat Srinivasan
Future lithium-ion batteries must use lithium metal anodes to fulfill the demands of high energy density applications with the potential to enable affordable electric cars with 350-mile range. However, dendrite growth during charging prevents the commercialization of this technology. It has been demonstrated that the presence of a compressive mechanical stress field around a dendritic protrusion prevents growth. Several techniques based on this concept, such as protective layers, externally applied pressure and solid electrolytes have been investigated by other researchers...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726770/a-model-for-the-regulation-of-follicular-dendritic-cells-predicts-invariant-reciprocal-time-decay-of-post-vaccine-antibody-response
#20
Anthony Almudevar
Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) play a crucial role in the regulation of humoral immunity. They are believed to be responsible for long-term persistence of antibody, due to their role in antibody response induction and their ability to retain antigen in immunogenic form for long periods. In this article, a regulatory control model is proposed which links persistence of humoral immunity with cellular processes associated with FDCs. The argument is comprised of three elements. The first is a literature review of population-level studies of post-vaccination antibody persistence...
July 20, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
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