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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448523/semaphorin-1a-prevents-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-dendrites-from-mis-targeting-into-select-antennal-lobe-regions
#1
Hung-Chang Shen, Sao-Yu Chu, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Chun-Han Wang, I-Ya Lin, Hung-Hsiang Yu
Elucidating how appropriate neurite patterns are generated in neurons of the olfactory system is crucial for comprehending the construction of the olfactory map. In the Drosophila olfactory system, projection neurons (PNs), primarily derived from four neural stem cells (called neuroblasts), populate their cell bodies surrounding to and distribute their dendrites in distinct but overlapping patterns within the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it remains unclear whether the same molecular mechanisms are employed to generate the appropriate dendritic patterns in discrete AL glomeruli among PNs produced from different neuroblasts...
April 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448022/development-of-an-economical-dna-delivery-system-by-acufection-and-its-application-to-skin-research
#2
Yu-Jei Lin, Tsung-Lin Lee, Chia-Chi Ku
Dysregulation of immune response in skin is associated with numerous human skin disorders. Direct transfer of immune-related genes into skin tissue is a fascinating approach to investigate immune modulation of cutaneous inflammation in mouse models of human diseases. Here we present a cost-effective protocol that delivered naked DNA in mouse skin and leads to transgene expression. The method is coined "acufection", denoting acupuncture-mediated DNA transfection. To perform acufection, mouse skin was first infused with DNA in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and then pricked lightly with a bundle of acupuncture needles to facilitate the absorption of DNA and transfection into cells...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448013/precision-cut-mouse-lung-slices-to-visualize-live-pulmonary-dendritic-cells
#3
Miranda R Lyons-Cohen, Seddon Y Thomas, Donald N Cook, Hideki Nakano
Inhalation of allergens and pathogens elicits multiple changes in a variety of immune cell types in the lung. Flow cytometry is a powerful technique for quantitative analysis of cell surface proteins on immune cells, but it provides no information on the localization and migration patterns of these cells within the lung. Similarly, chemotaxis assays can be performed to study the potential of cells to respond to chemotactic factors in vitro, but these assays do not reproduce the complex environment of the intact lung...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447990/imaging-neurons-within-thick-brain-sections-using-the-golgi-cox-method
#4
Emma L Louth, Charles D Sutton, Ari L Mendell, Neil J MacLusky, Craig D C Bailey
The Golgi-Cox method of neuron staining has been employed for more than two hundred years to advance our understanding of neuron morphology within histological brain samples. While it is preferable from a practical perspective to prepare brain sections at the greatest thickness possible, in order to increase the probability of identifying stained neurons that are fully contained within single sections, this approach is limited from a technical perspective by the working distance of high-magnification microscope objectives...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447898/splenic-epstein-barr-virus-associated-inflammatory-pseudotumor
#5
Chris Van Baeten, Jo Van Dorpe
Splenic inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is an uncommon lesion with an inflammatory morphologic aspect that often poses a diagnostic challenge. The etiology of IPT can be infectious, autoimmune, reactive, or neoplastic. Splenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated IPTs form a subset of splenic IPTs in which there is a spindle cell component infected by EBV. The best characterized and most frequent subgroup of splenic EBV-associated IPT is IPT-like follicular dendritic cell tumor. This review also focusses on EBV-associated splenic IPTs without follicular dendritic cell marker expression...
May 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446911/the-immune-response-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-an-emerging-pathogen-in-nosocomial-infections
#6
REVIEW
María Guadalupe García-Patiño, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Paula Licona-Limón
Acinetobacter baumannii is the etiologic agent of a wide range of nosocomial infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and skin infections. Over the last 45 years, an alarming increase in the antibiotic resistance of this opportunistic microorganism has been reported, a situation that hinders effective treatments. In order to develop effective therapies against A. baumannii it is crucial to understand the basis of host-bacterium interactions, especially those concerning the immune response of the host...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445973/plasmodium-parasite-as-an-effective-hepatocellular-carcinoma-antigen-glypican-3-delivery-vector
#7
Quan Liu, Yijun Yang, Xuefang Tan, Zhu Tao, Dickson Adah, Songlin Yu, Junnan Lu, Siting Zhao, Limei Qin, Li Qin, Xiaoping Chen
We have previously demonstrated that malaria parasite infection has an anti-tumor effect in a mouse model. This research aimed to investigate the possibility of using Plasmodium parasite as a novel vaccine vector for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) immunotherapy. We constructed a Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL strain (P.y) expressing murine glypican-3 (GPC3) protein (P.y-GPC3), and examined its therapeutic potency in a murine Hepa1-6-induced hepatoma model that highly expressed GPC3 protein. The prerequisites for invoking a CD8+ T cell response were assessed after P...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445771/cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-collapsin-response-mediator-protein-2-pathway-may-mediate-sevoflurane-induced-dendritic-development-abnormalities-in-rat-cortical-neurons
#8
Yafang Liu, Daowei Lin, Chuiliang Liu, Yifan Zhao, Zhiwen Shen, Kun Zhang, Minghui Cao, Yujuan Li
Sevoflurane has been reported to induce neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in the developing brains. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated aberrant cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activity is implicated in inhaled anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. CDK5/CRMP2 signaling is involved in the cortical and hippocampal dendritic development. The aim of present study is to investigate whether the CDK5/CRMP2 pathway mediates sevoflurane-induced dendritic development abnormalities...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445638/antigenic-gm3-lactone-mimetic-molecule-integrated-mannosylated-glycopeptide-nanofibers-for-the-activation-and-maturation-of-dendritic-cells
#9
Gokhan Gunay, Melis Sardan Ekiz, Xhenti Ferhati, Barbara Richichi, Cristina Nativi, Ayse Begum Tekinay, Mustafa O Guler
The ability of dendritic cells to coordinate innate and adaptive immune responses makes them essential targets for vaccination strategies. Presentation of specific antigens by dendritic cells is required for the activation of the immune system against many pathogens, and nanoscale materials can be functionalized for active targeting of dendritic cells. In this work, we integrated an immunogenic, carbohydrate melanoma-associated antigen-mimetic GM3-lactone molecule into mannosylated peptide amphiphile nanofibers to target dendritic cells through DC-SIGN receptor...
April 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445549/impact-of-the-c-mybe308g-mutation-on-mouse-myelopoiesis-and-dendritic-cell-development
#10
Peter Papathanasiou, Sawang Petvises, Ying-Ying Hey, Andrew C Perkins, Helen C O'Neill
Booreana mice carrying the c-Myb308G point mutation were analyzed to determine changes in early hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and among mature cells in the periphery. This point mutation led to increased numbers of early hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), with a subsequent reduction in the development of B cells, erythroid cells, and neutrophils, and increased numbers of myeloid cells and granulocytes. Myelopoiesis was further investigated by way of particular subsets affected. A specific question addressed whether booreana mice contained increased numbers of dendritic-like cells (L-DC subset) recently identified in the spleen, since L-DCs arise in vitro by direct differentiation from HSPCs co-cultured over splenic stroma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445506/phenotype-function-and-differentiation-potential-of-human-monocyte-subsets
#11
Lisa B Boyette, Camila Macedo, Kevin Hadi, Beth D Elinoff, John T Walters, Bala Ramaswami, Geetha Chalasani, Juan M Taboas, Fadi G Lakkis, Diana M Metes
Human monocytes have been grouped into classical (CD14++CD16-), non-classical (CD14dimCD16++), and intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subsets. Documentation of normal function and variation in this complement of subtypes, particularly their differentiation potential to dendritic cells (DC) or macrophages, remains incomplete. We therefore phenotyped monocytes from peripheral blood of healthy subjects and performed functional studies on high-speed sorted subsets. Subset frequencies were found to be tightly controlled over time and across individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445497/prostaglandin-e2-produced-following-infection-with-theiler-s-virus-promotes-the-pathogenesis-of-demyelinating-disease
#12
Seung Jae Kim, Young-Hee Jin, Byung S Kim
Infection of various cells with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) activates the TLR- and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-dependent pathways, resulting in the production of IL-1β via the activation of caspase-1 upon assembly of the node-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The role of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease was previously investigated. However, the signaling effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) downstream of the NLRP3 inflammasome on the immune responses to viral determinants and the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445462/cell-diversity-and-network-dynamics-in-photosensitive-human-brain-organoids
#13
Giorgia Quadrato, Tuan Nguyen, Evan Z Macosko, John L Sherwood, Sung Min Yang, Daniel R Berger, Natalie Maria, Jorg Scholvin, Melissa Goldman, Justin P Kinney, Edward S Boyden, Jeff W Lichtman, Ziv M Williams, Steven A McCarroll, Paola Arlotta
In vitro models of the developing brain such as three-dimensional brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease. However, the cells generated within organoids and the extent to which they recapitulate the regional complexity, cellular diversity and circuit functionality of the brain remain undefined. Here we analyse gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human brain organoids. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445424/the-effect-of-deoxynivalenol-on-selected-populations-of-immunocompetent-cells-in-porcine-blood-a-preliminary-study
#14
Michał Dąbrowski, Ewa Jakimiuk, Mirosław Baranowski, Magdalena Gajęcka, Łukasz Zielonka, Maciej Tadeusz Gajęcki
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins in Europe. Pigs are an animal species that is most susceptible to this mycotoxin. Deoxynivalenol causes significant losses in pig production by lowering feed intake, decreasing daily weight gains, disrupting immune responses, and increasing susceptibility to diseases. The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of feed contaminated with DON at concentrations insignificantly higher than recommended by the European Commission (900 µg/kg)...
April 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444849/multivalent-peptide-nanoparticle-conjugates-for-influenza-virus-inhibition
#15
Daniel Lauster, Maria Glanz, Markus Bardua, Kai Ludwig, Markus Hellmund, Ute Hoffmann, Alf Hamann, Christoph Böttcher, Rainer Haag, Christian P R Hackenberger, Andreas Herrmann
To inhibit binding of the influenza A virus to the host cell glycocalyx, we generate multivalent peptide-polymer nanoparticles binding with nanomolar affinity to the virus via its spike protein hemagglutinin. The chosen dendritic polyglycerol scaffolds are highly biocompatible and well suited for a multivalent presentation. We could demonstrate in vitro that by increasing the size of the polymer scaffold and adjusting the peptide density, viral infection is drastically reduced. Such a peptide-polymer conjugate qualified also in an in vivo infection scenario...
April 26, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444658/comparing-the-immune-genomic-effects-of-vilazodone-and-paroxetine-in-late-life-depression-a-pilot-study
#16
Harris Eyre, Prabha Siddarth, Natalie Cyr, Hongyu Yang, Steve Cole, Malcolm Forbes, Helen Lavretsky
Vilazodone is a novel antidepressant agent that combines selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) activity and 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist activity. A pilot study was conducted to compare vilazodone (novel compound) and paroxetine (gold standard) on antidepressant effects, tolerability, and inflammation and immune modulation. A 12-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 56 nondemented older adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). Between-group differences in mood, tolerability, and safety, as well as genomic markers of inflammation and immune modulation, were examined...
April 25, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444390/characterisation-of-drug-specific-signalling-between-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-immune-cells
#17
Monday O Ogese, Lee Faulkner, Roz E Jenkins, Neil S French, Ian M Copple, Daniel J Antoine, Mohamed Elmasry, Hasan Malik, Christopher E Goldring, B Kevin Park, Catherine Betts, Dean J Naisbitt
It is now apparent that antigen-specific T-cells are activated in certain patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Since cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells is likely to be critical in determining the outcome of drug exposure, the aim of this study was to profile the signals released by drug-treated hepatocytes and to characterise the impact of these molecules on dendritic cells. Human hepatocytes were exposed to three drugs (flucloxacillin, amoxicillin and isoniazid) associated with DILI potentially mediated by the adaptive immune system as drug-specific T-cells have been isolated from DILI patients, and the metabolite nitroso-sulfamethoxazole (SMX-NO)...
April 21, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444111/pattern-recognition-receptors-immune-targets-to-enhance-cancer-immunotherapy
#18
T Shekarian, S Valsesia-Wittmann, J Brody, M C Michallet, S Depil, C Caux, A Marabelle
Durable tumor responses and significant levels of disease control rates have been described in more than 20 advanced/metastatic cancer types with B7-family immune checkpoint-targeted anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies. These results and the recent approvals of ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab and atezolizumab are currently revolutionizing the way we envision the future of cancer care. However these clinical benefits are not observed in all cancer types and in every patient. Therefore, our clinical challenge is to identify therapeutic strategies which could overcome the primary and secondary resistances to these novel cancer immunotherapies...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443908/polyvalent-c-glycomimetics-based-on-l-fucose-or-d-mannose-as-potent-dc-sign-antagonists
#19
Benedetta Bertolotti, Ieva Sutkeviciute, Martino Ambrosini, Renato Ribeiro-Viana, Javier Rojo, Franck Fieschi, Hana Dvořáková, Martina Kašáková, Kamil Parkan, Martina Hlaváčková, Kateřina Nováková, Jitka Moravcová
The C-type lectin DC-SIGN expressed on immature dendritic cells is a promising target for antiviral drug development. Previously, we have demonstrated that mono- and divalent C-glycosides based on d-manno and l-fuco configurations are promising DC-SIGN ligands. Here, we described the convergent synthesis of C-glycoside dendrimers decorated with 4, 6, 9, and 12 α-l-fucopyranosyl units and with 9 and 12 α-d-mannopyranosyl units. Their affinity against DC-SIGN was assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays...
April 26, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443003/complementary-modular-microcircuits-of-the-rat-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#20
Saikat Ray, Andrea Burgalossi, Michael Brecht, Robert K Naumann
The parahippocampal region is organized into different areas, with the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), presubiculum and parasubiculum prominent in spatial memory. Here, we also describe a region at the extremity of the MEC and bordering the subicular complex, the medial-most part of the entorhinal cortex. While the subdivisions of hippocampus proper form more or less continuous cell sheets, the superficial layers of the parahippocampal region have a distinct modular architecture. We investigate the spatial distribution, laminar position, and putative connectivity of zinc-positive modules in layer 2 of the MEC of rats and relate them to the calbindin-positive patches previously described in the entorhinal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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