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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#1
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335500/comparison-of-two-types-of-overoxidized-pedot-films-and-their-application-in-sensor-fabrication
#2
Yun Hui, Chao Bian, Jinfen Wang, Jianhua Tong, Shanhong Xia
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films were prepared by electro-oxidation on Au microelectrodes in an aqueous solution. Electrolyte solutions and polymerization parameters were optimized prior to overoxidation. The effect of overoxidation time has been optimized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which results in the film overoxidized for 45 s at 1.35 V presenting a strong adsorption. The other one-step overoxidation film prepared by direct CV ranging from -0...
March 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334524/suppression-of-lithium-dendrite-formation-by-using-lagp-peo-litfsi-composite-solid-electrolyte-and-lithium-metal-anode-modified-by-peo-litfsi-in-all-solid-state-lithium-batteries
#3
Chunhua Wang, Yifu Yang, Xingjiang Liu, Hai Zhong, Han Xu, Zhibin Xu, Huixia Shao, Fei Ding
The formation of lithium dendrites is suppressed using a Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-poly(ethylene oxide) (LAGP-PEO) composite solid electrolyte and a PEO (lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide) [PEO (LiTFSI)] modified lithium metal anode in all-solid-state lithium batteries. The effects on the anode performance of the PEO content in the composite solid electrolyte and the molecular weight of PEO used to modify the Li anode are studied. The structure, surface morphology, and stability of the composite solid electrolyte are examined by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical tests...
March 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334377/lrit3-differentially-affects-connectivity-and-synaptic-transmission-of-cones-to-on-and-off-bipolar-cells
#4
Marion Neuillé, Yan Cao, Romain Caplette, Debbie Guerrero-Given, Connon Thomas, Naomi Kamasawa, José-Alain Sahel, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Audo, Serge Picaud, Kirill A Martemyanov, Christina Zeitz
Purpose: Mutations in LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB). Using a cCSNB mouse model lacking Lrit3 (nob6), we recently have shown that LRIT3 has a role in the correct localization of TRPM1 (transient receptor potential melastatin 1) to the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells (BCs), contacting both rod and cone photoreceptors. Furthermore, postsynaptic clustering of other mGluR6 cascade components is selectively eliminated at the dendritic tips of cone ON-BCs...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#5
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333899/-stem-progenitor-cells-in-diseases-of-the-respiratory-tract
#6
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
Stem cells (SCs - stem cells) are characterized by plasticity and the ability to differentiate into other cell types. They are obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows a broad immunomodulating, increases the number of regulatory T cells (Treg), modifies the activity of T cells, dendritic cells and NK (natural killer). Direct impact on reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines. Within the respiratory tract has a number of resident stem and progenitor cells referred to as L-MSCs (lung mesenchymal stem cells) whose presence was confirmed by markers as defined in the trachea, epithelial cells and alveolar...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333445/metallo-organic-ligand-designing-road-for-constructing-the-first-generation-dendritic-metallotriangle
#7
Tun Wu, Yu-Sheng Chen, Mingzhao Chen, Qianqian Liu, Xiaobo Xue, Yixian Shen, Jun Wang, Han Huang, Yi-Tsu Chan, Pingshan Wang
Three approaches have been carefully examined in order to develop a terpyridine-based dendritic metallotriangle: (1) direct self-assembly of two types of organic polyterpyridines with metal ions; (2) assembly of flexible metallo-organic ligands containing two uncomplexed free terpyridines with a possible 60°-V-shaped orientation; (3) assembly of functionalized metallotriangles possessing a fixed 60°-bent uncoordinated bisterpyridine. Only the third approach has successfully given rise to the desired first-generation dendritic metallotriangle...
March 23, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333212/structural-history-of-human-srgap2-proteins
#8
Michael Sporny, Julia Guez-Haddad, Annett Kreusch, Sivan Shakartzi, Avi Neznansky, Alice Cross, Michail N Isupov, Britta Qualmann, Michael M Kessels, Yarden Opatowsky
In the development of the human brain, human-specific genes are considered to play key roles, conferring its unique advantages and vulnerabilities. At the time of Homo lineage divergence from Australopithecus, SRGAP2C gradually emerged through a process of serial duplications and mutagenesis from ancestral SRGAP2A (3.4-2.4 Ma). Remarkably, ectopic expression of SRGAP2C endows cultured mouse brain cells, with human-like characteristics, specifically, increased dendritic spine length and density. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this change in neuronal morphology, we determined the structure of SRGAP2A and studied the interplay between SRGAP2A and SRGAP2C...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332755/highly-branched-metal-alloy-networks-with-superior-activities-for-the-methanol-oxidation-reaction
#9
Xun Cui, Peng Xiao, Jing Wang, Ming Zhou, Wenlong Guo, Yang Yang, Yanjie He, Zewei Wang, Yingkui Yang, Yunhuai Zhang, Zhiqun Lin
Three-dimensional (3D) interconnected metal alloy nanostructures possess superior catalytic performance owing to their advantageous characteristics, including improved catalytic activity, corrosion resistance, and stability. Hierarchically structured Ni-Cu alloys composed of 3D network-like microscopic branches with nanoscopic dendritic feelers on each branch were crafted by a facile and efficient hydrogen evolution-assisted electrodeposition approach. They were subsequently exploited for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline media...
March 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332697/alpha-1-antitrypsin-inhibits-rankl-induced-osteoclast-formation-and-functions
#10
Mohammad Ahsanul Akbar, David Nardo, Mong-Jen Chen, Ahmed S Elshikha, Rubina Ahamed, Eslam M Elsayed, Claire Bigot, Lexie Shannon Holliday, Sihong Song
Osteoporosis is a global public health problem affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. We previously showed that treatment with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a multifunctional protein with anti-inflammatory properties, mitigated bone loss in an ovariectomized mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of AAT on bone tissue are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of AAT on osteoclast formation and function in vitro. Our results showed that AAT dose-dependently inhibited the formation of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) induced osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow macrophages/monocyte (BMM) lineage cells and the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332200/immunoregulation-of-inflammatory-and-inhibitory-cytokines-by-vitamin-d3-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-ibd
#11
REVIEW
Hussaini Mohammed Alhassan, Abbas Mirshafiey, Homayoun Vahedi, Gholamreza Hemmasi, Ateke Moussavi Nasl Khameneh, Karim Parastouei, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of idiopathic, chronic and relapsing inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, caused by an aberrant and exaggerated immunological response in the gut. Supplementation of Vitamin D3 in IBD patients exerts both direct and indirect regulatory roles on the naïve T-cells, thereby maintaining a balance between inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines. The direct actions of Vitamin D3 on naïve T-cells result in the proliferation of more regulatory T-cells and inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-5...
March 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331853/melanomas-and-dysplastic-nevi-differ-in-epidermal-cd1c-dendritic-cell-count
#12
Grzegorz Dyduch, Katarzyna Ewa Tyrak, Anna Glajcar, Joanna Szpor, Magdalena Ulatowska-Białas, Krzysztof Okoń
Background. Dendritic cells could be involved in immune surveillance of highly immunogenic tumors such as melanoma. Their role in the progression melanocytic nevi to melanoma is however a matter of controversy. Methods. The number of dendritic cells within epidermis, in peritumoral zone, and within the lesion was counted on slides immunohistochemically stained for CD1a, CD1c, DC-LAMP, and DC-SIGN in 21 of dysplastic nevi, 27 in situ melanomas, and 21 invasive melanomas. Results. We found a significant difference in the density of intraepidermal CD1c+ cells between the examined lesions; the mean CD1c cell count was 7...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331792/advanced-micro-nanostructures-for-lithium-metal-anodes
#13
REVIEW
Rui Zhang, Nian-Wu Li, Xin-Bing Cheng, Ya-Xia Yin, Qiang Zhang, Yu-Guo Guo
Owning to their very high theoretical capacity, lithium metal anodes are expected to fuel the extensive practical applications in portable electronics and electric vehicles. However, unstable solid electrolyte interphase and lithium dendrite growth during lithium plating/stripping induce poor safety, low Coulombic efficiency, and short span life of lithium metal batteries. Lately, varies of micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes are proposed to address these issues in lithium metal batteries. With the unique surface, pore, and connecting structures of different nanomaterials, lithium plating/stripping processes have been regulated...
March 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331203/the-role-of-axonal-kv1-channels-in-ca3-pyramidal-cell-excitability
#14
Sylvain Rama, Mickael Zbili, Aurélie Fékété, Mónica Tapia, Maria José Benitez, Norah Boumedine, Juan José Garrido, Dominique Debanne
Axonal ion channels control spike initiation and propagation along the axon and determine action potential waveform. We show here that functional suppression of axonal Kv1 channels with local puff of dendrotoxin (DTx), laser or mechanical axotomy significantly increased excitability measured in the cell body. Importantly, the functional effect of DTx puffing or axotomy was not limited to the axon initial segment but was also seen on axon collaterals. In contrast, no effects were observed when DTx was puffed on single apical dendrites or after single dendrotomy...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331179/hyperosmolarity-impedes-the-cross-priming-competence-of-dendritic-cells-in-a-trif-dependent-manner
#15
Zoran V Popovic, Maria Embgenbroich, Federica Chessa, Viola Nordström, Mahnaz Bonrouhi, Thomas Hielscher, Norbert Gretz, Shijun Wang, Daniel Mathow, Thomas Quast, Jan-Gero Schloetel, Waldemar Kolanus, Sven Burgdorf, Hermann-Josef Gröne
Tissue osmolarity varies among different organs and can be considerably increased under pathologic conditions. Hyperosmolarity has been associated with altered stimulatory properties of immune cells, especially macrophages and dendritic cells. We have recently reported that dendritic cells upon exposure to hypertonic stimuli shift their profile towards a macrophage-M2-like phenotype, resulting in attenuated local alloreactivity during acute kidney graft rejection. Here, we examined how hyperosmotic microenvironment affects the cross-priming capacity of dendritic cells...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331101/immunotherapy-of-nivolumab-with-dendritic-cell-vaccination-is-effective-against-intractable-recurrent-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-a-case-report
#16
Motomasa Furuse, Naosuke Nonoguchi, Naoki Omura, Mitsuaki Shirahata, Koichi Iwasaki, Toshio Inui, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Hiroko Kuwabara, Shin-Ichi Miyatake
We report effective treatment with nivolumab of a patient with recurrent primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) after multiple therapies. A 41-year-old woman with a right parietal PCNSL underwent treatment with high-dose methotrexate and radiotherapy. After recurrence in the left frontal lobe, the patient received several chemotherapies, including methotrexate and rituximab, and underwent surgery. The tumor was refractory to these treatments, and the patient then underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
March 23, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330904/autonomous-tnf-is-critical-for-in-vivo-monocyte-survival-in-steady-state-and-inflammation
#17
Yochai Wolf, Anat Shemer, Michal Polonsky, Mor Gross, Alexander Mildner, Simon Yona, Eyal David, Ki-Wook Kim, Tobias Goldmann, Ido Amit, Mathias Heikenwalder, Sergei Nedospasov, Marco Prinz, Nir Friedman, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are circulating mononuclear phagocytes, poised to extravasate to sites of inflammation and differentiate into monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors are up-regulated during monopoiesis and expressed by circulating monocytes, as well as effector monocytes infiltrating certain sites of inflammation, such as the spinal cord, during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, using competitive in vitro and in vivo assays, we show that monocytes deficient for TNF or TNF receptors are outcompeted by their wild-type counterpart...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330898/antigen-presenting-human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-promote-intestinal-cd4-t-cell-expression-of-il-22-and-mucosal-release-of-calprotectin
#18
Christopher J Tyler, Neil E McCarthy, James O Lindsay, Andrew J Stagg, Bernhard Moser, Matthias Eberl
The cytokine IL-22 plays a critical role in mucosal barrier defense, but the mechanisms that promote IL-22 expression in the human intestine remain poorly understood. As human microbe-responsive Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells are abundant in the gut and recognize microbiota-associated metabolites, we assessed their potential to induce IL-22 expression by intestinal CD4(+) T cells. Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells with characteristics of APCs were generated from human blood and intestinal organ cultures, then cocultured with naive and memory CD4(+) T cells obtained from human blood or the colon...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330867/influenza-vaccines-differentially-regulate-the-interferon-response-in-human-dendritic-cell-subsets
#19
Shruti Athale, Romain Banchereau, LuAnn Thompson-Snipes, Yuanyuan Wang, Karolina Palucka, Virginia Pascual, Jacques Banchereau
Human dendritic cells (DCs) play a fundamental role in the initiation of long-term adaptive immunity during vaccination against influenza. Understanding the early response of human DCs to vaccine exposure is thus essential to determine the nature and magnitude of maturation signals that have been shown to strongly correlate with vaccine effectiveness. In 2009, the H1N1 influenza epidemics fostered the commercialization of the nonadjuvanted monovalent H1N1 California vaccine (MIV-09) to complement the existing nonadjuvanted trivalent Fluzone 2009-2010 vaccine (TIV-09)...
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330473/dynamic-and-specific-immune-responses-against-multiple-tumor-antigens-were-elicited-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-cell-based-immunotherapy
#20
Yanyan Han, Yeting Wu, Chou Yang, Jing Huang, Yabing Guo, Li Liu, Ping Chen, Dongyun Wu, Junyun Liu, Jin Li, Xiangjun Zhou, Jinlin Hou
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in China and frequently occurs with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. To investigate whether cell-based cancer immunotherapy induces tumor specific immune responses in patients with HCC and provides clinical benefits, as well as to elucidate the most immunogenic tumor associated antigens (TAAs), multiple antigen stimulating cellular therapy (MASCT) was applied in addition to standard of care. METHODS: Mature dendritic cells (DCs) and activated T cells prepared for MASCT were generated from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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