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Spyridon Chavlis, Panagiotis C Petrantonakis, Panayiota Poirazi
The hippocampus plays a key role in pattern separation, the process of transforming similar incoming information to highly dissimilar, non-overlapping representations. Sparse firing granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) have been proposed to undertake this computation, but little is known about which of their properties influence pattern separation. Dendritic atrophy has been reported in diseases associated with pattern separation deficits, suggesting a possible role for dendrites in this phenomenon...
October 26, 2016: Hippocampus
Ying Xiong, Li Liu, Jiajun Wang, Wei Xi, Yu Xia, Qi Bai, Yang Qu, Qilai Long, Jiejie Xu, Jianming Guo
BACKGROUND: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21), a ligand of the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7, has recently been identified as an immuno-based anti-cancer molecule for its dendritic cells and T lymphocytes chemoattractant function. The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic values of CCL21 expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with targeted therapy. METHODS: This study included 111 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving targeted therapy...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Jie Liang, Hsin-I Huang, Fernanda P Benzatti, Amelia B Karlsson, Junyi J Zhang, Nourhan Youssef, Averil Ma, Laura P Hale, Gianna E Hammer
Normal dynamics between microbiota and dendritic cells (DCs) support modest numbers of T cells, yet these do not cause inflammation. The DCs that induce inflammatory T cells and the signals that drive this process remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that small intestine DCs lacking the signaling attenuator A20 induce inflammatory T cells and that the signals perceived and antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions are unique for different DC subsets. Thus, although CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs exclusively instruct IFNγ(+) T cells, CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs exclusively instruct IL-17(+) T cells...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Kshipra Singh, Nicole T Al-Greene, Thomas G Verriere, Lori A Coburn, Mohammad Asim, Daniel P Barry, Margaret M Allaman, Dana M Hardbower, Alberto G Delgado, M Blanca Piazuelo, Bruce A Vallance, Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
Solute carrier family 7 member 2 (SLC7A2) is an inducible transporter of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine (L-Arg), which has been implicated in immune responses to pathogens. We assessed the role of SLC7A2 in murine infection with Citrobacter rodentium, an attaching and effacing enteric pathogen that causes colitis. Induction of SLC7A2 was upregulated in colitis tissues, and localized predominantly to colonic epithelial cells. Compared to wild-type mice, Slc7a2-/-mice infected with C. rodentium had improved survival and decreased weight loss, colon weight, and histologic injury; this was associated with decreased colonic macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and Th1 and Th17 cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Ines Rama, Ines Llaudó, Pere Fontova, Gema Cerezo, Carlos Soto, Casimiro Javierre, Miguel Hueso, Nuria Montero, Alberto Martínez-Castelao, Juan Torras, Josep M Grinyó, Josep M Cruzado, Nuria Lloberas
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (C-HD) present a greater immuno-inflammatory state probably related to uremia, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and /or membrane bioincompatibility, which could improve with a technique-switching to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HD). The antigen-independent pathway activation of this modified immunologic state turns dendritic cells (DC) into an accurate cell model to study these patients. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the immune-inflammatory state of patients in C-HD assessed by DC maturation...
2016: PloS One
Susanne Falkner, Sofia Grade, Leda Dimou, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Magdalena Götz, Mark Hübener
The ability of the adult mammalian brain to compensate for neuronal loss caused by injury or disease is very limited. Transplantation aims to replace lost neurons, but the extent to which new neurons can integrate into existing circuits is unknown. Here, using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging, we show that embryonic neurons transplanted into the visual cortex of adult mice mature into bona fide pyramidal cells with selective pruning of basal dendrites, achieving adult-like densities of dendritic spines and axonal boutons within 4-8 weeks...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Bin Zhu, Yan Jin, Xiaozhen Hu, Qinghui Zheng, Su Zhang, Qianjin Wang, Jia Zhu
A modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) film with nanopores, fabricated through a scalable and low-cost process, can serve as a protective layer for improving lithium-metal anodes. This film can suppress Li-dendrite formation because of its chemical inertness and mechanical properties. Stable cycling over 200 cycles with an averaged CE of 94.5% is demonstrated at 0.5 mA cm(-2) .
October 26, 2016: Advanced Materials
Pooja Arora, Monika Malik, Ruchi Sachdeva, Latika Saxena, Joy Das, Vishnampettai G Ramachandran, Rahul Pal
While apoptotic debris is believed to constitute the original antigenic insult in lupus (which is characterized by a time-dependent diversification of autoreactivity), whether such debris and autoantibodies specifically recognizing its constituents, mediate differential effects on innate and humoral responses in lupus-prone mice is currently unknown. Apoptotic blebs (as opposed to cellular lysate), preferentially enhanced the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) from bone marrow precursors drawn from lupus-prone mice...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
I V Chekhonin, O I Gurina, S A Cherepanov, M A Abakumov, K P Ionova, D K Zhigarev, A V Makarov, V P Chekhonin
We obtained the morphologically, cytofluorometrically, and functionally mature dendritic cells from rats that were pulsed with antigens of the C6 glioma tissue extract. The concentrations of angiogenesis antigens (VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2) and periglioma zone proteins (GFAP, connexin 43, and BSAT1) in the pulsing extract were measured by ELISA. Our results drove us to a conclusion that despite mature phenotype of pulsed dendritic cell, the antigenic composition of glioma tissue extracts should be modified...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sarah Kado, W L William Chang, Aimy Nguyen Chi, Monika Wolny, David M Shepherd, Christoph F A Vogel
Currently, it is not well understood how ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) modify inflammatory responses triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in human dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we show that AhR ligands 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the tryptophan derivatives 6-formylindolo[3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ), kynurenine (kyn), and the natural dietary compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C) differentially modify cytokine expression in human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). The results show that TLR-activated MoDCs express higher levels of AhR and are more sensitive toward the effects of AhR ligands...
October 25, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Soodabeh Iranpour, Vahid Nejati, Nowruz Delirezh, Pouria Biparva, Sadegh Shirian
BACKGROUND: Developing safe and effective cancer vaccine formulations is a primary focus in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Dendritic cells (DC) are currently employed as cellular vaccine in clinical trials of tumor immunotherapy. Recognizing the critical role of DCs in initiating anti-tumor immunity has resulted in the development of several strategies that target vaccine antigens to DCs to trigger anti-tumor T cell responses. To increase the efficiency of antigen delivery systems for anti-tumor vaccines, encapsulation of tumor-associated antigens in polymer nanoparticles (NPs) has been established...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Vaibhav Jain, Prabal K Maiti, Prasad V Bharatam
Computational studies performed on dendrimer-drug complexes usually consider 1:1 stoichiometry, which is far from reality, since in experiments more number of drug molecules get encapsulated inside a dendrimer. In the present study, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were implemented to characterize the more realistic molecular models of dendrimer-drug complexes (1:n stoichiometry) in order to understand the effect of high drug loading on the structural properties and also to unveil the atomistic level details...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Admar Verschoor, Christian M Karsten, Steven P Broadley, Yves Laumonnier, Jörg Köhl
The activation of the complement system by canonical and non-canonical mechanisms results in the generation of multiple C3 and C5 cleavage fragments including anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a as well as opsonizing C3b/iC3b. It is now well appreciated that anaphylatoxins not only act as pro-inflammatory mediators but as immunoregulatory molecules that control the activation status of cells and tissue at several levels. Likewise, C3b/iC3b is more than the opsonizing fragment that facilitates engulfment and destruction of targets by phagocytes...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Takeshi Uemura, Takuma Mori, Taiga Kurihara, Shiori Kawase, Rie Koike, Michiru Satoga, Xueshan Cao, Xue Li, Toru Yanagawa, Takayuki Sakurai, Takayuki Shindo, Katsuhiko Tabuchi
Genome editing is a powerful technique for studying gene functions. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knock-in has recently been applied to various cells and organisms. Here, we successfully knocked in an EGFP coding sequence at the site immediately after the first ATG codon of the β-actin gene in neurons in the brain by the combined use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and in utero electroporation technique, resulting in the expression of the EGFP-tagged β-actin protein in cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons. We detected EGFP fluorescence signals in the soma and neurites of EGFP knock-in neurons...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
T M Fenton, A Kelly, E E Shuttleworth, C Smedley, A Atakilit, F Powrie, S Campbell, S L Nishimura, D Sheppard, S Levison, J J Worthington, M J Lehtinen, M A Travis
Regulation of intestinal T-cell responses is crucial for immune homeostasis and prevention of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A vital cytokine in regulating intestinal T cells is transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), which is secreted by cells as a latent complex that requires activation to function. However, how TGFβ activation is regulated in the human intestine, and how such pathways are altered in IBD is completely unknown. Here we show that a key activator of TGFβ, integrin αvβ8, is highly expressed on human intestinal dendritic cells (DCs), specifically on the CD1c(+) but not the CD141(+) intestinal DC subset...
October 26, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Junko Kimura-Kuroda, Yasumasa Nishito, Hiroko Yanagisawa, Yoichiro Kuroda, Yukari Komuta, Hitoshi Kawano, Masaharu Hayashi
Neonicotinoids are considered safe because of their low affinities to mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) relative to insect nAChRs. However, because of importance of nAChRs in mammalian brain development, there remains a need to establish the safety of chronic neonicotinoid exposures with regards to children's health. Here we examined the effects of longterm (14 days) and low dose (1 μM) exposure of neuron-enriched cultures from neonatal rat cerebellum to nicotine and two neonicotinoids: acetamiprid and imidacloprid...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Wayne B Dyer, Joanne C G Tan, Timothy Day, Lynette Kiers, Matthew C Kiernan, Con Yiannikas, Stephen Reddel, Karl Ng, Phillip Mondy, Peta M Dennington, Melinda M Dean, Halina M Trist, Cristobal Dos Remedios, P Mark Hogarth, Steve Vucic, David O Irving
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to profile leukocyte markers modulated during intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment, and to identify markers and immune pathways associated with clinical efficacy of IVIg for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with potential for monitoring treatment efficacy. METHODS: Response to IVIg treatment in newly diagnosed IVIg-naïve and established IVIg-experienced patients was assessed by changes in expression of inflammatory leukocyte markers by flow cytometry...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
FuNien Tsai, Harris Perlman, Carla M Cuda
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-factorial autoimmune disease initiated by genetic and environmental factors, which in combination trigger disease onset in susceptible individuals. Damage to the kidney as a consequence of lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most prevalent and severe outcomes, as LN affects up to 60% of SLE patients and accounts for much of SLE-associated morbidity and mortality. As remarkable strides have been made in unlocking new inflammatory mechanisms associated with signaling molecules of programmed cell death pathways, this review explores the available evidence implicating the action of these pathways specifically within dendritic cells and macrophages in the control of kidney disease...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Madis Jaagura, Kati Taal, Indrek Koppel, Jürgen Tuvikene, Tõnis Timmusk, Richard Tamme
Neuralized, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with and positively modulates the Notch pathway by promoting ubiquitination and subsequent endocytosis of its ligands. NEURL1 mRNA is dendritically localised in the dentate gyrus of adult rat brain, implying that it may be locally translated, but its transport mechanisms remain unstudied. Here, we report the presence of a previously unknown, shorter splice-variant of rat NEURL1 3'UTR (1477bp in length), and identify it as a potential target of nonsense-mediated decay...
October 22, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Joseph G Duman, Kimberley F Tolias
Excitatory synaptic strengthening and the corresponding enlargement of dendritic spines are thought to be essential for learning and memory. In two recent Nature papers, Harward et al. (2016) and Hedrick et al. (2016) provide insight into the mechanisms that regulate these processes and illuminate the molecular basis of crosstalk between synapses.
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
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