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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297931/mapping-the-distribution-of-language-related-genes-foxp1-foxp2-and-cntnap2-in-the-brains-of-vocal-learning-bat-species
#1
Pedro M Rodenas-Cuadrado, Janine Mengede, Laura Baas, Paolo Devanna, Tobias A Schmid, Michael Yartsev, Uwe Firzlaff, Sonja C Vernes
Genes including FOXP2, FOXP1 and CNTNAP2, have been implicated in human speech and language phenotypes, pointing to a role in the development of normal language-related circuitry in the brain. Although speech and language are unique human phenotypes, a comparative approach is possible by addressing language-relevant traits in animal model systems. One such trait, vocal learning, represents an essential component of human spoken language, and is shared by cetaceans, pinnipeds, elephants, some birds and bats...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212017/control-of-huntington-s-disease-associated-phenotypes-by-the-striatum-enriched-transcription-factor-foxp2
#2
Lea J Hachigian, Vitor Carmona, Robert J Fenster, Ruth Kulicke, Adrian Heilbut, Annie Sittler, Luís Pereira de Almeida, Jill P Mesirov, Fan Gao, Eric D Kolaczyk, Myriam Heiman
Alteration of corticostriatal glutamatergic function is an early pathophysiological change associated with Huntington's disease (HD). The factors that regulate the maintenance of corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses post-developmentally are not well understood. Recently, the striatum-enriched transcription factor Foxp2 was implicated in the development of these synapses. Here, we show that, in mice, overexpression of Foxp2 in the adult striatum of two models of HD leads to rescue of HD-associated behaviors, while knockdown of Foxp2 in wild-type mice leads to development of HD-associated behaviors...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207173/microrna%C3%A2-196b-promotes-cell-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-foxp2-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Zhaoxiang Yu, Xiaobo Lin, Ming Tian, Weiping Chang
Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent research has shown that miR‑196b is implicated in metastasis by regulating the migration and invasion of cancer cells. However, the clinical significance of miR‑196b and its role as well as the underlying mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown. Here, we detected miR‑196b expression in HCC and matched non-tumor tissues with qRT‑PCR. We found that miR‑196b displayed higher expression in HCC patient tissues and cells...
December 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203828/foxp2-variation-in-great-ape-populations-offers-insight-into-the-evolution-of-communication-skills
#4
Nicky Staes, Chet C Sherwood, Katharine Wright, Marc de Manuel, Elaine E Guevara, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Michael Krützen, Michael Massiah, William D Hopkins, John J Ely, Brenda J Bradley
The gene coding for the forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is associated with human language disorders. Evolutionary changes in this gene are hypothesized to have contributed to the emergence of speech and language in the human lineage. Although FOXP2 is highly conserved across most mammals, humans differ at two functional amino acid substitutions from chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas, with an additional fixed substitution found in orangutans. However, FOXP2 has been characterized in only a small number of apes and no publication to date has examined the degree of natural variation in large samples of unrelated great apes...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174050/phonological-working-memory-and-foxp2
#5
Katrin Schulze, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Mortimer Mishkin
The discovery and description of the affected members of the KE family (aKE) initiated research on how genes enable the unique human trait of speech and language. Many aspects of this genetic influence on speech-related cognitive mechanisms are still elusive, e.g. if and how cognitive processes not directly involved in speech production are affected. In the current study we investigated the effect of the FOXP2 mutation on Working Memory (WM). Half the members of the multigenerational KE family have an inherited speech-language disorder, characterised as a verbal and orofacial dyspraxia caused by a mutation of the FOXP2 gene...
November 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141872/mir-23a-acts-as-an-oncogene-in-pancreatic-carcinoma-by-targeting-foxp2
#6
Hongliang Diao, Zhou Ye, Renyi Qin
MicroRNAs have been reported to play an important role in tumor development and progression by targeting oncogenes and tumor suppressors. miR-23a has been described as significantly upregulated in multiple cancers and involved in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential roles of miR-23a in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We found that miR-23a level was significantly increased in tissues of PDAC compared with that in the control by real-time PCR. FOXP2 expression was downregulated and inversely correlated with miR-23a...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123465/autoimmunity-as-a-driving-force-of-cognitive-evolution
#7
Serge Nataf
In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated "brain superautoantigens" theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens) has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993144/microrna-139-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-osteosarcoma-cells-via-targeting-forkhead-box-p2
#8
Chunan Zhong, Jijun Liu, Yuzhe Zhang, Jianping Luo, Jia Zheng
AIMS: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy that affects adolescents. Although great attention has been paid to the diagnosis of and therapy for OS, the 5-year survival rate of patients with this disease remains poor. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in pathogenesis and progression of human malignancies. MiR-139 has been implicated in several human cancers. However, the role played by miR-139 in pathogenesis of human OS has remained largely unknown. MAIN METHODS: Realtime PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-139...
October 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961982/rapid-evolution-of-genes-involved-in-learning-and-energy-metabolism-for-domestication-of-the-laboratory-rat
#9
Lin Zeng, Chen Ming, Yan Li, Ling-Yan Su, Yan-Hua Su, Newton O Otecko, He-Qun Liu, Ming-Shan Wang, Yong-Gang Yao, Hai-Peng Li, Dong-Dong Wu, Ya-Ping Zhang
The laboratory rat, widely used in biomedical research, is domesticated from wild brown rat. The origin and genetic mechanism underlying domestication of the laboratory rat remain largely elusive. In the present study, large scale genomes supported a single origin for the laboratory rat, possibly from a sister group to wild rats from Europe/Africa/Middle East. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses uncovered many artificially selected genes (e.g. FOXP2, B3GAT1, and CLOCK) involved in the nervous system. These genes associate with learning ability and regulation of circadian rhythm, which likely enabled the successful domestication of the laboratory rat...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901192/neuronal-cell-sheets-of-cortical-motor-neuron-phenotype-derived-from-human-ipscs
#10
Noboru Suzuki, Nagisa Arimitsu, Jun Shimizu, Kenji Takai, Chieko Hirotsu, Yuji Ueda, Sueshige Wakisaka, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Tomoko Suzuki
Transplantation of stem cells that differentiate into more mature neural cells brings about functional improvement in preclinical studies of stroke. Previous transplant approaches in the diseased brain utilized injection of the cells in a cell suspension. In addition, neural stem cells were preferentially used for grafting. However, these cells had no specific relationship to the damaged tissue of stroke and brain injury patients. The injection of cells in a suspension destroyed the cell-cell interactions that are suggested to be important for promoting functional integrity of cortical motor neurons...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900488/mir-618-inhibits-prostate-cancer-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-foxp2
#11
Xian-Lu Song, Yao Tang, Xiang-Hui Lei, Shan-Chao Zhao, Zi-Qing Wu
miRNAs play critical role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Here we studied the role of miR-618 in prostate cancer migration and invasion. miR-618 was downregulated in metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), patients with low miR-618 had poor outcome. Overexpression of miR-618 inhibited migration and invasion and induced mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). Conversely, knockdown of miR-618 promoted migration and invasion and induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884467/cre-expressing-neurons-in-visual-cortex-of-ntsr1-cre-gn220-mice-are-corticothalamic-and-are-depolarized-by-acetylcholine
#12
Sofie Charlotte Sundberg, Sarah Helen Lindström, Gonzalo Manuel Sanchez, Björn Granseth
The Ntsr1-Cre GN220 mouse expresses Cre-recombinase in corticothalamic (CT) neurons in neocortical layer 6. It is not known if the other major types of pyramidal neurons in this layer also express this enzyme. By electrophysiological recordings in slices and histological analysis of the uptake of retrogradely transported beads we show that Cre-positive neurons are CT and not corticocortical or cortico claustral types. Furthermore, we show that Ntsr1-Cre-positive cells are immuno-positive for the nuclear transcription factor Forkhead box protein P2 (FoxP2)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842991/the-amniotic-fluid-as-a-source-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-lung-specific-characteristics
#13
Flore Lesage, Silvia Zia, Julio Jiménez, Jan Deprest, Jaan Toelen
The amniotic fluid is a clinically accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSC) during gestation, which enables autologous cellular therapy for perinatal disorders. The origin of AF-MSC remains elusive: renal and neuronal progenitors have been isolated from the AF-MSC pool, yet no cells with pulmonary characteristics. We analyzed gene expression of pulmonary and renal markers of 212 clonal lines of AF-MSC isolated from amniocentesis samples. AF-MSC were cultured on dishes coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins from decellularized fetal rabbit lungs...
August 26, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798667/the-foxp2-driven-network-in-developmental-disorders-and-neurodegeneration
#14
Franz Oswald, Patricia Klöble, André Ruland, David Rosenkranz, Bastian Hinz, Falk Butter, Sanja Ramljak, Ulrich Zechner, Holger Herlyn
The transcription repressor FOXP2 is a crucial player in nervous system evolution and development of humans and songbirds. In order to provide an additional insight into its functional role we compared target gene expression levels between human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) stably overexpressing FOXP2 cDNA of either humans or the common chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, and marmoset, respectively. RNA-seq led to identification of 27 genes with differential regulation under the control of human FOXP2, which were previously reported to have FOXP2-driven and/or songbird song-related expression regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741757/equivalent-missense-variant-in-the-foxp2-and-foxp1-transcription-factors-causes-distinct-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#15
Elliot Sollis, Pelagia Deriziotis, Hirotomo Saitsu, Noriko Miyake, Naomichi Matsumoto, Mariëtte J V Hoffer, Claudia A L Ruivenkamp, Mariëlle Alders, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Emilia K Bijlsma, Astrid S Plomp, Simon E Fisher
The closely related paralogues FOXP2 and FOXP1 encode transcription factors with shared functions in the development of many tissues, including the brain. However, while mutations in FOXP2 lead to a speech/language disorder characterized by childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), the clinical profile of FOXP1 variants includes a broader neurodevelopmental phenotype with global developmental delay, intellectual disability, and speech/language impairment. Using clinical whole-exome sequencing, we report an identical de novo missense FOXP1 variant identified in three unrelated patients...
November 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692932/axon-guidance-pathways-served-as-common-targets-for-human-speech-language-evolution-and-related-disorders
#16
Huimeng Lei, Zhangming Yan, Xiaohong Sun, Yue Zhang, Jianhong Wang, Caihong Ma, Qunyuan Xu, Rui Wang, Erich D Jarvis, Zhirong Sun
Human and several nonhuman species share the rare ability of modifying acoustic and/or syntactic features of sounds produced, i.e. vocal learning, which is the important neurobiological and behavioral substrate of human speech/language. This convergent trait was suggested to be associated with significant genomic convergence and best manifested at the ROBO-SLIT axon guidance pathway. Here we verified the significance of such genomic convergence and assessed its functional relevance to human speech/language using human genetic variation data...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691208/transcriptomic-profile-analysis-of-mouse-neural-tube-development-by-rna-seq
#17
Juan Yu, Jianbing Mu, Qian Guo, Lihong Yang, Juan Zhang, Zhizhen Liu, Baofeng Yu, Ting Zhang, Jun Xie
The neural tube is the primordium of the central nervous system (CNS) in which its development is not entirely clear. Understanding the cellular and molecular basis of neural tube development could, therefore, provide vital clues to the mechanism of neural tube defects (NTDs). Here, we investigated the gene expression profiles of three different time points (embryonic day (E) 8.5, 9.5 and 10.5) of mouse neural tube by using RNA-seq approach. About 391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened during mouse neural tube development, including 45 DEGs involved in CNS development, among which Bmp2, Ascl1, Olig2, Lhx1, Wnt7b and Eomes might play the important roles...
September 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687613/valproic-acid-induces-aberrant-development-of-striatal-compartments-and-corticostriatal-pathways-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Hsiao-Ying Kuo, Fu-Chin Liu
The striatum comprises two neurochemical compartments: striosomes and the matrix. Striosomal and matrix compartments receive inputs from limbic system-related and sensorimotor cortices, respectively. Here, we investigate the impact on the corticostriosomal pathway in the valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism spectrum disorder mouse model. VPA administration during the neurogenesis time windows of striosomes, but not the matrix, resulted in aberrant compartmentation [i.e., maternal VPA injections at embryonic day (E)12...
October 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647514/aqueous-cigarette-tar-extracts-disrupt-corticogenesis-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#19
Aynun N Begum, Jose S Aguilar, Yiling Hong
BACKGROUND: Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter in the world, and approximately 4.5 trillion smoked cigarettes are discarded every year worldwide. Cigarette butts contain over 4000 chemicals, many of which are known to have neurotoxic effects. Stem cell neuronal differentiation provides an excellent cellular model with which to examine the impact of aqueous cigarette tar extracts (ACTEs) on neurodevelopment. METHODS: We have developed a neurosphere-based stem cell neuronal differentiation protocol that can recapitulate corticogenesis and produce cell types that are similar to upper and lower layer cortical projection neurons found in the germinal zone of the developing human cortex...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609679/segregating-polymorphisms-of-foxp2-are-associated-with-measures-of-inner-speech-speech-fluency-and-strength-of-handedness-in-a-healthy-population
#20
Bernard Crespi, Silven Read, Peter Hurd
We genotyped a healthy population for three haplotype-tagging FOXP2 SNPs, and tested for associations of these SNPs with strength of handedness and questionnaire-based metrics of inner speech characteristics (ISP) and speech fluency (FLU), as derived from the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-BR. Levels of mixed-handedness were positively correlated with ISP and FLU, supporting prior work on these two domains. Genotype for rs7799109, a SNP previously linked with lateralization of left frontal regions underlying language, was associated with degree of mixed handedness and with scores for ISP and FLU phenotypes...
October 2017: Brain and Language
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