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Cardiac regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666070/gata4-dependent-differentiation-of-c-kit-derived-endothelial-cells-underlies-artefactual-cardiomyocyte-regeneration-in-the-heart
#1
Bryan D Maliken, Onur Kanisicak, Jason Karch, Hadi Khalil, Xing Fu, Justin G Boyer, Vikram Prasad, Yi Zheng, Jeffery D Molkentin
Background -While c-Kit+ adult progenitor cells were initially reported to produce new cardiomyocytes in the heart, recent genetic evidence suggests that such events are exceedingly rare. However, to determine if these rare events represent true de novo cardiomyocyte formation we deleted the necessary cardiogenic transcription factors Gata4 and Gata6 from c-Kit-expressing cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Methods - Kit allele-dependent lineage tracing and fusion analysis was performed in mice following simultaneous Gata4 and Gata6 cell-type specific deletion to examine rates of putative de novo cardiomyocyte formation from c-Kit+ cells...
April 17, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665255/concise-review-rational-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-heart-disease
#2
REVIEW
Michael R Ward, Armin Abadeh, Kim A Connelly
The capacity of stem and progenitor cells to stimulate cardiac regeneration has been studied for almost 20 years, with very promising preclinical data and mixed clinical results. Several cell types have been studied, identified by their cell surface markers, differentiation capacity and their secreted growth factors. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to have potent regenerative capacity, through multiple mechanisms, including mesoderm lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and paracrine stimulation...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665002/three-dimensional-collagenous-niche-and-azacytidine-selectively-promote-time-dependent-cardiomyogenesis-from-human-bone-marrow-derived-msc-spheroids
#3
Jyotsna Joshi, Gautam Mahajan, Chandrasekhar R Kothapalli
Endogenous adult cardiac regenerative machinery is not capable of replacing the lost cells following myocardial infarction, often leading to permanent alterations in structure-function-mechanical properties. Regenerative therapies based on delivering autologous stem cells within an appropriate 3D milieu could meet such demand, by enabling homing and directed differentiation of the transplanted cells into lost specialized cell populations. Since type I collagen is the predominant cardiac tissue matrix protein, we here optimized the 3D niche which could promote time-dependent evolution of cardiomyogenesis from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC)...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664738/pharmacological-induction-of-hypoxia-inducible-transcription-factor-arnt-attenuates-chronic-kidney-failure
#4
Björn Tampe, Désirée Tampe, Gunsmaa Nyamsuren, Friederike Klöpper, Gregor Rapp, Anne Kauffels, Thomas Lorf, Elisabeth M Zeisberg, Gerhard A Müller, Raghu Kalluri, Samy Hakroush, Michael Zeisberg
Progression of chronic kidney disease associated with progressive fibrosis and impaired tubular epithelial regeneration is still an unmet biomedical challenge, because once chronic lesions have manifested, no effective therapies are available as of yet for clinical use. Prompted by various studies across multiple organs demonstrating that preconditioning regimens to induce endogenous regenerative mechanisms protect various organs from later incurring acute injuries, we here aimed to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying successful protection and to explore whether such pathways could be utilized to inhibit progression of chronic organ injury...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651999/photolithographic-stereolithographic-tandem-fabrication-of-4d-smart-scaffolds-for-improved-stem-cell-cardiomyogenic-differentiation
#5
Shida Miao, Haitao Cui, Margaret Nowicki, Se-Jun Lee, Jose Almeida, Xuan Zhou, Wei Zhu, Xiaoliang Yao, Fahed Masood, Michael W Plesniak, Muhammad Mohiuddin, Lijie Grace Zhang
4D printing is a highly innovative additive manufacturing process for fabricate smart structures with the ability to transform over time. Significantly different from regular 4D printing techniques, this study focuses on creating novel 4D hierarchical micropatterns using a unique photolithographic-stereolithographic-tandem strategy (PSTS) with smart soybean oil epoxidized acrylate (SOEA) inks for effectively regulating human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) cardiomyogenic behaviors. The 4D effect refers to autonomous conversion of the surficial-patterned scaffold into a pre-designed construct through an external stimulus delivered immediately after printing...
April 13, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651156/efficient-differentiation-of-cardiomyocytes-and-generation-of-calcium-sensor-reporter-lines-from-nonhuman-primate-ipscs
#6
Yongshun Lin, Huimin Liu, Michael Klein, John Ostrominski, So Gun Hong, Ravi Chandra Yada, Guibin Chen, Keron Navarengom, Robin Schwartzbeck, Hong San, Zu-Xi Yu, Chengyu Liu, Kaari Linask, Jeanette Beers, Lugui Qiu, Cynthia E Dunbar, Manfred Boehm, Jizhong Zou
Nonhuman primate (NHP) models are more predictive than rodent models for developing induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based cell therapy, but robust and reproducible NHP iPSC-cardiomyocyte differentiation protocols are lacking for cardiomyopathies research. We developed a method to differentiate integration-free rhesus macaque iPSCs (RhiPSCs) into cardiomyocytes with >85% purity in 10 days, using fully chemically defined conditions. To enable visualization of intracellular calcium flux in beating cardiomyocytes, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to stably knock-in genetically encoded calcium indicators at the rhesus AAVS1 safe harbor locus...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650632/mechanisms-of-cardiac-repair-and-regeneration
#7
REVIEW
Kathleen M Broughton, Bingyan J Wang, Fareheh Firouzi, Farid Khalafalla, Stefanie Dimmeler, Francisco Fernandez-Aviles, Mark A Sussman
Cardiovascular regenerative therapies are pursued on both basic and translational levels. Although efficacy and value of cell therapy for myocardial regeneration can be debated, there is a consensus that profound deficits in mechanistic understanding limit advances, optimization, and implementation. In collaboration with the TACTICS (Transnational Alliance for Regenerative Therapies in Cardiovascular Syndromes), this review overviews several pivotal aspects of biological processes impinging on cardiac maintenance, repair, and regeneration...
April 13, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642708/coronary-artery-development-origin-malformations-and-translational-vascular-reparative-therapy
#8
Daryl Ramai, Jonathan Lai, Constantine Monzidelis, Sarath Reddy
After thickening of the cardiac chamber walls during embryogenesis, oxygen and nutrients can no longer be adequately supplied to cardiac cells via passive diffusion; therefore, a primitive vascular network develops to supply these vital structures. This plexus further matures into coronary arteries and veins, which ensures continued development of the heart. Various models have been proposed to account for the growth of the coronary arteries. However, lineage-tracing studies in the last decade have identified 3 major sources, namely, the proepicardium, the sinus venosus, and endocardium...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642402/therapeutic-use-of-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction
#9
REVIEW
Mariah Madigan, Rony Atoui
Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although medical and surgical treatments can significantly improve patient outcomes, no treatment currently available is able to generate new contractile tissue or reverse ischemic myocardium. Driven by the recent/novel understanding that regenerative processes do exist in the myocardium-tissue previously thought not to possess regenerative properties-the use of stem cells has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach with high expectations...
April 6, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625872/construction-of-scaffolds-composed-of-acellular-cardiac-extracellular-matrix-for-myocardial-tissue-engineering
#10
Kamyar Esmaeili Pourfarhangi, Shohreh Mashayekhan, Sasan Ghanbari Asl, Zahra Hajebrahimi
High rates of mortality and morbidity stemming from cardiovascular diseases unveil extreme limitations in current therapies despite enormous advances in medical and pharmaceutical sciences. Following myocardial infarction (MI), parts of myocardium undergo irreversible remodeling and is substituted by a scar tissue which eventually leads to heart failure (HF). To address this issue, cardiac patches have been utilized to initiate myocardial regeneration. In this study, a porous cardiac patch is fabricated using a mixture of decellularized myocardium extracellular matrix (ECM) and chitosan (CS)...
April 3, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621404/inorganic-nanomaterials-for-soft-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#11
Russell Urie, Deepanjan Ghosh, Inam Ridha, Kaushal Rege
Inorganic nanomaterials have witnessed significant advances in areas of medicine including cancer therapy, imaging, and drug delivery, but their use in soft tissue repair and regeneration is in its infancy. Metallic, ceramic, and carbon allotrope nanoparticles have shown promise in facilitating tissue repair and regeneration. Inorganic nanomaterials have been employed to improve stem cell engraftment in cellular therapy, material mechanical stability in tissue repair, electrical conductivity in nerve and cardiac regeneration, adhesion strength in tissue approximation, and antibacterial capacity in wound dressings...
April 5, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610343/transient-fibrosis-resolves-via-fibroblast-inactivation-in-the-regenerating-zebrafish-heart
#12
Héctor Sánchez-Iranzo, María Galardi-Castilla, Andrés Sanz-Morejón, Juan Manuel González-Rosa, Ricardo Costa, Alexander Ernst, Julio Sainz de Aja, Xavier Langa, Nadia Mercader
In the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), regeneration and fibrosis after cardiac injury are not mutually exclusive responses. Upon cardiac cryoinjury, collagen and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins accumulate at the injury site. However, in contrast to the situation in mammals, fibrosis is transient in zebrafish and its regression is concomitant with regrowth of the myocardial wall. Little is known about the cells producing this fibrotic tissue or how it resolves. Using novel genetic tools to mark periostin b - and collagen 1alpha2 ( col1a2 )-expressing cells in combination with transcriptome analysis, we explored the sources of activated fibroblasts and traced their fate...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607187/the-present-and-future-role-of-ultrasound-targeted-microbubble-destruction-in-preclinical-studies-of-cardiac-gene-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Lijun Qian, Barsha Thapa, Jian Hong, Yanmei Zhang, Menglin Zhu, Ming Chu, Jing Yao, Di Xu
Multiple limitations for cardiac pharmacologic therapies like intolerance, individual variation in effectiveness, side effects, and high cost still remain, despite the recent progress in diagnosis and health support. Gene therapy is poised to be an attractive alternative in various ways for the future, refractory cardiac diseases being one aspect of it. As a novel therapy to deliver the objective gene to organs of living animals, ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disorders...
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605300/lncrna-malat1-promotes-cpc-proliferation-and-migration-in-hypoxia-by-up-regulation-of-jmjd6-via-sponging-mir-125
#14
Linlin Li, Qiuyun Wang, Zhize Yuan, Anqing Chen, Zuyun Liu, Zhe Wang, Haiqing Li
The death of cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction (MI) often leads to ventricular remodeling as well as heart failure (HF). The cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have the ability to regenerate functional heart muscle in patients after MI, which provides a promising method for MI-induced HF therapy. However, to date, CPCs can easily lose their proliferation ability in the infarcted myocardium. Therefore, exploring the mechanism for CPC proliferation is essential for CPC-based therapy in MI-induced HF. A previous study indicated that a hypoxic environment is essential for CPC proliferation, but the mechanism is not yet clear...
March 29, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604385/cardiac-telocytes-from-basic-science-to-cardiac-diseases-ii-acute-myocardial-infarction
#15
REVIEW
Sorin Hostiuc, Mihai Marinescu, Mihnea Costescu, Maria Aluaș, Ionut Negoi
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate scientific proof regarding a potential role of telocytes in myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To this purpose, we performed a systematic review of relevant scientific literature, indexed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: We found six articles containing relevant studies aimed at liking myocardial infarction and telocytes. The studies that were analysed in this review failed to show, beyond a reasonable doubt, that telocytes do actually have significant roles in myocardial regeneration after myocardial infarction...
March 28, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602309/regenerative-abilities-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-mitochondrial-transfer
#16
REVIEW
Swati Paliwal, Rituparna Chaudhuri, Anurag Agrawal, Sujata Mohanty
The past decade has witnessed an upsurge in studies demonstrating mitochondrial transfer as one of the emerging mechanisms through which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can regenerate and repair damaged cells or tissues. It has been found to play a critical role in healing several diseases related to brain injury, cardiac myopathies, muscle sepsis, lung disorders and acute respiratory disorders. Several studies have shown that various mechanisms are involved in mitochondrial transfer that includes tunnel tube formation, micro vesicle formation, gap junctions, cell fusion and others modes of transfer...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600288/diffusion-tensor-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-reveals-exosomes-from-cardiosphere-derived-cells-preserve-myocardial-fiber-architecture-after-myocardial-infarction
#17
Christopher T Nguyen, James Dawkins, Xiaoming Bi, Eduardo Marbán, Debiao Li
The object of the study was to reveal the fiber microstructural response with diffusion tensor cardiac magnetic resonance after intramyocardial exosomes secreted by cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCEXO ) in chronic porcine myocardial infarction. Porcine with myocardial infarction underwent intramyocardial delivery of human CDCEXO and placebo in a randomized placebo-controlled study. Four weeks after injection, viability improved in the CDCEXO group, whereas myocardial fiber architecture and cardiac function were preserved...
February 2018: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599964/syncytium-calcium-signaling-and-macrophage-function-in-the-heart
#18
REVIEW
Xin Zhou, Zhongguang Li, Zefan Wang, Eda Chen, Juan Wang, Frederic Chen, Odell Jones, Tao Tan, Shawn Chen, Hiroshi Takeshima, Joseph Bryant, Jianjie Ma, Xuehong Xu
Macrophages are traditionally viewed as a key component of the immunity defense system. Recent studies have identified resident macrophages in multiple organs including the heart, in which the cells perform their crucial role on tissue repair after myocardial infarction (MI). The cardiac-specific macrophages interdigitate with cardiomyocytes particularly at the atrioventricular node region. The integrative communication between macrophage and cardiomyocytes can modulate the contractile function of the heart...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592950/the-ontogeny-activation-and-function-of-the-epicardium-during-heart-development-and-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Filipa C Simões, Paul R Riley
The epicardium plays a key role during cardiac development, homeostasis and repair, and has thus emerged as a potential target in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, therapeutically manipulating the epicardium and epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) requires insights into their developmental origin and the mechanisms driving their activation, recruitment and contribution to both the embryonic and adult injured heart. In recent years, studies of various model systems have provided us with a deeper understanding of the microenvironment in which EPDCs reside and emerge into, of the crosstalk between the multitude of cardiovascular cell types that influence the epicardium, and of the genetic programmes that orchestrate epicardial cell behaviour...
March 28, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584819/loss-of-long-non-coding-rna-rocr-facilitates-endogenous-cardiac-regeneration
#20
Xinzhong Li, Xiang He, He Wang, Mengsha Li, Senlin Huang, Guojun Chen, Yuanwen Jing, Shifei Wang, Yanmei Chen, Wangjun Liao, Yulin Liao, Jianping Bin
Aims: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical regulators of cardiovascular lineage commitment and heart wall development, but their roles in regulating endogenous cardiac regeneration are unclear. The present study investigated the role of human-derived lncRNA in regulating endogenous cardiac regeneration as well as the underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results: We compared RNA sequencing data from human fetal and adult hearts and identified a novel lncRNA that was upregulated in adult hearts (Genesymbol NONHSAG000971), which we named regulator of cardiac regeneration (ROCR)...
March 23, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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