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Cardiac regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639375/challenges-in-regenerating-the-diabetic-heart-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Venkata R Satthenapalli, Regis R Lamberts, Rajesh Katare
Stem cell therapy is one of the promising regenerative strategies developed to improve cardiac function in patients with ischemic heart diseases (IHD). However, this approach is limited in IHD patients with diabetes due to a progressive decline in the regenerative capacity of stem cells. This decline is mainly attributed to the metabolic memory incurred by diabetes on stem cell niche and their systemic cues. Understanding the molecular pathways involved in the diabetes-induced deterioration of stem cell function will be critical for developing new cardiac regeneration therapies...
June 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638482/implantable-and-biodegradable-macroporous-iron-oxide-frameworks-for-efficient-regeneration-and-repair-of-infracted-heart
#2
Wenshuo Wang, Hongyue Tao, Yun Zhao, Xiaotian Sun, Jing Tang, Cordelia Selomulya, Jia Tang, Tianchan Chen, Yang Wang, Minglei Shu, Lei Wei, Guanyu Yi, Jixue Zhou, Lai Wei, Chunsheng Wang, Biao Kong
The construction, characterization and surgical application of a multilayered iron oxide-based macroporous composite framework were reported in this study. The framework consisted of a highly porous iron oxide core, a gelatin-based hydrogel intermediary layer and a matrigel outer cover, which conferred a multitude of desirable properties including excellent biocompatibility, improved mechanical strength and controlled biodegradability. The large pore sizes and high extent of pore interconnectivity of the framework stimulated robust neovascularization and resulted in substantially better cell viability and proliferation as a result of improved transport efficiency for oxygen and nutrients...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636048/supramolecular-surface-functionalization-via-catechols-for-the-improvement-of-cell-material-interactions
#3
S Spaans, P P K H Fransen, B D Ippel, D F A de Bont, H M Keizer, N A M Bax, C V C Bouten, P Y W Dankers
Optimization of cell-material interactions is crucial for the success of synthetic biomaterials in guiding tissue regeneration. To do so, catechol chemistry is often used to introduce adhesiveness into biomaterials. Here, a supramolecular approach based on ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) modified polymers is combined with catechol chemistry in order to achieve improved cellular adhesion onto supramolecular biomaterials. UPy-modified hydrophobic polymers with non-cell adhesive properties are developed that can be bioactivated via a modular approach using UPy-modified catechols...
June 21, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633074/programming-cells-for-cardiac-repair
#4
REVIEW
Rocco Romagnuolo, Michael A Laflamme
Because the heart is a poorly regenerative organ, there has been considerable interest in developing novel cell-based approaches to restore lost contractile function after myocardial infarction (MI). While a wide variety of candidate cell types have been tested in animal MI models, the vast majority of clinical trials have used adult stem cell types, usually derived from bone marrow. These studies have generally yielded disappointing results, an outcome that may reflect in part the limited cardiogenic potential of the adult stem cell sources employed...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632131/reciprocal-analyses-in-zebrafish-and-medaka-reveal-that-harnessing-the-immune-response-promotes-cardiac-regeneration
#5
Didier Yr Stainier, Shih-Lei Ben Lai, Rubén Marín-Juez, Pedro Luís Moura, Carsten Kuenne, Jason Kuan Han Lai, Ayele Taddese Tsedeke, Stefan Guenther, Mario Looso
Zebrafish display a distinct ability to regenerate their heart following injury. However, this ability is not shared by another teleost, the medaka. In order to identify cellular and molecular bases for this difference, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses following cardiac cryoinjury. This comparison points to major differences in immune cell dynamics between these models. Upon closer examination, we observed delayed and reduced macrophage recruitment in medaka, along with delayed neutrophil clearance...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631754/regenerative-medicine-new-targets-for-enhancing-cardiac-regeneration
#6
Irene Fernández-Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629929/interactions-between-micrornas-and-long-non-coding-rnas-in-cardiac-development-and-repair
#7
REVIEW
Alessio Rotini, Ester Martínez-Sarrà, Enrico Pozzo, Maurilio Sampaolesi
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging players in muscle regulation. Based on their length and differences in molecular structure, ncRNAs are subdivided into several categories including small interfering RNAs, stable non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs. miRs and lncRNAs are able to post-transcriptionally regulate many genes and bring into play several traits simultaneously due to a myriad of different targets. Recent studies have emphasized their importance in cardiac regeneration and repair...
June 16, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621328/live-cell-screening-platform-identifies-ppar%C3%AE-as-a-regulator-of-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-and-cardiac-repair
#8
Ajit Magadum, Yishu Ding, Lan He, Teayoun Kim, Mohankrishna Dalvoy Vasudevarao, Qinqiang Long, Kevin Yang, Nadeera Wickramasinghe, Harsha V Renikunta, Nicole Dubois, Gilbert Weidinger, Qinglin Yang, Felix B Engel
Zebrafish can efficiently regenerate their heart through cardiomyocyte proliferation. In contrast, mammalian cardiomyocytes stop proliferating shortly after birth, limiting the regenerative capacity of the postnatal mammalian heart. Therefore, if the endogenous potential of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation could be enhanced, it could offer a promising future therapy for heart failure patients. Here, we set out to systematically identify small molecules triggering postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. By screening chemical compound libraries utilizing a Fucci-based system for assessing cell cycle stages, we identified carbacyclin as an inducer of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation...
June 16, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606862/pathogenicity-profile-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-farmed-pacific-white-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei
#9
R Ananda Raja, R Sridhar, C Balachandran, A Palanisammi, S Ramesh, K Nagarajan
A pathobiological study was conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) strain isolated from vibriosis affected shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) farms in Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu during August 2014 to February 2015. The isolate was identified based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters. LD50 value with intramuscular injection was determined as 2.6 × 10(4) cfu/shrimp and sequential pathology was studied giving 6.1 × 10(3) cfu/shrimp (LD25). Total plate count (TPC) and total Vibrio count (TVC) in water, pond sediment, haemolymph, muscle, HP and gut were found significantly (P < 0...
June 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603177/recent-progress-using-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-cardiac-regenerative-therapy
#10
Hajime Ichimura, Yuji Shiba
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have gained interest for cell-based regenerative therapies because of their capacity to differentiate into most somatic cell types, including cardiomyocytes. Remarkable progress in the generation of PSC-derived cardiomyocytes has been made in this decade, and recent preclinical transplantation studies using various animal models have provided proof-of-principle for their use in heart regeneration. However, several obstacles preclude their effective and safe clinical application for cardiac repair, including the need for approaches that prevent tumorigenesis, arrhythmogenesis, and immune rejection...
June 10, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600129/angiogenic-peptide-nanofibers-repair-cardiac-tissue-defect-after-myocardial-infarction
#11
Abdul Jalil Rufaihah, I Ceren Yasa, Vaibavi Srirangam Ramanujam, Suganya Cheyyatraivendran Arularasu, Theo Kofidis, Mustafa O Guler, Ayse B Tekinay
Myocardial infarction remains one of the top leading causes of death in the world and the damage sustained in the heart eventually develops into heart failure. Limited conventional treatment options due to the inability of the myocardium to regenerate after injury and shortage of organ donors require the development of alternative therapies to repair the damaged myocardium. Current efforts in repairing damage after myocardial infarction concentrates on using biologically derived molecules such as growth factors or stem cells, which carry risks of serious side effects including the formation of teratomas...
June 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596337/cardiac-regeneration-strategies-staying-young-at-heart
#12
REVIEW
Eldad Tzahor, Kenneth D Poss
The human heart is continually operating as a muscular pump, contracting, on average, 80 times per minute to propel 8000 liters of blood through body tissues each day. Whereas damaged skeletal muscle has a profound capacity to regenerate, heart muscle, at least in mammals, has poor regenerative potential. This deficiency is attributable to the lack of resident cardiac stem cells, combined with roadblocks that limit adult cardiomyocytes from entering the cell cycle and completing division. Insights for regeneration have recently emerged from studies of animals with an elevated innate capacity for regeneration, the innovation of stem cell and reprogramming technologies, and a clearer understanding of the cardiomyocyte genetic program and key extrinsic signals...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596174/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-10-years-later-for-cardiac-applications
#13
REVIEW
Yoshinori Yoshida, Shinya Yamanaka
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that have features similar to embryonic stem cells, such as the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into many types of cells, including cardiac myocytes. Although initially the reprogramming efficiency was low, several improvements in reprogramming methods have achieved robust and efficient generation of iPSCs without genomic insertion of transgenes. iPSCs display clonal variations in epigenetic and genomic profiles and cellular behavior in differentiation...
June 9, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592901/high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-regenerating-adult-zebrafish-heart
#14
Jana Koth, Mahon L Maguire, Darryl McClymont, Leonie Diffley, Victoria L Thornton, John Beech, Roger K Patient, Paul R Riley, Jürgen E Schneider
The adult zebrafish is a well-established model for studying heart regeneration, but due to its tissue opaqueness, repair has been primarily assessed using destructive histology, precluding repeated investigations of the same animal. We present a high-resolution, non-invasive in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method incorporating a miniature respiratory and anaesthetic perfusion set-up for live adult zebrafish, allowing for visualization of scar formation and heart regeneration in the same animal over time at an isotropic 31 µm voxel resolution...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591641/cardiac-stem-cells-for-myocardial-regeneration-promising-but-not-ready-for-prime-time
#15
REVIEW
Joshua Lader, Maxine Stachel, Lei Bu
Remarkable strides have been made in the treatment of ischemic heart disease in decades. As the initial loss of cardiomyocytes associated with myocardial infarction serves as an impetus for myocardial remodeling, the ability to replace these cells with healthy counterparts would represent an effective treatment for many forms of cardiovascular disease. The discovery of cardiac stem cells (that can differentiate into multiple lineages) highlighted the possibility for development of cell-based therapeutics to achieve this ultimate goal...
June 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590127/interwoven-aligned-conductive-nanofiber-yarn-hydrogel-composite-scaffolds-for-engineered-3d-cardiac-anisotropy
#16
Yaobin Wu, Ling Wang, Baolin Guo, Peter X Ma
Mimicking the anisotropic cardiac structure and guiding 3D cellular orientation play a critical role in designing scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration. Significant advances have been achieved to control cellular alignment and elongation, but it remains an ongoing challenge for engineering 3D cardiac anisotropy using these approaches. Here, we present a 3D hybrid scaffold based on aligned conductive nanofiber yarns network (NFYs-NET, composition: polycaprolactone, silk fibroin, and carbon nanotubes) within a hydrogel shell for mimicking the native cardiac tissue structure, and further demonstrate their great potential for engineering 3D cardiac anisotropy for cardiac tissue engineering...
June 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586319/rev-erb-and-ror-therapeutic-targets-for-treating-myopathies
#17
REVIEW
Ryan D Welch, Colin A Flaveny
Muscle is primarily known for its mechanical roles in locomotion, maintenance of posture, and regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. There are numerous medical conditions that adversely affect muscle, myopathies that disrupt muscle development, regeneration and protein turnover to detrimental effect. Skeletal muscle is also a vital secretory organ that regulates thermogenesis, inflammatory signaling and directs context specific global metabolic changes in energy substrate preference on a daily basis...
June 6, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583198/a-brief-review-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-their-therapeutic-potential-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Teng Ma, Jiacheng Sun, Zhenao Zhao, Wei Lei, Yueqiu Chen, Xu Wang, Junjie Yang, Zhenya Shen
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are easily obtained and expanded, and have emerged as a novel source of adult stem cells for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. These cells have been shown to have the capability of differentiating into cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, ADSCs secrete a series of paracrine factors to promote neovascularization, reduce apoptosis, and inhibit fibrosis, which contributes to cardiac regeneration. As a novel therapy in the regenerative field, ADSCs still face various limitations, such as low survival and engraftment...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581497/the-extracellular-matrix-protein-agrin-promotes-heart-regeneration-in-mice
#19
Elad Bassat, Yara Eid Mutlak, Alex Genzelinakh, Ilya Y Shadrin, Kfir Baruch-Umansky, Oren Yifa, David Kain, Dana Rajchman, John Leach, Daria Riabov Bassat, Yael Udi, Rachel Sarig, Irit Sagi, James F Martin, Nenad Bursac, Shenhav Cohen, Eldad Tzahor
The adult mammalian heart is non-regenerative due to the post-mitotic nature of cardiomyocytes. The neonatal mouse heart can regenerate, but only for the first week of life. Here we show that changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during this week can affect cardiomyocyte growth and differentiation in mice. We identify Agrin, a component of neonatal ECM, as required for the full regenerative capacity of neonatal mouse hearts. In vitro, recombinant Agrin promotes the division of mouse and human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes via a mechanism that involves the disassembly of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex and Yap and ERK-mediated signaling...
June 5, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580434/the-promise-and-challenge-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-cardiovascular-applications
#20
Amr A Youssef, Elsie Gyang Ross, Roberto Bolli, Carl J Pepine, Nicholas J Leeper, Phillip C Yang
The recent discovery of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the field of stem cells. iPSCs have demonstrated that biological development is not an irreversible process and that mature adult somatic cells can be induced to become pluripotent. This breakthrough is projected to advance our current understanding of many disease processes and revolutionize the approach to effective therapeutics. Despite the great promise of iPSCs, many translational challenges still remain. In this article, we review the basic concept of induction of pluripotency as a novel approach to understand cardiac regeneration, cardiovascular disease modeling and drug discovery...
October 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
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