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Cardiac regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533931/altered-expression-of-c-kit-and-nanog-in-a-rat-model-of-adriamycin-induced-chronic-heart-failure
#1
Shuo Li, Kang Guo, Junfang Wu, Zhikun Guo, Airong Li
A small number of cardiac stem cells that express the c-Kit and Nanog biomarkers can be differentiated into myocardial cells, which suggests that these stem cells may be able to repair damage and provide an internal reserve for tissue regeneration. It is unknown, however, whether the levels of myocardial stem cells are altered after heart failure (HF), and whether HF affects the myocardial regenerative ability. In this study, to address this question, we developed a rat model of chronic HF induced by Adriamycin, and examined the morphological changes in c-Kit and Nanog-expressing stem cells in heart tissue of normal and HF rats...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529939/naturally-engineered-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes
#2
REVIEW
Gaetano J Scuderi, Jonathan Butcher
Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529134/direct-reprogramming-epigenetics-and-cardiac-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Shota Kurotsu, Takeshi Suzuki, Masaki Ieda
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized regenerative medicine. Autologous iPSCs can be generated by introducing 4 stem cell-specific factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) into fibroblasts. iPSCs can propagate indefinitely and differentiate into clinically important cell types including cardiomyocytes, in vitro. The iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes represent a promising source of cells for cell-based therapeutic approaches for cardiac regeneration. However, there are several challenges in the clinical application of iPSCs: tumorigenicity of immature cells, poor survival of the transplanted myocardial cells, and cost and efficacy of this therapeutic approach...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528953/composite-poly-lactic-acid-chitosan-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-cardiac-tissue-engineering
#4
Yaowen Liu, Shuyao Wang, Rong Zhang
Fibrous scaffolds with different ratios of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan were fabricated by conventional electrospinning. After crosslinking by the glutaraldehyde vapor, the structure, mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and in-fiber chemical interactions of the scaffolds were investigated. We found that the fiber diameter decreased with the concentration of chitosan, while mechanical properties and hydrophilicity improved. In addition, we found that scaffolds with aligned fibers have higher mechanical strength and biocompatibility than scaffolds with randomly oriented fibers...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524367/transplantation-of-human-villous-trophoblasts-preserves-cardiac-function-in-mice-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#5
Zegen Wang, Ningzheng Dong, Yayan Niu, Zhiwei Zhang, Ce Zhang, Meng Liu, Tiantian Zhou, Qingyu Wu, Ke Cheng
Over the past decade, cell therapies have provided promising strategies for the treatment of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Particularly, the beneficial effects of stem cells, including bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been demonstrated by substantial preclinical and clinical studies. Nevertheless stem cell therapy is not always safe and effective. Hence, there is an urgent need for alternative sources of cells to promote cardiac regeneration...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522730/11%C3%AE-hsd1-suppresses-cardiac-fibroblast-cxcl2-cxcl5-and-neutrophil-recruitment-to-the-heart-post-mi
#6
Katie J Mylonas, Neil A Turner, Sumia A Bageghni, Christopher J Kenyon, Christopher I White, Kieran McGregor, Robert A Kimmitt, Richard Sulston, Valerie Kelly, Brian R Walker, Karen E Porter, Karen E Chapman, Gillian A Gray
We have previously demonstrated that neutrophil recruitment to the heart following myocardial infarction (MI) is enhanced in mice lacking 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) that regenerates active glucocorticoid within cells from intrinsically inert metabolites. The present study aimed to identify the mechanism of regulation. In a mouse model of MI, neutrophil mobilization to blood and recruitment to the heart were higher in 11β-HSD1-deficient (Hsd11b1(-)(/)(-) ) relative to wild-type (WT) mice, despite similar initial injury and circulating glucocorticoid...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522298/%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-induces-the-differentiation-of-resident-cardiac-stem-cells-to-cardiomyocytes-through-autophagy
#7
Xingxing Shi, Wenjing Li, Honghong Liu, Deling Yin, Jing Zhao
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) have emerged as promising cell candidates to regenerate damaged hearts, because of the potential in differentiating to cardiomyocytes. However, the differentiation is difficult to trigger without inducers. Here we reported that β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) increased the expression of cardiac transcription factors (Nkx2.5 and GATA4), structural proteins (cardiac Troponin T, cTnt), transcriptional enhancer (Mef2c) and induced GATA4 nucleus translocation in adult resident CSCs, thus β-CD could be used to enhance myogenic transition...
May 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512107/divergent-requirements-for-ezh1-in-heart-development-versus-regeneration
#8
Shanshan Ai, Xianhong Yu, Yumei Li, Yong Peng, Chen Li, Yanzhu Yue, Ge Tao, Chuan-Yun Li, William T Pu, Aibin He
Rationale: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a major epigenetic repressor that deposits methylation on histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me) and controls differentiation and function of many cells, including cardiac myocytes. EZH1 and EZH2 are two alternative catalytic subunits with partial functional redundancy. The relative roles of EZH1 and EZH2 in heart development and regeneration are unknown. Objective: We compared the roles of EZH1 versus EZH2 in heart development and neonatal heart regeneration. Methods and Results: Heart development was normal in Ezh1(-/-) (E1KO) and Ezh2(f/f)::cTNT(-Cre) (E2KO) embryos...
May 16, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507986/more-than-just-a-simple-cardiac-envelope-cellular-contributions-of-the-epicardium
#9
REVIEW
Angel Dueñas, Amelia E Aranega, Diego Franco
The adult pumping heart is formed by distinct tissue layers. From inside to outside, the heart is composed by an internal endothelial layer, dubbed the endocardium, a thick myocardial component which supports the pumping capacity of the heart and exteriorly covered by a thin mesothelial layer named the epicardium. Cardiac insults such as coronary artery obstruction lead to ischemia and thus to an irreversible damage of the myocardial layer, provoking in many cases heart failure and death. Thus, searching for new pathways to regenerate the myocardium is an urgent biomedical need...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502796/in-vivo-reprogramming-for-heart-regeneration-a-glance-at-efficiency-environmental-impacts-challenges-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Behnam Ebrahimi
Replacing dying or diseased cells of a tissue with new ones that are converted from patient's own cells is an attractive strategy in regenerative medicine. In vivo reprogramming is a novel strategy that can circumvent the hurdles of autologous/allogeneic cell injection therapies. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that direct injection of cardiac transcription factors or specific miRNAs into the infarct border zone of murine hearts following myocardial infarction converts resident cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498040/pivotal-role-of-non-cardiomyocytes-in-electromechanical-and-therapeutic-potential-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-engineered-cardiac-tissue
#11
Hiroko Iseoka, Shigeru Miyagawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Atsuhiro Saito, Shigeo Masuda, Shin Yajima, Emiko Ito, Nagako Sougawa, Maki Takeda, Akima Harada, Jong-Kook Lee, Yoshiki Sawa
Although engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising for myocardial regenerative therapy, the appropriate ratio of cardiomyocytes to non-cardiomyocytes is not fully understood. Here, we determined whether ECT-cell content is a key determinant of its structure/function, thereby affecting ECT therapeutic potential for advanced heart failure. Scaffold-free ECTs containing different ratios (25%, 50%, 70%, or 90%) of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes were generated by magnetic-activated cell sorting using cardiac-specific markers...
May 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494717/gelatin-as-biomaterial-for-tissue-engineering
#12
Mari Carmen Echave, Laura Saenz Del Burgo, Jose Luis Pedraz, Gorka Orive
Tissue engineering is considered one of the most important therapeutic strategies of regenerative medicine. The main objective of these new technologies is the development of substitutes made with biomaterials that are able to heal, repair or regenerate injured or diseased tissues and organs. These constructs seek to unlock the limited ability of human tissues and organs to regenerate. In this review, we highlight the convenient intrinsic properties of gelatin for the design and development of advanced systems for tissue engineering...
May 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494265/intramyocardial-fate-and-effect-of-iron-nanoparticles-co-injected-with-macs-%C3%A2-purified-stem-cell-products
#13
Paula Müller, Ralf Gaebel, Heiko Lemcke, Frank Wiekhorst, Frauke Hausburg, Cajetan Lang, Nicole Zarniko, Bernd Westphal, Gustav Steinhoff, Robert David
BACKGROUND: Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS(®)) is routinely used to isolate stem cell subpopulations intended for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In strong contrast, studies examining the amount, effect and intramyocardial distribution of iron nanoparticles used for magnetic cell labelling are missing, although iron excess can cause functional disorders in the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: CD133(+) haematopoietic and CD271(+) mesenchymal stem cells were purified from bone marrow using automatically and manually MACS(®) based systems...
May 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493471/what-role-does-the-stress-response-have-in-congestive-heart-failure
#14
REVIEW
Ahmed Badreddin, Youssef Fady, Hamdy Attia, Mohamed Hafez, Ahmed Khairallah, Dina Johar, Larry Bernstein
This review is concerned with cardiac malfunction as a result of an imbalance in protein proteostasis, the homeostatic balance between protein removal and regeneration in a long remodeling process involving the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the unfolded protein response (UPR). The importance of this is of special significance with regard to cardiac function as a high energy requiring muscular organ that has a high oxygen requirement and is highly dependent on mitochondria. The importance of mitochondria is not only concerned with high energy dependence on mitochondrial electron transport, but it also has a role in the signaling between the mitochondria and the ER under stress...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491241/fifteen-years-of-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-therapy-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#15
REVIEW
Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Maria Dorobantu
In spite of modern treatment, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) still carries significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Even though standard of care therapy improves symptoms and also long-term prognosis of patients with AMI, it does not solve the critical issue, specifically the permanent damage of cardiomyocytes. As a result, a complex process occurs, namely cardiac remodeling, which leads to alterations in cardiac size, shape and function. This is what has driven the quest for unconventional therapeutic strategies aiming to regenerate the injured cardiac and vascular tissue...
April 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488817/neladenoson-bialanate-hydrochloride-a-prodrug-of-a-partial-adenosine%C3%A2-a1-receptor-agonist-for-the-chronic-treatment-of-heart-diseases
#16
Daniel Meibom, Barbara Albrecht-Küpper, Nicole Diedrichs, Walter Hübsch, Raimund Kast, Thomas Krämer, Ursula Krenz, Hans-Georg Lerchen, Joachim Mittendorf, Peter G Nell, Frank Süssmeier, Alexandros Vakalopoulos, Katja Zimmermann
Adenosine is known to be released under a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions to facilitate the protection and regeneration of injured ischemic tissues. The activation of myocardial adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) has been shown to inhibit myocardial pathologies associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury, suggesting several options for new cardiovascular therapies. When full A1 R agonists are used, the desired protective and regenerative cardiovascular effects are usually overshadowed by unintended pharmacological effects such as induction of bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV) blocks, and sedation...
May 10, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484495/mitochondrial-dna-hypomethylation-is-a-biomarker-associated-with-induced-senescence-in-human-fetal-heart-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Dehai Yu, Zhonghua Du, Lingling Pian, Tao Li, Xue Wen, Wei Li, Su-Jeong Kim, Jialin Xiao, Pinchas Cohen, Jiuwei Cui, Andrew R Hoffman, Ji-Fan Hu
Background. Fetal heart can regenerate to restore its normal anatomy and function in response to injury, but this regenerative capacity is lost within the first week of postnatal life. Although the specific molecular mechanisms remain to be defined, it is presumed that aging of cardiac stem or progenitor cells may contribute to the loss of regenerative potential. Methods. To study this aging-related dysfunction, we cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human fetal heart tissues. Senescence was induced by exposing cells to chronic oxidative stress/low serum...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484393/the-role-of-the-apelin-apj-system-in-the-regulation-of-liver-disease
#18
REVIEW
Xinrui Lv, Jing Kong, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
Apelin is an endogenous peptide that is a ligand for the APJ receptor (angiotensin II receptor like-1, AT-1). The apelin/APJ system is distributed in diverse periphery organ tissues. It has been shown that the apelin/APJ system plays various roles in physiology and pathophysiology of many organs. It regulates cardiovascular development or cardiac disease, glycometabolism and fat metabolism as well as metabolic disease. The apelin/APJ system participates in various cell activities such as proliferation, migration, apoptosis or inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481635/heterotopic-implantation-of-decellularized-pulmonary-artery-homografts-in-a-rodent-model-technique-description-and-preliminary-report
#19
Arben Dedja, Massimo A Padalino, Mila Della Barbera, Cosimo Rasola, Paola Pesce, Anna Milan, Michela Pozzobon, David Sacerdoti, Gaetano Thiene, Giovanni Stellin
PURPOSE: Despite a substantial amount of literature on tissue-guided regeneration, decellularization process, repopulation time points and stem cell turnover, more in-depth study on the argument is required. Currently, there are plenty of reports involving large animals, as well as clinical studies facing cardiac repair with decellularized homografts, but no exhaustive rodent models are described. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model in rats; preliminary results are also herein reported...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475237/production-of-zebrafish-cardiospheres-and-cardiac-progenitor-cells-in-vitro-and-three-dimensional-culture-of-adult-zebrafish-cardiac-tissue-in-scaffolds
#20
Wendy R Zeng, Siew-Joo Beh, Robert J Bryson-Richardson, Pauline M Doran
The hearts of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are capable of complete regeneration in vivo even after major injury, making this species of particular interest for understanding the growth and differentiation processes required for cardiac tissue engineering. To date, little research has been carried out on in vitro culture of adult zebrafish cardiac cells. In this work, progenitor-rich cardiospheres suitable for cardiomyocyte differentiation and myocardial regeneration were produced from adult zebrafish hearts...
May 5, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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