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Cardiac regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449453/cardiac-regeneration-using-hla-matched-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-no-monkey-business-but-still-a-long-and-winding-road-ahead
#1
EDITORIAL
Daniel Sinnecker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448267/endogenous-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-expression-in-sacrococcygeal-pilonidal-sinus-disease-a-retrospective-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-excisional-skin-biopsy-samples
#2
Sevinc Sahin
Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a peptide that has been shown in dermal, corneal, and cardiac preclinical injury models to potentially affect tissue protection, regeneration, and repair. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease (SPSD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with a high incidence of recurrence, chronic fistulation, and a challenging postoperative surgical wound healing process. Retrospectively, an immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to evaluate endogenous Tβ4 expression in excisional skin biopsies from patients with SPSD...
April 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446969/micrornas-pleiotropic-players-in-congenital-heart-disease-and-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Sarah C Hoelscher, Stefanie A Doppler, Martina Dreßen, Harald Lahm, Rüdiger Lange, Markus Krane
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of infant death, affecting approximately 4-14 live births per 1,000. Although surgical techniques and interventions have improved significantly, a large number of infants still face poor clinical outcomes. MicroRNAs (miRs) are known to coordinately regulate cardiac development and stimulate pathological processes in the heart, including fibrosis or hypertrophy and impair angiogenesis. Dysregulation of these regulators could therefore contribute (I) to the initial development of CHD and (II) at least partially to the observed clinical outcomes of many CHD patients by stimulating the aforementioned pathways...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446966/monocytes-and-macrophages-in-cardiac-injury-and-repair
#4
REVIEW
Hendrik B Sager, Thorsten Kessler, Heribert Schunkert
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the major contributors to worldwide morbidity and mortality. It is atherosclerosis' most dreadful complication and occurs after the supply of oxygenated blood to the heart is blocked. Understanding how cardiac tissue is injured and later regenerates is of crucial importance to improve the sequelae after the acute event. We now understand that the immune system substantially contributes to both the acute inflammatory response and the regenerative response that follow tissue injury after MI...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446444/concurrent-isolation-of-three-distinct-cardiac-stem-cell-populations-from-a-single-human-heart-biopsy
#5
Megan M Monsanto, Kevin S White, Taeyong Kim, Bingyan J Wang, Kristina Fisher, Kelli Ilves, Farid G Khalafalla, Alexandria Casillas, Kathleen Broughton, Sadia Mohsin, Walter P Dembitsky, Mark A Sussman
Rationale: The relative actions and synergism between distinct myocardial-derived stem cell populations remains obscure. Ongoing debates regarding optimal cell population(s) for treatment of heart failure prompted implementation of a protocol for isolation of multiple stem cell populations from a single myocardial tissue sample to develop new insights for achieving myocardial regeneration. Objective: Establish a robust cardiac stem cell isolation and culture protocol to consistently generate three distinct stem cell populations from a single human heart biopsy...
April 26, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439945/enhancement-of-cardiomyogenesis-in-murine-stem-cells-by-low-intensity-ultrasound
#6
Ailing Teo, Amir Morshedi, Jen-Chieh Wang, Yufeng Zhou, Mayasari Lim
OBJECTIVES: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) has been shown to enhance bone and cartilage regeneration from stem cells. The ease of its incorporation makes it an attractive mechanical stimulus for not only osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, but also cardiomyogenesis. However, to date, no study has investigated its effects on cardiomyogenesis from embryonic stem cells. METHODS: In this study, murine embryonic stem cells were differentiated via embryoid body formation and plating, and after 3 days they were subjected to daily 10 minutes of LIUS treatment with various conditions: (1) low-pulsed (21 mW/cm(2) , 20% duty cycle), (2) low-continuous, (3) high-pulsed (147 mW/cm(2) , 20% duty cycle), and (4) high-continuous LIUS...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435069/age-related-increase-in-wnt-inhibitor-causes-a-senescence-like-phenotype-in-human-cardiac-stem-cells
#7
Tamami Nakamura, Tohru Hosoyamaa, Junichi Murakami, Makoto Samura, Koji Ueno, Hiroshi Kurazumi, Ryo Suzuki, Akihito Mikamo, Kimikazu Hamano
Aging of cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CSCs) impairs heart regeneration and leads to unsatisfactory outcomes of cell-based therapies. As the precise mechanisms underlying CSC aging remain unclear, the use of therapeutic strategies for elderly patients with heart failure is severely delayed. In this study, we used human cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), a subtype of CSC found in the postnatal heart, to identify secreted factor(s) associated with CSC aging. Human CDCs were isolated from heart failure patients of various ages (2-83 years old)...
April 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427208/identification-of-differentially-expressed-lncrnas-involved-in-transient-regeneration-of-the-neonatal-c57bl-6j-mouse-heart-by-next-generation-high-throughput-rna-sequencing
#8
Yu-Mei Chen, Hua Li, Yi Fan, Qi-Jun Zhang, Xing Li, Li-Jie Wu, Zi-Jie Chen, Chun Zhu, Ling-Mei Qian
Previous studies have shown that mammalian cardiac tissue has a regenerative capacity. Remarkably, neonatal mice can regenerate their cardiac tissue for up to 6 days after birth, but this capacity is lost by day 7. In this study, we aimed to explore the expression pattern of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) during this period and examine the mechanisms underlying this process. We found that 685 lncRNAs and 1833 mRNAs were differentially expressed at P1 and P7 by the next-generation high-throughput RNA sequencing...
March 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418360/-role-of-telocytes-in-the-heart-in-health-and-diseases
#9
Yu V Liskova, A A Stadnikov, S P Salikova
This review summarizes the data available in the literature on the development, structure, and function of telocytes (TCs) and their role in the heart in health and diseases. At the present time, TCs have been found in many organs of mammals and humans. TC is a small oval cell that contains a nucleus surrounded by small amounts of cytoplasm, with extremely long and thin processes named telopodias. TCs have unique ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features; double positive labeling for CD34/PDGFR-β and CD34/vimentin is suitable for their identification...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416208/fetal-and-perinatal-stem-cells-in-cardiac-regeneration-moving-forward-to-the-paracrine-era
#10
C Balbi, S Bollini
Cardiovascular disease (CD) is a major burden for Western society. Regenerative medicine has provided encouraging results, yet it has not addressed the focal defects causing CD and mainly related to the inefficient repair programme of the heart. In this scenario, stem cells have been broadly investigated and their paracrine effect proposed as a possible working strategy to boost endogenous mechanisms of repair and regeneration from within the cardiac tissue. The scientific community is now focusing on identifying the most effective stem cell secretome, as the whole of bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles secreted by stem cells and endowed with regenerative potential...
April 12, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408455/cell-therapy-trials-in-congenital-heart-disease
#11
REVIEW
Hidemasa Oh
Dramatic evolution in medical and catheter interventions and complex surgeries to treat children with congenital heart disease (CHD) has led to a growing number of patients with a multitude of long-term complications associated with morbidity and mortality. Heart failure in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome predicated by functional single ventricle lesions is associated with an increase in CHD prevalence and remains a significant challenge. Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the progression of CHD, including single ventricle lesions and dilated cardiomyopathy, and adult heart disease may inevitably differ...
April 14, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406333/eat-breathe-ros-controlling-stem-cell-fate-through-metabolism
#12
Dieter A Kubli, Mark A Sussman
Research reveals cardiac regeneration exists at levels previously deemed unattainable. Clinical trials using stem cells demonstrate promising cardiomyogenic and regenerative potential but insufficient contractile recovery. Incomplete understanding of the biology of administered cells likely contributes to inconsistent patient outcomes. Metabolism is a core component of many well-characterized stem cell types, and metabolic changes fundamentally alter stem cell fate from self-renewal to lineage commitment, and vice versa...
May 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405805/a-rotating-cerium-anode-x-ray-system-allows-visualization-of-intramural-coronary-vessels-after-cardiac-stem-cell-therapy-for-myocardial-infarction
#13
Chiharu Tanaka, Toru Hosoda, Yoshimori Ikeya, Yoshiro Shinozaki, Kikue Todoroki, Toru Shizuma, Takashi Shiraishi, Naoto Fukuyama, Toshihiko Ueda, Hidezo Mori
Conventional angiography is insufficient for evaluating the therapeutic effect of cardiac regeneration therapy. A microangiographic X-ray system using a cerium anode was developed. Cerium has a characteristic X-ray with a peak at 34.6 keV, which allows visualization of tiny amounts of iodine. The performance of the cerium anode X-ray system was evaluated in two excised normal canine hearts and in excised ischemic canine hearts treated with c-kit-positive cardiac stem cells (5 canines) or without cells (5 control canines)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386845/sub-physiological-oxygen-levels-optimal-for-growth-and-survival-of-human-atrial-cardiac-stem-cells
#14
Deepthi Sreerengam RajendranNair, Jayakumar Karunakaran, Renuka R Nair
Cardiac stem cells reside in niches where the oxygen levels are close to 3%. For cytotherapy, cells are conventionally expanded in ambient oxygen (21% O2) which represents hyperoxia compared to the oxygen tension of niches. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are then transplanted to host tissue with lower-O2 levels. The high-O2 gradient can reduce the efficacy of cultured cells. Based on the assumption that minimizing injury due to O2 gradients will enhance the yield of functionally efficient cells, CDCs were cultured in 3% O2 and compared with cells maintained in ambient O2...
April 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382363/micropatterned-co-culture-of-cardiac-myocytes-on-fibrous-scaffolds-for-predictive-screening-of-drug-cardiotoxicities
#15
Yaowen Liu, Tian Xia, Jiaojun Wei, Qingjie Liu, Xiaohong Li
The spatial arrangement of cardiac myocytes (CMs) and other non-myocytes scaffolds, closely resembling native tissue, is essential to control the CM morphology and function for cardiac tissue regeneration. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous scaffolds were developed to establish a CM co-culture system with cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and endothelial cells (ECs) as a potential in vitro drug screening model. To pursue a biomimetic approach to influence CM behaviors, strip, oval and wave-patterned mats were constructed by deposition of electrospun fibers on lithographic collectors, followed by precise stacking for cell co-cultures...
April 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372287/organ-reconstruction-dream-or-reality-for%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-future
#16
J-F Stoltz, L Zhang, J S Ye, N De Isla
The relevance of research on reconstructed organs is justified by the lack of organs available for transplant and the growing needs for the ageing population. The development of a reconstructed organ involves two parallel complementary steps: de-cellularization of the organ with the need to maintain the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix and vascular network and re-cellularization of the scaffold with stem cells or resident cells.Whole organ engineering for liver, heart, lung or kidneys, is particularly difficult because of the structural complexity of organs and heterogeneity of cells...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368043/impact-of-cell-composition-and-geometry-on-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-engineered-cardiac-tissue
#17
Takeichiro Nakane, Hidetoshi Masumoto, Joseph P Tinney, Fangping Yuan, William J Kowalski, Fei Ye, Amanda J LeBlanc, Ryuzo Sakata, Jun K Yamashita, Bradley B Keller
The current study describes a scalable, porous large-format engineered cardiac tissue (LF-ECT) composed of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived multiple lineage cardiac cells with varied 3D geometries and cell densities developed towards the goal of scale-up for large animal pre-clinical studies. We explored multiple 15 × 15 mm ECT geometries using molds with rectangular internal staggered posts (mesh, ME), without posts (plain sheet, PS), or long parallel posts (multiple linear bundles, ML) and a gel matrix containing hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, endothelial, and vascular mural cells matured in vitro for 14 days...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363496/therapeutic-progenitor-cell-application-for-tissue-regeneration-analyzing-the-impact-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-on-c-kit-cell-migration-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-vivo
#18
Peter Donndorf, Saifullah Abubaker, Brigitte Vollmar, Christian Rimmbach, Gustav Steinhoff, Alexander Kaminski
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like-receptor (TLR) mediated immune response has been shown to regulate myocardial damage following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR). It has not been described conclusively so far whether migration of therapeutically applied progenitor cells following an IR event depends on TLR-signaling. METHODS: In vivo migratory capacity murine c-kit(+) cells following IR injury was quantified by intravital fluorescence microscopy, utilizing the mouse cremaster muscle model and analyzing early (rolling) and late (adhesion) c-kit(+) cell interaction with the local endothelium...
March 29, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362341/the-role-of-micrornas-in-myocardial-infarction-from-molecular-mechanism-to-clinical-application
#19
REVIEW
Teng Sun, Yan-Han Dong, Wei Du, Chun-Ying Shi, Kun Wang, Muhammad-Akram Tariq, Jian-Xun Wang, Pei-Feng Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single-stranded and highly conserved non-coding RNAs, which are closely linked to cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and heart failure. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that miRNAs determine the fate of the heart by regulating cardiac cell death and regeneration after MI. A deep understanding of the pathophysiology of miRNA dependent regulatory pathways in these processes is required. The role of miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets also needs to be explored in order to utilize them in clinical settings...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358917/proteomic-characterization-of-epicardial-myocardial-signaling-reveals-novel-regulatory-networks-including-a-role-for-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-epicardial-emt
#20
Yanyang Li, Alexander Urban, Devin Midura, Hans-Georg Simon, Q Tian Wang
Signaling between the epicardium and underlying myocardium is crucial for proper heart development. The complex molecular interactions and regulatory networks involved in this communication are not well understood. In this study, we integrated mass spectrometry with bioinformatics to systematically characterize the secretome of embryonic chicken EPDC-heart explant (EHE) co-cultures. The 150-protein secretome dataset established greatly expands the knowledge base of the molecular players involved in epicardial-myocardial signaling...
2017: PloS One
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