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Cardiac regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453456/loss-of-microrna-128-promotes-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-and-heart-regeneration
#1
Wei Huang, Yuliang Feng, Jialiang Liang, Hao Yu, Cheng Wang, Boyu Wang, Mingyang Wang, Lin Jiang, Wei Meng, Wenfeng Cai, Mario Medvedovic, Jenny Chen, Christian Paul, W Sean Davidson, Sakthivel Sadayappan, Peter J Stambrook, Xi-Yong Yu, Yigang Wang
The goal of replenishing the cardiomyocyte (CM) population using regenerative therapies following myocardial infarction (MI) is hampered by the limited regeneration capacity of adult CMs, partially due to their withdrawal from the cell cycle. Here, we show that microRNA-128 (miR-128) is upregulated in CMs during the postnatal switch from proliferation to terminal differentiation. In neonatal mice, cardiac-specific overexpression of miR-128 impairs CM proliferation and cardiac function, while miR-128 deletion extends proliferation of postnatal CMs by enhancing expression of the chromatin modifier SUZ12, which suppresses p27 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) expression and activates the positive cell cycle regulators Cyclin E and CDK2...
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453108/telomeres-and-telomerase-in-heart-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Esther Aix, Alex Gallinat, Ignacio Flores
Although recent advances have overturned the old view of the human heart as an inert postmitotic organ, it is clear that the adult heart´s capacity to regenerate after an ischemic episode is very limited. Unlike humans, zebrafish and other lower vertebrates vigorously regenerate damaged myocardium after cardiac injury. Understanding how the zebrafish is able to conserve life-long cardiac regeneration capacity while mammals lose it soon after birth is crucial for the development of new treatments for myocardial infarction...
February 3, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452273/3d-bioprinted-functional-and-contractile-cardiac-tissue-constructs
#3
Zhan Wang, Sang Jin Lee, Heng-Jie Cheng, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
Bioengineering of a functional cardiac tissue composed of primary cardiomyocytes has great potential for myocardial regeneration and in vitro tissue modeling. However, its applications remain limited because the cardiac tissue is a highly organized structure with unique physiologic, biomechanical, and electrical properties. In this study, we undertook a proof-of-concept study to develop a contractile cardiac tissue with cellular organization, uniformity, and scalability by using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategy...
February 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444893/dusp6-attenuates-ras-mapk-signaling-to-limit-zebrafish-heart-regeneration
#4
Maria A Missinato, Manush Saydmohammed, Daniel A Zuppo, Krithika S Rao, Graham W Opie, Bernhard Kühn, Michael Tsang
Zebrafish regenerate cardiac tissue through proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes and neovascularization. Secreted growth factors such as FGFs, IGF, PDGFs, and Neuregulin (Nrg) play essential roles in stimulating cardiomyocyte proliferation. These factors activate the Ras/MAPK pathway, which is finely controlled by the feedback attenuator Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6 (Dusp6), an ERK phosphatase. Here we show that suppressing Dusp6 function enhanced cardiac regeneration. Inactivation of Dusp6 by small molecules or by gene inactivation increased cardiomyocyte proliferation, coronary angiogenesis, and reduced fibrosis after ventricular resection...
February 14, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443073/percutaneous-contrast-echocardiography-guided-intramyocardial-injection-and-cell-delivery-in-a-large-preclinical-model
#5
Alejandro Giraldo, Jesús Talavera López, Maria Josefa Fernandez-Del-Palacio, Obdulio García-Nicolás, Juan Seva, Gavin Brooks, José María Moraleda
Cell and gene therapy are exciting and promising strategies for the purpose of cardiac regeneration in the setting of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Before they can be considered for use, and implemented in humans, extensive preclinical studies are required in large animal models to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and fate of the injectate (e.g., stem cells) once delivered into the myocardium. Small rodent models offer advantages (e.g., cost effectiveness, amenability for genetic manipulation); however, given inherent limitations of these models, the findings in these rarely translate into the clinic...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441645/short-telomeres-induce-p53-and-autophagy-and-modulate-age-associated-changes-in-cardiac-progenitor-cell-fate
#6
Collin Matsumoto, Yan Jiang, Jacqueline Emathinger, Pearl Quijada, Nathalie Nguyen, Andrea De La Torre, Maryam Moshref, Jonathan Nguyen, Aimee B Levinson, Minyoung Shin, Mark A Sussman, Nirmala Hariharan
Aging severely limits myocardial repair and regeneration. Delineating the impact of age-associated factors such as short telomeres is critical to enhance the regenerative potential of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). We hypothesized that short telomeres activate p53 and induce autophagy to elicit the age-associated change in CPC fate. We isolated CPCs and compared mouse strains with different telomere lengths for phenotypic characteristics of aging. Wild mouse strain Mus musculus castaneus (CAST) possessing short telomeres exhibits early cardiac aging with cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis and senescence, as compared to common lab strains FVB and C57 bearing longer telomeres...
February 14, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436714/gch1-attenuates-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-remodeling-in-canines-with-atrial-tachypacing-via-tetrahydrobiopterin-pathway-regulated-by-microrna-206
#7
Jinqiu Wei, Yujiao Zhang, Zhan Li, Ximin Wang, Linlin Chen, Juanjuan Du, Jing Liu, Ju Liu, Yinglong Hou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac autonomic nerve remodeling (ANR) is an important mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF).GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH-1), encoded by GCH1, is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Previous studies reported that increased BH4 and NO content negatively regulated nerve regeneration. This study investigated effects of GCH1on ANR via BH4 pathway, regulated by microRNA-206 (miR-206)...
February 13, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435935/neonatal-rat-cardiomyocytes-isolation-culture-and-determination-of-micrornas-effects-in-proliferation
#8
Lichan Tao, Yihua Bei, Yongqin Li, Junjie Xiao
Cardiomyocytes loss is a major contributor for many cardiovascular diseases including heart failure and myocardial infarction. Although extremely limited, adult cardiomyocytes are able to proliferate. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling cardiomyocytes proliferation is extremely important for enhancing cardiomyocyte proliferation to promote cardiac regeneration and repair. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are powerful controllers of many essential biological processes including cell proliferation. Here, we described in detail a protocol for isolation and culture of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and the determination of miRNAs' effects in proliferation based on two well-established methods including EdU and Ki67 immunofluorescent stainings...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435928/mining-exosomal-micrornas-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-cardiac-regeneration
#9
Sang-Ging Ong, Won Hee Lee, Yang Zhou, Joseph C Wu
Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in cardiac regenerative therapy have allowed for novel modalities in replenishing the damaged myocardium. However, poor long-term engraftment and survival of transplanted cells have largely precluded effective cell replacement. As an alternative to direct cell replacement, the release of paracrine protective factors may be a more plausible effector for cardioprotection which may partially be mediated through secretion of microvesicles, or exosomes, that contribute to cell-cell communication...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416668/molecular-mechanisms-of-cardioprotective-effects-mediated-by-transplanted-cardiac-ckit-cells-through-the-activation-of-an-inflammatory-hypoxia-dependent-reparative-response
#10
Giovanni Puddighinu, Domenico D'Amario, Eleonora Foglio, Melissa Manchi, Andrea Siracusano, Elena Pontemezzo, Martina Cordella, Francesco Facchiano, Laura Pellegrini, Antonella Mangoni, Marco Tafani, Filippo Crea, Antonia Germani, Matteo Antonio Russo, Federica Limana
The regenerative effects of cardiac ckit+ stem cells (ckit+CSCs) in acute myocardial infarction (MI) have been studied extensively, but how these cells exert a protective effect on cardiomyocytes is not well known. Growing evidences suggest that in adult stem cells injury triggers inflammatory signaling pathways which control tissue repair and regeneration. Aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of ckit+CSCs following transplantation in a murine model of MI...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415512/linking-extracellular-matrix-agrin-to-the-hippo-pathway-in-liver-cancer-and-beyond
#11
REVIEW
Sayan Chakraborty, Wanjin Hong
In addition to the structural and scaffolding role, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is emerging as a hub for biomechanical signal transduction that is frequently relayed to intracellular sensors to regulate diverse cellular processes. At a macroscopic scale, matrix rigidity confers long-ranging effects contributing towards tissue fibrosis and cancer. The transcriptional co-activators YAP/TAZ, better known as the converging effectors of the Hippo pathway, are widely recognized for their new role as nuclear mechanosensors during organ homeostasis and cancer...
February 6, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411653/cardiac-regeneration-in-a-newborn-what-does-this-mean-for-future-cardiac-repair-research
#12
Bernhard J Haubner, Thomas Schuetz, Josef M Penninger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399560/functional-relevance-of-macrophage-mediated-inflammation-to-cardiac-regeneration
#13
REVIEW
Yong Sook Kim, Youngkeun Ahn
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide and regenerative medicine is a promising therapeutic option for this disease. We have developed various techniques to attenuate the cardiac remodeling and to regenerate cardiovascular systems via stem cell application. Besides cell therapy, we are interested in the modulation of pathological inflammation mediated by macrophages in the damaged heart tissue to arouse endogenous reparative responses with biocompatible small molecules. Certainly, current understanding of mechanisms of tissue regeneration will lead to the development of innovative regenerative medicine for cardiovascular disease...
January 2018: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388041/post-infarct-cardiac-injury-protection-and-repair-roles-of-non-cardiomyocyte-multicellular-and-acellular-components
#14
REVIEW
Xiaojun Du
Following myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyocytes and infarct size are the focus of our attention when evaluating the extent of cardiac injury, efficacy of therapies or success in repairing the damaged heart by stem cell therapy. Numerous interventions have been shown by pre-clinical studies to be effective in limiting infarct size, and yet clinical trials designed accordingly have yielded disappointing outcomes. The ultimate goal of cardiac protection is to limit the adverse cardiac remodeling. Accumulating studies have revealed that post-infarct remodeling can be attenuated without infarct size limitation...
January 23, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385737/pten-inhibition-in-human-disease-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Rafael Pulido
The tumor suppressor PTEN is a major homeostatic regulator, by virtue of its lipid phosphatase activity against phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3], which downregulates the PI3K/AKT/mTOR prosurvival signaling, as well as by its protein phosphatase activity towards specific protein targets. PTEN catalytic activity is crucial to control cell growth under physiologic and pathologic situations, and it impacts not only in preventing tumor cell survival and proliferation, but also in restraining several cellular regeneration processes, such as those associated with nerve injury recovery, cardiac ischemia, or wound healing...
January 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385089/recent-advances-in-treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease-role-of-science-and-technology
#16
REVIEW
Eswar Kandaswamy, Li Zuo
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. In the last decade, significant advancements in CAD treatment have been made. The existing treatment is medical, surgical or a combination of both depending on the extent, severity and clinical presentation of CAD. The collaboration between different science disciplines such as biotechnology and tissue engineering has led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies such as stem cells, nanotechnology, robotic surgery and other advancements (3-D printing and drugs)...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383108/sevoflurane-preconditioning-promotes-activation-of-resident-cscs-by-transplanted-bmscs-via-mir-210-in-a-rat-model-for-myocardial-infarction
#17
Ti Wen, Li Wang, Xue-Jun Sun, Xi Zhao, Guang-Wei Zhang, Jesse Li-Ling
Objective: To assess the effect of sevoflurane preconditioning (SFpre) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Results: 24 hours after the transplantation, decreased apoptosis of implanted BMSCs and up-regulation of cytokines expression were found within the ischemic area in SFpreBMSCs group compared with BMSCs group (P < 0.05). 4 weeks later, SFpreBMSCs group showed more viable implanted BMSCs, CSC-derived cardiomyocytes, and higher vessel and myocardial density within the infarcted region and improved cardiac function, compared with control and BMSCs groups (P < 0...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382818/tbx5a-lineage-tracing-shows-cardiomyocyte-plasticity-during-zebrafish-heart-regeneration
#18
Héctor Sánchez-Iranzo, María Galardi-Castilla, Carolina Minguillón, Andrés Sanz-Morejón, Juan Manuel González-Rosa, Anastasia Felker, Alexander Ernst, Gabriela Guzmán-Martínez, Christian Mosimann, Nadia Mercader
During development, mesodermal progenitors from the first heart field (FHF) form a primitive cardiac tube, to which progenitors from the second heart field (SHF) are added. The contribution of FHF and SHF progenitors to the adult zebrafish heart has not been studied to date. Here we find, using genetic tbx5a lineage tracing tools, that the ventricular myocardium in the adult zebrafish is mainly derived from tbx5a+ cells, with a small contribution from tbx5a- SHF progenitors. Notably, ablation of ventricular tbx5a+-derived cardiomyocytes in the embryo is compensated by expansion of SHF-derived cells...
January 30, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377555/optimization-of-cell-growth-on-palmitoyl-hyaluronan-knitted-scaffolds-developed-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#19
Jana Sogorkova, Vojtech Zapotocky, Martin Cepa, Veronika Stepankova, Hana Vagnerova, Jana Batova, Martina Pospisilova, Jiri Betak, Kristina Nesporova, Martina Hermannova, Dorothée Daro, Garry Duffy, Vladimir Velebny
Polysaccharides meet several criteria for a suitable biomaterial for tissue engineering, which include biocompatibility and ability to support the delivery and growth of cells. Nevertheless, most of these polysaccharides, e.g. dextran, alginate, and glycosaminoglycans, are highly soluble in aqueous solutions. Hyaluronic acid hydrophobized by palmitic acid and processed to the form of wet-spun fibers and the warp-knitted textile scaffold is water non-soluble, but biodegradable material, which could be used for the tissue engineering purpose...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374149/fli1-and-pkc-co-activation-promote-highly-efficient-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-endothelial-like-cells
#20
Hao Zhao, Yan Zhao, Zili Li, Qi Ouyang, Yi Sun, Di Zhou, Pingyuan Xie, Sicong Zeng, Lingfeng Dong, Hua Wen, Guangxiu Lu, Ge Lin, Liang Hu
Rationale-endothelial cells (ECs) play important roles in various regeneration processes and can be used in a variety of therapeutic applications, such as cardiac regeneration, gene therapy, tissue-engineered vascular grafts and prevascularized tissue transplants. ECs can be acquired from pluripotent and adult stem cells. To acquire ECs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a fast, efficient and economic manner. We established a conditional overexpression system in hESCs based on 15 transcription factors reported to be responsible for hematopoiesis lineage...
January 26, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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