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Ying Xiong, Li Liu, Jiajun Wang, Wei Xi, Yu Xia, Qi Bai, Yang Qu, Qilai Long, Jiejie Xu, Jianming Guo
BACKGROUND: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21), a ligand of the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7, has recently been identified as an immuno-based anti-cancer molecule for its dendritic cells and T lymphocytes chemoattractant function. The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic values of CCL21 expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with targeted therapy. METHODS: This study included 111 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving targeted therapy...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Kshipra Singh, Nicole T Al-Greene, Thomas G Verriere, Lori A Coburn, Mohammad Asim, Daniel P Barry, Margaret M Allaman, Dana M Hardbower, Alberto G Delgado, M Blanca Piazuelo, Bruce A Vallance, Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
Solute carrier family 7 member 2 (SLC7A2) is an inducible transporter of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine (L-Arg), which has been implicated in immune responses to pathogens. We assessed the role of SLC7A2 in murine infection with Citrobacter rodentium, an attaching and effacing enteric pathogen that causes colitis. Induction of SLC7A2 was upregulated in colitis tissues, and localized predominantly to colonic epithelial cells. Compared to wild-type mice, Slc7a2-/-mice infected with C. rodentium had improved survival and decreased weight loss, colon weight, and histologic injury; this was associated with decreased colonic macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and Th1 and Th17 cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Satyanarayana Swamy Cheekatla, Deepak Tripathi, Sambasivan Venkatasubramanian, Pavan Kumar Nathella, Padmaja Paidipally, Munenori Ishibashi, Elwyn Welch, Amy R Tvinnereim, Mitsuo Ikebe, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri, Subash Babu, Hardy Kornfeld, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
In this study, we developed a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using streptozotocin and nicotinamide and identified factors that increase susceptibility of T2DM mice to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). All Mtb-infected T2DM mice and 40% of uninfected T2DM mice died within 10 months, whereas all control mice survived. In Mtb-infected mice, T2DM increased the bacterial burden and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs relative to those in uninfected T2DM mice and infected control mice...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Lei Dong, Wen-Mei Yu, Hong Zheng, Mignon L Loh, Silvia T Bunting, Melinda Pauly, Gang Huang, Muxiang Zhou, Hal E Broxmeyer, David T Scadden, Cheng-Kui Qu
Germline activating mutations of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11), a positive regulator of the RAS signalling pathway, are found in 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome. These patients have an increased risk of developing leukaemia, especially juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML), a childhood myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Previous studies have demonstrated that mutations in Ptpn11 induce a JMML-like MPN through cell-autonomous mechanisms that are dependent on Shp2 catalytic activity...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Qing Liu, Dinghong Wu, Ling Han, Jingwen Deng, Li Zhou, Rui He, Chuanjian Lu, Qing-Sheng Mi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, which function in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by the dysfunction of keratinocytes, with the immune dysregulation. We reviewed the recent studies on the roles of miRNAs in psoriasis, and showed that miRNAs play key roles in psoriasis, including the regulation of hyperproliferation, cytokine and chemokine production in keratinocyte, as well as mediating immune dysfunction in psoriasis...
October 26, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Kyung-Eun Lee, Ji-Hyoun Kang, Yi-Rang Yim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jeong-Won Lee, Lihui Wen, Dong-Jin Park, Tae-Jong Kim, Yong-Wook Park, Kyung Chul Yoon, Ji Shin Lee, Shin-Seok Lee
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether CCL21 and CXCL13 expression levels in the minor salivary gland are associated with the laboratory and clinical manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Sociodemographic data on 106 SS patients were obtained and the glandular and extraglandular manifestations of the disease were documented. In addition, minor salivary gland biopsies were performed and the patients' laboratory findings were analysed. European League Against Rheumatism SS disease activity index (ESSDAI) values of SS disease activity at the time of biopsy and the SS disease damage index (SSDDI) values were also recorded...
October 21, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Simone M C Spoorenberg, Stefan M T Vestjens, Ger T Rijkers, Bob Meek, Coline H M van Moorsel, Jan C Grutters, Willem Jan W Bos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of four biomarkers, YKL-40, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18), surfactant protein-D (SP-D) and CA 15-3, in patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). These markers have been studied extensively in chronic pulmonary disease, but in acute pulmonary disease their prognostic value is unknown. METHODS: A total of 289 adult patients who were hospitalized with CAP and participated in a randomized controlled trial were enrolled...
October 26, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Belen Rubio-Gonzalez, Jasmine Zain, Steven T Rosen, Christiane Querfeld
The primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of T-, Natural Killer- and B- cell neoplasms with a wide range of clinical and pathological presentations, and with very different prognoses compared to systemic lymphomas. Recent studies have shown that the skin microenvironment, which is composed of various immune cell subsets as well as their spatial distribution and T-cell interactions through different chemokines and cytokines, has an important role in the development and pathogenesis of cutaneous lymphomas and has assisted in the development of novel and more effective immunotherapies...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Yang Yu, Yan Liu, Chen Zong, Qingbo Yu, Xue Yang, Lei Liang, Fei Ye, Li Nong, Yuxian Jia, Yongkui Lu, Zhipeng Han
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are generally used in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and therapy for immune disorder diseases. However, due to the immunosuppressive function of MSCs, the application of MSCs in breast cancer therapy remains limited. Sirt1 is the closest mammalian homologue of the yeast enzyme Sir2 which has an established capacity to influence yeast replicative lifespan. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of MSCs with Sirt1 overexpression (MSCs-Sirt1) in mice bearing 4T1 breast cancer and investigated the underlying mechanism...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
S T Eisenman, S J Gibbons, P-J Verhulst, G Cipriani, D Saur, G Farrugia
BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and humans is associated with changes in macrophage phenotype and loss of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the gastric muscle layers. In diabetic mice, classically activated M1 macrophages are associated with delayed gastric emptying, whereas alternatively activated M2 macrophages are associated with normal gastric emptying. This study aimed to determine if secreted factors from M1 macrophages could injure mouse ICC in primary culture...
October 25, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Yifan Cao, Hao Liu, Heng Zhang, Chao Lin, Ruochen Li, Songyang Wu, He Li, Hongyong He, Weijuan Zhang, Jiejie Xu
: Backround: Abnormal expression of CXC chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) has shown the ability to promote tumor angiogensis, invasion and metastasis in several cancers. The purpose of our curret study is to discover the clinical prognostic significance of CXCR1 in resectable gastric cancer. METHODS: 330 gastric cancer patients who underwent R0 gastrectomy with standard D2 lymphadenectomy at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University between 2007 and 2008 were enrolled. CXCR1 expression was evaluated with use of immunohistochemical staining...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
L P Mesquita, F R P Bruhn, P C Maiorka, E W Howerth
The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes encephalitis in mice when inoculated intranasally. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a native New World rodent, is also susceptible to VSV infection and develops similar central nervous system (CNS) lesions to those observed in other rodent species. Chemokines, such as regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES; CCL-5) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (CCL-2), which are important for chemotaxis and activation of inflammatory cells, are expressed during the course of VSV encephalitis...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Stella Liong, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, Stephen Tong, Tu'uhevaha Kaitu'u-Lino, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Infection and inflammation stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which play a central role in myometrial contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. In human and mouse immune cells, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a negative regulator of inflammation. No studies have examined the role of ATF3 in human labour. METHODS: Primary amnion cells were used to determine the effect of interleukin (IL)-1β and the bacterial product fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide (fsl-1) on ATF3 expression, and the effect of ATF3 siRNA on pro-labour mediators...
November 2016: Placenta
Julie Bergeron, Noha Gerges, Clémence Guiraut, Djordje Grbic, Marie-Julie Allard, Louis-Charles Fortier, Cathy Vaillancourt, Guillaume Sébire
Infection or inflammation during pregnancy is known to lead to maternal immune activation triggering a fetal inflammatory response syndrome associated with deleterious effects, such as brain injury and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) - one of the most common bacterium colonizing pregnant women - can be responsible for chorioamnionitis. Given that interleukin (IL)-1β has a major role in anti-GBS host defense, we hypothesized that IL-1β-driven innate immune response is implicated in GBS-induced chorioamnionitis...
November 2016: Placenta
Chiara Tersigni, Fiorella Di Nicuolo, Giuseppe Maulucci, Alessandro Rolfo, Domenica Giuffrida, Manuela Veglia, Marco De Spirito, Giovanni Scambia, Tullia Todros, Nicoletta Di Simone
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is defined by new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of gestation and characterized by systemic exaggerated inflammatory response. D6 is a chemokines scavenger receptor that binds with high affinity CC chemokines, internalizes and targets the ligands for degradation. It is expressed in trophoblast-derived tissues and prevents excessive placenta leukocyte infiltration...
2016: PloS One
A Rybicka, C Eyileten, B Taciak, J Mucha, K Majchrzak, E Hellmen, M Krol
Cancer stem-like cells as cells with ability to self-renewal and potential to differentiate into various types of cells are known to be responsible for tumour initiation, recurrence and drug resistance. Hence a comprehensive research is concentrated on discovering cancer stem-like cells biology and interdependence between them and other cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of macrophages on cancer stem-like cells in canine mammary carcinomas. As recent studies indicated presence of macrophages in cancer environment stimulates cancer cells into more motile and invasive cells by acquisition of macrophage phenotypes...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
D P Regan, A Escaffi, J Coy, J Kurihara, S W Dow
Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a highly malignant tumour associated with short survival times because of early and widespread metastasis. In humans and rodents, monocytes play key roles in promoting tumour metastasis through stimulating tumour cell extravasation, seeding, growth and angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the potential association between monocyte infiltration and tumour metastasis in HSA and other common canine tumours. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify CD18(+) monocytes within metastases...
October 25, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Aaron J Martin, Matthew Clark, Gregory Gojanovich, Fatima Manzoor, Keith Miller, Douglas E Kline, Y Maurice Morillon, Bo Wang, Roland Tisch
There continues to be a need for immunotherapies to treat type 1 diabetes in the clinic. We previously reported that nondepleting anti-CD4 and -CD8 Ab treatment effectively reverses diabetes in new-onset NOD mice. A key feature of the induction of remission is the egress of the majority of islet-resident T cells. How this occurs is undefined. Herein, the effects of coreceptor therapy on islet T cell retention were investigated. Bivalent Ab binding to CD4 and CD8 blocked TCR signaling and T cell cytokine production, while indirectly downregulating islet chemokine expression...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Changjun Yin, Sarajo Kumar Mohanta, Prasad Srikakulapu, Christian Weber, Andreas J R Habenicht
Artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) are atherosclerosis-associated lymphoid aggregates with varying degrees of complexity ranging from small T/B-cell clusters to well-structured lymph node-like though unencapsulated lymphoid tissues. ATLOs arise in the connective tissue that surrounds diseased arteries, i.e., the adventitia. ATLOs have been identified in aged atherosclerosis-prone hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice: they are organized into distinct immune cell compartments, including separate T-cell areas, activated B-cell follicles, and plasma cell niches...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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