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Joseph D Turner, Nicolas Pionnier, Julio Furlong-Silva, Hanna Sjoberg, Stephen Cross, Alice Halliday, Ana F Guimaraes, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Nico Van Rooijen, Judith E Allen, Stephen J Jenkins, Mark J Taylor
Eosinophils are effectors in immunity to tissue helminths but also induce allergic immunopathology. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in non-mucosal tissues during infection remain unresolved. Here we identify a pivotal function of tissue macrophages (Mϕ) in eosinophil anti-helminth immunity using a BALB/c mouse intra-peritoneal Brugia malayi filarial infection model. Eosinophilia, via C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)3, was necessary for immunity as CCR3 and eosinophil impairments rendered mice susceptible to chronic filarial infection...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Julia J Mack, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The formation of a hierarchical vascular network is a complex process that requires precise temporal and spatial integration of several signaling pathways. Amongst those, Notch has emerged as a key regulator of multiple steps that expand from endothelial sprouting to arterial specification and remains relevant in the adult. This review aims to summarize major concepts and rising hypotheses on the role of Notch signaling in the endothelium. RECENT FINDINGS: A wealth of new information has helped to clarify how Notch signaling cooperates with other pathways to orchestrate vascular morphogenesis, branching, and function...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Christina H Stuelten, Carole A Parent, Denise J Montell
Metastasis remains the greatest challenge in the clinical management of cancer. Cell motility is a fundamental and ancient cellular behaviour that contributes to metastasis and is conserved in simple organisms. In this Review, we evaluate insights relevant to human cancer that are derived from the study of cell motility in non-mammalian model organisms. Dictyostelium discoideum, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio permit direct observation of cells moving in complex native environments and lend themselves to large-scale genetic and pharmacological screening...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Jiyoun Min, Dongchan Yang Sung, Mirang Kim, Keeok Haam, Anji Yoo, Jae-Hoon Choi, Barbara U Schraml, Yong Sung Kim, Dongsup Kim, Suk-Jo Kang
The spatiotemporal regulation of immune cells in lymph nodes (LNs) is crucial for mounting protective T-cell responses, which are orchestrated by dendritic cells (DCs). However, it is unclear how the DC subsets are altered by the inflammatory milieu of LNs. Here, we show that the inflamed LNs of Listeria-infected mice are characterized by the clustering of neutrophils and monocytes and IFN-γ production. Significantly, the early inflammatory responses are coupled with the differentiation of not one, but two types of CD64+ CD11c+ MHCII+ inflammatory DCs...
March 16, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
O Awwad, F Coperchini, P Pignatti, M Denegri, S Massara, L Croce, C A Di Buduo, V Abbonante, A Balduini, L Chiovato, M Rotondi
PURPOSE: The AMPK-activator AICAR recently raised great interest for its anti-cancer properties. With specific regard to thyroid cancer, AICAR reduces cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. CXCL8, a chemokine with several recognized tumorigenic effects, is abundantly secreted in thyroid cancer microenvironment. The aim of this study was to investigate if AICAR could inhibit the basal and the TNFα-induced CXCL8 secretion in normal human thyroid cells (NHT) and in thyroid cancer cell lines TPC-1 and BCPAP (RET/PTC and BRAFV600e mutated, respectively)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Quan Zhou, Li Hong, Jing Wang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and to identify the key genes and pathways for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) using bioinformatics analysis. METHODS: The microarray data for GSE53868 included 12 POP and 12 non-POP anterior vaginal wall samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by GEO2R online tool. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID database, and a DEG-associated protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING and visualized in Cytoscape...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Lei Zhang, Jie Ren, Peidian Shi, Dong Lu, Chengxue Zhao, Yanxin Su, Lilin Zhang, Jinhai Huang
B4GALT5, also known as β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase V, is one of the members of β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase gene (B4GALT) family, which was concerned with embryonic development, tumor generation, other malignant diseases. In this study, we firstly cloned porcine B4GALT (pB4GALT5) from porcine alveolar macrophages, and predicted the structural domain and function of seven porcine β-1, 4 galactosyltransferase (I-VII) based on transcriptome analysis of PRRSV infected cells. Additionally, the upregulated porcine B4GALT5 expression was detected from PRRSV infected porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Li Xue, Yan Geng, Ming Li, Yao-Feng Jin, Hui-Xun Ren, Xia Li, Feng Wu, Biao Wang, Wei-Ying Cheng, Teng Chen, Yan-Jiong Chen
Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (MA) influences host immunity; however, the effect of MA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses remains unknown. Mast cells (MCs) are considered to serve an important role in the innate and acquired immune response, but it remains unknown whether MA modulates MC activation and LPS-stimulated cytokine production. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of MA on LPS-induced MC activation and the production of MC-derived cytokines in mice...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Seow Theng Ong, Madhavi Latha Somaraju Chalasani, M H U Turabe Fazil, Praseetha Prasannan, Atish Kizhakeyil, Graham D Wright, Dermot Kelleher, Navin Kumar Verma
Centrosome- and Golgi-localized protein kinase N-associated protein (CG-NAP), also known as AKAP450, is a cytosolic scaffolding protein involved in the targeted positioning of multiple signaling molecules, which are critical for cellular functioning. Here, we show that CG-NAP is predominantly expressed in human primary T-lymphocytes, localizes in close proximity (<0.2 μm) with centrosomal and Golgi structures and serves as a docking platform for Protein Kinase A (PKA). GapmeR-mediated knockdown of CG-NAP inhibits LFA-1-induced T-cell migration and impairs T-cell chemotaxis toward the chemokine SDF-1α...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cheleka A M Mpande, One B Dintwe, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Mark Hatherill, Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba
Background: Maintenance of long-lasting immunity is thought to depend on stem cell memory T cells (TSCM ), which have superior self-renewing capacity, longevity and proliferative potential compared with central memory (TCM ) or effector (TEFF ) T cells. Our knowledge of TSCM derives primarily from studies of virus-specific CD8+ TSCM . We aimed to determine if infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, generates antigen-specific CD4+ TSCM and to characterize their functional ontology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
D Lapuente, M Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, A Maaske, V Stab, V Heinecke, K Watzstedt, R Heß, A M Westendorf, W Bayer, C Ehrhardt, M Tenbusch
A universal influenza vaccine must provide protection against antigenically divergent influenza viruses either through broadly neutralizing antibodies or cross-reactive T cells. Here, intranasal immunizations with recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAd) encoding hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) in combination with rAd-Interleukin-(IL)-1β or rAd-IL-18 were evaluated for their efficacy in BALB/c mice. Mucosal delivery of rAd-IL-1β enhanced HA-specific antibody responses including strain-specific neutralizing antibodies...
March 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Chanjuan Wang, Aiwei Li, Shuo Yang, Rui Qiao, Xi Zhu, Jie Zhang
The emergence of chemoresistance greatly increases the recurrence risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients, which is still a big concern of clinicians. Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance is of great significance for preventing and reversing it. We showed here that CXC motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) was overexpressed in mitomycin C-resistant bladder cancer cell line M-RT4. Meanwhile, parental RT4 cell treated with recombinant human CXCL5 (rhCXCL5) reduced its sensitivity to mitomycin C...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Su Hwan Lee, Ju Hye Shin, Joo Han Song, Ah Young Leem, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Kyung Soo Chung
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels are known to increase in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Herein, we investigated the role of IGF-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. In LPS-treated cells, expressions of receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) were decreased in IGF-1 receptor small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated cells compared to control cells. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-α, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2/C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 in the supernatant were significantly reduced in IGF-1 receptor siRNA-treated cells compared to control cells...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Giulia Cisbani, Audrey Le Behot, Marie-Michèle Plante, Paul Préfontaine, Manon Lecordier, Serge Rivest
Stroke is the second cause of mortality worldwide and occurs following the interruption of cerebral blood circulation by cerebral vessel burst or subsequent to a local thrombus formation. Ischemic lesion triggers an important inflammatory response, characterized by massive infiltration of leukocytes, activation of glial cells and neurovascular reorganization. Chemokines and their receptors, such as CCR2 and CX3CR1, play an important role in leukocyte recruitment in the damaged area. Mice genetically depleted for the two receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 underwent focal cerebral ischemia, based on the topical application of ferric chloride to truncate the distal middle cerebral artery...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yufei Chen, Yannick L Traore, Sidi Yang, Julie Lajoie, Keith R Fowke, Daniel W Rickey, Emmanuel A Ho
Evidence suggests that women who are naturally resistant to HIV infection exhibit low baseline immune activation at the female genital tract (FGT). This "immune quiescent" state is associated with lower expression of T-cell activation markers, reduced levels of gene transcription and pro-inflammatory cytokine or chemokine production involved in HIV infection while maintaining an intact immune response against pathogens. Therefore, if this unique immune quiescent state can be pharmacologically induced locally, it will provide an excellent women-oriented strategy against HIV infection To our knowledge, this is the first research article evaluating in vivo, an innovative trackable implant that can provide controlled delivery of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to successfully attenuate vaginal T lymphocyte activation and inflammation in a rabbit model as a potential strategy to induce an "immune quiescent" state within the FGT for the prevention of HIV infection...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Holger Lörchner, Christian Widera, Yunlong Hou, Albrecht Elsässer, Henning Warnecke, Evangelos Giannitsis, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Thomas Braun, Kai C Wollert, Jochen Pöling
BACKGROUND: Regenerating islet-derived protein 3 beta (Reg3β) is a cardiomyocyte-derived chemokine for macrophages that is upregulated after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Here, we hypothesized that monitoring Reg3β expression might provide specific information on the degree of cardiac inflammation, which is a key determinant in disease progression and prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of Reg3β and other inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by immunoblotting at serial time points in the hearts and serum of mice with acute MI...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
M Di Sanzo, R Chirillo, I Aversa, F Biamonte, G Santamaria, E D Giovannone, M C Faniello, G Cuda, F Costanzo
PURPOSE: The heavy subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin (FHC) is essential for the intracellular iron metabolism and, at the same time, it represents a central hub of iron-independent pathways, such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, p53 regulation, chemokine signalling, stem cell expansion, miRNAs expression. In this work we have explored the ability of FHC to modulate gene expression in K562 cells, through the up-regulation of the lncRNA H19 and its cognate miR-675. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Targeted silencing of FHC was performed by lentiviral-driven shRNA strategy...
March 12, 2018: Gene
Alejandro Amor-Coarasa, James Kelly, Shashikanth Ponnala, Yogindra Vedvyas, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Clarence Williams, Moonsoo M Jin, J David Warren, John W Babich
INTRODUCTION: CXCR4 specific [18 F]-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are needed which would enable general distribution of the radiotracer for clinical investigation. We sought to synthesize, radiolabel and evaluate [18 F]RPS-544, a novel non-peptide CXCR4 antagonist as a CXCR4 specific probe. We compared [18 F]RPS-544 with the previously published [18 F]-3 ([18 F]RPS-510 in this paper) in a bi-lateral tumor model of differential CXCR4 expression for its ability to selectively target CXCR4 expression...
January 31, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Monica Raina, Amber M Bates, Carol L Fischer, Ann Progulske-Fox, Taher Abbasi, Shireen Vali, Kim A Brogden
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc- or calcium-dependent proteinases involved in normal maintenance of extracellular matrix. When elevated, they contribute to the tissue destruction seen in periodontal disease. Recently, we found that human beta defensin 3 (HBD3), a cationic antimicrobial peptide, alters chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (HagB). In this study, the hypotheses that HagB induces MMP production in dendritic cells and that HBD3 mixed with HagB prior to treatment alters HagB-induced MMP profiles were tested...
March 2018: Journal of Periodontology
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