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Elisabeth MacColl, Kris Vanesky, Jeremy A Buck, Benjamin M Dudek, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Julie A Heath, Garth Herring, Chris Vennum, Cynthia J Downs
An individual's investment in constitutive immune defenses depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined how Leucocytozoon parasite presence, body condition (scaled mass), heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, sex, and age affected immune defenses in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nestlings from three regions: California, Oregon, and Idaho. We quantified hemolytic-complement activity and bacterial killing ability, two measures of constitutive immunity. Body condition and age did not affect immune defenses...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Marta Maria Pereira da Silva Neves, María Begoña González-García, Alejandro Pérez-Junquera, David Hernández-Santos, Pablo Fanjul-Bolado
In this work, a turn-off photoluminescent sensing proof-of-concept based on blue luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as the fluorescent probe was developed. For that purpose, GQDs optical response was related with the catalytic enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), in the presence of hydroquinone diphosphate (HQDP). The hydrolysis of HQDP by ALP generated hydroquinone (HQ). The oxidation of HQ, enzymatically produced, to p-benzoquinone (BQ) resulted in the quenching of GQDs fluorescence (FL)...
January 21, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Svenn-Erik Mamelund
BACKGROUND: Whether morbidity from the 1918-19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was "socially neutral". OBJECTIVES: To study the associations between Influenza like illness (ILI) and socioeconomic status (SES), gender and wave during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic. METHODS: Availability of incidence data on the 1918-19 pandemic is scarce, in particular for waves other than the "fall wave" October-December 1918...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Hagit Ofir, Hadas Shefler, Rachel Kornhaber, Michelle Cleary, Moti Harats, Josef Haik
The opening of the National Burns Center (NBC) in Sheba Medical Center (SMC) in 2014 was a keystone point in the development of specialized burns trauma services for Israel to ensure burn care and disaster planning at international standards. The NBC is a purpose-built, level 1 burns trauma center that receives patients from Israel, Gaza, West Bank, and abroad. Hosting six intensive care and four step-down burns beds, the center serves as a referral center for patients in other health-care facilities with indication for hospitalization...
January 22, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Marcel Pascal Beier, Mitsuhiro Obara, Akiko Taniai, Yuki Sawa, Jin Ishizawa, Haruki Yoshida, Narumi Tomita, Tsuyoshi Yamanaka, Yawara Ishizuka, Syuko Kudo, Akira Yoshinari, Shiho Takeuchi, Soichi Kojima, Tomoyuki Yamaya, Toshihiko Hayakawa
Ammonium influx into plant roots via the high-affinity transport system (HATS) is down-modulated under elevated external ammonium, preventing ammonium toxicity. In ammonium-fed Arabidopsis, ammonium transporter 1 (AMT1) trimers responsible for HATS activity are allosterically inactivated in a dose-dependent manner via phosphorylation of the conserved threonine at the carboxyl-tail by the calcineurin B-like protein 1-calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase 23 complex and other yet unidentified protein kinases...
January 21, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jeremy W Chopek, Christopher W MacDonell, Patricia C Shepard, Kalan R Gardiner, Phillip F Gardiner
Gene expression is altered following a spinal transection (STx) in both motor and sensory systems. Exercise has been shown to influence gene expression in both systems post-STx. Gene expression alterations have also been shown in the dorsal root ganglia and nociceptive laminae of the spinal cord following either an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) or a contusive SCI. However, the effect of STx and exercise on gene expression in spinal cord laminae I-III has not fully been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if gene expression in laminae I-III is altered following STx and determine if superimposed passive exercise of the hindlimbs would influence gene expression post-STx in laminae I-III...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Elizabeth A Thomas, Santosh R D'Mello
By their ability to shatter quality of life for both patients and caregivers, neurodegenerative diseases are the most devastating of human disorders. Unfortunately, there are no effective or long-terms treatments capable of slowing down the relentless loss of neurons in any of these diseases. One impediment is the lack of detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of neurodegeneration. While some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, are mostly sporadic in nature, driven by both environment and genetic susceptibility, many others, including Huntington's disease, Spinocerebellar ataxias and Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, are genetically inherited disorders...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Peter Walker, James Gavin Bremner, Marco Lunghi, Sarah Dolscheid, Beatrice D Barba, Francesca Simion
Amodal (redundant) and arbitrary cross-sensory feature associations involve the context-insensitive mapping of absolute feature values across sensory domains. Cross-sensory associations of a different kind, known as correspondences, involve the context-sensitive mapping of relative feature values. Are such correspondences in place at birth (like amodal associations), or are they learned from subsequently experiencing relevant feature co-occurrences in the world (like arbitrary associations)? To decide between these two possibilities, human newborns (median age = 44 hr) watched animations in which two balls alternately rose and fell together in space...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Yushen Liu, Yaojun Dong, Jie Zhang, H L Yu, Jinfu Feng, Xifeng Yang
Zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs) in the ferromagnetic edge ordering have a metallic behavior which limits their applications in spintronics. Here a robustly half-metallic property is achieved by the boron (B) substitution doping at the edge of ZSiNRs. When the impurity atom is replaced by the aluminum (Al) atom, the doped ZSiNRs possess a spin semiconducting property. Its band gap is suppressed with the increase of ribbon's width, and a pure thermal spin current is achieved by modulating ribbon's width...
January 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yunfei Dang, Yubang Shen, Xiaoyan Xu, Shentong Wang, Xinzhan Meng, Meng Zhang, Liqun Lv, Rongquan Wang, Jiale Li
The complement system is a significant component of innate immunity. Here, we identified a Bf/C2 homolog (gcBf/C2b) in grass carp. gcBf/C2b shares a high similarity with Bf/C2b counterparts in other teleosts. gcBf/C2b transcription was widely distributed in different tissues, induced by Aeromonas hydrophila in vivo and in vitro, and affected by lipopolysaccharide and flagellin stimulation in vitro. In cells over-expressing gcBf/C2b, transcript levels of all components except gcC5 were significantly enhanced, and gcBf/C2b, gcIL1β, gcTNF-α, gcIFN, gcCD59, gcC5aR1, and gcITGβ-2 were significantly upregulated after A...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mengqiang Wang, Mei Liu, Baojie Wang, Keyong Jiang, Zhihao Jia, Lingling Wang, Lei Wang
As marine invertebrates, oysters lack adaptive immunity and employ innate immunity as the front line and almost the solo defense mechanism to protect them against invaders. Accumulating research achievements demonstrated that exosomes could act as innate immune effectors that contribute to host defense mechanism. To better understand the immune functions of exosomes in Crassostrea gigas against bacterial stimulation, RNA-Seq was applied to explore the global expression changes of exosomes in oyster after Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio splendidus stimulation...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Guoqing Ouyang, Li Xiong, Zhipeng Liu, Brandon Lam, Brian Bui, Lun Ma, Xiang Chen, Pan Zhou, Kunpeng Wang, Zijian Zhang, He Huang, Xiongying Miao, Wei Chen, Yu Wen
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been reported to be a promising therapy for colon cancer because of its substantial safety features and its ability to induce a systematic reaction rather than local effects on the focal lesion in the intestine. Autophagy and apoptosis play important roles in the response to PDT. However, the role of autophagy after PDT treatment has not yet been clarified. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy in porphyrin IX (PpIX)-mediated PDT (PpIX-PDT) in HCT116 colon cancer cells...
January 17, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Zhengfu Yang, Yingxin Zhang, Lianping Sun, Peipei Zhang, Ling Liu, Ping Yu, Dandan Xuan, Xiaojiao Xiang, Weixun Wu, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are two elaborated lipid-soluble barriers protecting pollen grains from environmental and biological stresses. However, less is known about the mechanisms underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers. Here, we identified a no-pollen male-sterility mutant cyp703a3-3 from indica restorer line Zhonghui 8015 (Zh8015) mutant library treated with 60Coγ-ray radiation. Histological analysis indicated that cyp703a3-3 underwent abnormal tapetal cells development, produced few orbicules and secreted less sporopollenin precursors to anther locule, as well as cutin monomers on anther...
January 17, 2018: Gene
Sulin Zhang, Bin Hu, Yan You, Zhiwen Yang, Lixin Liu, Huanhuan Tang, Weilian Bao, Yunyun Guan, Xiaoyan Shen
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) characterized by the selective degradation of target proteins has been linked with tumorigenesis in recent years. Here, we explored the function of sorting nexin 10 (SNX10), a protein involved in maintaining endosome/lysosome homeostasis, in mediating CMA activity and its impact on the progression of mouse colorectal cancer. Our results revealed that SNX10 deficiency increased the activation of CMA by preventing the degradation of lysosomal LAMP-2A. In SNX10 KO cells, we disclosed that p21Cip1/WAF1, a master effector in various tumor suppressor pathways, is a substrate of CMA, and decrease of p21Cip1/WAF1 caused by SNX10-mediated CMA activation contributes to HCT116 cell proliferation and survival...
January 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
Wei Wu, Hang Yao, Helen W Zhao, Juan Wang, Gabriel G Haddad
Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or Monge's disease is a disease in highlanders. These patients have a variety of neurologic symptoms such as migraine, mental fatigue, confusion, dizziness, loss of appetite, memory loss and neuronal degeneration. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying CMS neuropathology is not understood. In the previous study, we demonstrated that neurons derived from CMS patients' fibroblasts have a decreased expression and altered gating properties of voltage-gated sodium channel...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Talita Elisa Berté, Ana Paula Dalmagro, Priscila Laiz Zimath, Ana Elisa Gonçalves, Christiane Meyre-Silva, Cristiani Bürger, Carla J Weber, Diogo Adolfo Dos Santos, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Márcia M de Souza
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive impairment and cholinergic neuronal death, characteristic of the effect of time on biochemical neuronal function. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative form of prevention, or even as a possible treatment of AD, is therefore interesting areas of research, since the standard drugs have many side effects. Taraxerol (TRX) is a triterpene that has been isolated from several plant species, and its various pharmacological properties have already been identified, such the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity in vitro...
January 17, 2018: Steroids
Aldo Moreno-Ulloa, Adriana Miranda-Cervantes, Alexei Licea-Navarro, Christina Mansour, Ernesto Beltrán-Partida, Luis Donis-Maturano, Hilda Carolina Delgado De la Herrán, Francisco Villarreal, Carolina Álvarez-Delgado
We have reported on the capacity of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-EPI) to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis (MiB) in mouse skeletal muscle (SkM). However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of (-)-EPI are not fully understood. We previously identified a role of the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in modulating the vascular effects of (-)-EPI. We therefore tested the hypothesis that GPER mediates (at least in part) the stimulatory effects of (-)-EPI on MiB in SkM cells. As an in vitro model, we employed mouse SkM-derived C2C12 myoblasts differentiated into myotubes...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Qiu-Fang Chen, Shuang Cui, Hui-Liang Shen, Xiang Chen, Yun-Zhan Li, Qian Wu, Yun-Gen Xu, Guo-Qing Gong
Thrombin has long been suggested as a desirable antithrombotic target, but anti-thrombin therapy without anti-platelet thereby has never achieved the ideal effect. HY023016 is a novel compound, in our previous study, it exerted better anti-thrombotic than dabigatran etexilate. The present study aims to illustrate the excess anti-thrombotic molecular mechanisms of HY023016 through thrombin anion exosites and the platelet membrane receptor subunit glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα). HY023016 strongly inhibited the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrous may via blocking thrombin exosite I...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Lucas Deecke, Hana M Dobrovolny
Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of the virus. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic since for new strains there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply drugs periodically. During treatment phases the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hongyu Wu, Caicun Zhou
Lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs have been documented aberrantly expressed and exerted crucial role in variety of cancers. Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) is a potential new type of biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and exerts oncogenic effect on various human cancers. However, the mechanism of oncogenic role of UCA1 in lung cancer remains unclear. In this study, we firstly confirmed the role of UCA1 in lung cancer and found that UCA1 down-regulation inhibited cell proliferation and migration in both SKMES-1 and H520 lung cancer cells...
January 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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