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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161497/three-dimensional-microstructured-poly-vinyl-alcohol-hydrogel-platform-for-the-controlled-formation-of-multicellular-cell-spheroids
#1
Xiao-Qiu Dou, Ping Li, Holger Schönherr
Three-dimensional (3D) multicellular cell spheroids (MCSs) are excellent in vitro cell models, in which e.g. the in vivo cell-cell interaction processes are much better mimicked than in conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell layers. However, the difficulties in the generation of well-defined MCSs with controlled size severely limit their application. Herein, low-adhesive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels structured with inverted pyramid-shaped microwells were used to guide the aggregation of cells into MCSs...
November 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161457/the-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-cyg12-is-required-for-the-acclimation-to-hypoxia-and-trophic-regimes-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#2
Melis Düner, Jan Lambertz, Carolin Mügge, Anja Hemschemeier
Oxygenic phototrophs frequently encounter environmental conditions that result in intracellular energy crises. Growth of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in hypoxia in the light depends on acclimatory responses of which the induction of photosynthetic cyclic electron flow is essential. The microalga cannot grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2 ) in the dark, although it possesses an elaborate fermentation metabolism. Not much is known about how the microalga senses and signals the lack of O2 or about its survival strategies during energy crises...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161358/neural-mechanisms-of-episodic-retrieval-support-divergent-creative-thinking
#3
Kevin P Madore, Preston P Thakral, Roger E Beaty, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Prior research has indicated that brain regions and networks that support semantic memory, top-down and bottom-up attention, and cognitive control are all involved in divergent creative thinking. Kernels of evidence suggest that neural processes supporting episodic memory-the retrieval of particular elements of prior experiences-may also be involved in divergent thinking, but such processes have typically been characterized as not very relevant for, or even a hindrance to, creative output. In the present study, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with an experimental manipulation to test formally, for the first time, episodic memory's involvement in divergent thinking...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161340/prefrontal-executive-control-rescues-risk-for-anxiety-associated-with-high-threat-and-low-reward-brain-function
#4
Matthew A Scult, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Compared with neural biomarkers of risk for mental illness, little is known about biomarkers of resilience. We explore if greater executive control-related prefrontal activity may function as a resilience biomarker by "rescuing" risk associated with higher threat-related amygdala and lower reward-related ventral striatum activity. Functional MRI was used to assay baseline threat-related amygdala, reward-related ventral striatum, and executive control-related prefrontal activity in 120 young adult volunteers...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161257/regulation-of-camp-and-gsk3-signaling-pathways-contributes-to-the-neuronal-conversion-of-glioma
#5
Jinsoo Oh, Yongbo Kim, Lihua Che, Jeong Beom Kim, Gyeong Eon Chang, Eunji Cheong, Seok-Gu Kang, Yoon Ha
Glioma is the most malignant type of primary central nervous system tumors, and has an extremely poor prognosis. One potential therapeutic approach is to induce the terminal differentiation of glioma through the forced expression of pro-neural factors. Our goal is to show the proof of concept of the neuronal conversion of C6 glioma through the combined action of small molecules. We investigated the various changes in gene expression, cell-specific marker expression, signaling pathways, physiological characteristics, and morphology in glioma after combination treatment with two small molecules (CHIR99021, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 [GSK3] inhibitor and forskolin, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP] activator)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161154/effects-of-gloves-and-pulling-task-on-achievable-downward-pull-forces-on-a-rung
#6
Kurt E Beschorner, Gregory P Slota, Erika M Pliner, Egli Spaho, Na Jin Seo
Objective We examined the impacts of pulling task (breakaway and pull-down tasks at different postures), glove use, and their interaction on achievable downward pull forces from a ladder rung. Background Posture, glove use, and the type of pulling task are known to affect the achievable forces. However, a gap in the literature exists regarding how these factors affect achievable downward pulling forces, which are relevant to recovery from a perturbation during ladder climbing. Methods Forty subjects completed four downward pulling tasks (breakaway force; pull force at maximum height, shoulder height, and a middle height), using three glove conditions with varying coefficient of friction (COF) levels (cotton glove, low COF; bare hand, moderate COF; and latex-coated glove, high COF) with their dominant and nondominant hand...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161012/top-down-proteomics-ready-for-prime-time
#7
Bifan Chen, Kyle A Brown, Ziqing Lin, Ying Ge
In the post-genomics era, the study of proteins is critical for understanding cellular functions at the molecular level.1-5 Beyond the genetic code, the human proteome is greatly diversified by various genetic variations, alternative splicing of RNA transcripts, and post-translational modifi-cations (PTMs).6,7 In 2013, the term "proteoform" was designated to describe "all of the different molecular forms in which the protein product of a single gene can be found",6 clearing up the confusion in nomenclature and joining research efforts to develop methodologies for pro-teoform characterization...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160937/microrna-26b-promotes-colorectal-cancer-metastasis-by-down-regulating-pten-and-wnt5a
#8
Dejun Fan, Xutao Lin, Feng Zhang, Weijie Zhong, Jiancong Hu, Yufeng Chen, Zerong Cai, Yifeng Zou, Xiaowen He, Xiuting Chen, Ping Lan, Xiaojian Wu
Invasion and metastasis are crucially important factors in the survival of malignant tumors. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an early step in metastatic progression and the presence of cancer stem cells is closely related to tumor survival, proliferation, metastasis, and recurrence. Here we report that ectopic overexpression of microRNA 26b (miR-26b) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines promoted EMT and stem cell-like phenotypes in vitro. Furthermore, miR-26b directly targeted and suppressed multiple tumor suppressors, including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 5A (WNT5A)...
November 21, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160911/simultaneous-use-of-erythropoietin-and-lfm-a13-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach-for-colorectal-cancer
#9
Anna Tankiewicz-Kwedlo, Justyna Magdalena Hermanowicz, Tomasz Domaniewski, Krystyna Pawlak, Małgorzata Rusak, Anna Pryczynicz, Arkadiusz Surazynski, Tomasz Kaminski, Adam Kazberuk, Dariusz Pawlak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the activation of signaling pathways responsible for cell maturation and viability. BTK has previously been reported to be overexpressed in colon cancers. This kind of cancer is often accompanied by anemia, which is treated with an erythropoietin supplement. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of combination therapy with erythropoietin beta (Epo) and LFM-A13 (BTK inhibitor) on colon cancer in in vitro and in vivo models...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160881/effect-of-nobiletin-on-the-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-the-synovial-membrane-of-rats-with-arthritis-induced-by-collagen
#10
Guliang Yang, Shiming Li, Li Yuan, Yiwen Yang, Min-Hsiung Pan
Nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone) is a natural compound in the fruit peel of citrus fruit in the Rutaceae family. It is active in inhibiting inflammation, reducing plasma lipids and has anti-oxidative properties. In studying the effect of nobiletin on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was established by bovine type II collagen (BIIC), and the effect of nobiletin on RA was investigated using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, serum enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection and western blotting...
November 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160870/engineering-high-performance-hairpin-stacking-circuits-for-logic-gate-operation-and-highly-sensitive-biosensing-assay-of-microrna
#11
Yueli Xing, Xinmin Li, Taixian Yuan, Wei Cheng, Dandan Li, Tianxiao Yu, Xiaojuan Ding, Shijia Ding
Recently, hairpin stacking circuits (HSC) based on toehold-mediated strand displacement have been engineered to detect nucleic acids and proteins. However, the three metastable hairpins in a HSC system can potentially react non-specifically in the absence of a catalyst, limiting its practical application. Here, we developed a unique hairpin design guideline to eliminate circuit leakage of HSC, and the high-performance HSC was successfully implemented on logic gate building and biosensing. We began by analyzing the sources of circuit leakage and optimizing the toehold lengths of hairpins in the HSC system based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique...
November 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160844/altered-aconitase-2-activity-in-huntington-s-disease-peripheral-blood-cells-and-mouse-model-striatum
#12
Chiung-Mei Chen, Yih-Ru Wu, Kuo-Hsuan Chang
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an unstable cytosine adenine guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion encoding a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Previously, we identified several up- and down-regulated protein molecules in the striatum of the Hdh((CAG)150) knock-in mice at 16 months of age, a mouse model which is modeling the early human HD stage. Among those molecules, aconitase 2 (Aco2) located in the mitochondrial matrix is involved in the energy generation and susceptible to increased oxidative stress that would lead to inactivation of Aco2 activity...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160795/differential-expression-patterns-of-pleurotus-ostreatus-catalase-genes-during-developmental-stages-and-under-heat-stress
#13
Lining Wang, Xiangli Wu, Wei Gao, Mengran Zhao, Jinxia Zhang, Chenyang Huang
Catalases are ubiquitous hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzymes. They participate in fungal growth and development, such as mycelial growth and cellular differentiation, and in protecting fungi from oxidative damage under stressful conditions. To investigate the potential functions of catalases in Pleurotus ostreatus, we obtained two catalase genes from a draft genome sequence of P. ostreatus, and cloned and characterized them (Po-cat1 and Po-cat2). Po-cat1 (group II) and Po-cat2 (group III) encoded putative peptides of 745 and 528 amino acids, respectively...
November 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160324/atomic-layer-mos2-graphene-van-der-waals-heterostructure-nanomechanical-resonators
#14
Fan Ye, Jaesung Lee, Philip X-L Feng
Heterostructures play significant roles in modern semiconductor devices and micro/nanosystems in a plethora of applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and transducers. While state-of-the-art heterostructures often involve stacks of crystalline epi-layers each down to a few nanometers thick, the intriguing limit would be hetero-atomic-layer structures. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of freestanding van der Waals heterostructures and their functional nanomechanical devices. By stacking single-layer (1L) MoS2 on top of suspended single-, bi-, tri- and four-layer (1L to 4L) graphene sheets, we realize an array of MoS2-graphene heterostructures with varying thickness and size...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160193/fertility-transition-in-sri-lanka-is-it-a-temporary-phenomenon
#15
E L Sunethra J Perera
This paper examines the fertility transition and its recent dynamics in Sri Lanka using data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Population Censuses. Fertility trends and patterns were analysed for two periods: 1953-2000 and 2000-2012. The findings revealed that Sri Lanka's fertility transition has been relatively rapid and has taken place over a period of about four decades to reach replacement level. Social and health-related factors, including decline in maternal and infant mortality, increase in women's education, changes in institutions, reproductive values and behaviour, and increased contraceptive use all contributed to bringing down the fertility level by 2000...
November 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160147/impact-of-complete-spinal-cord-injury-on-healing-of-skin-ulcers-in-mouse-models
#16
Suneel Kumar, Martin L Yarmush, Biraja C Dash, Henry C Hsia, Francois Berthiaume
Pressure ulcers (PUs) are common debilitating complications of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and tend to occur in soft tissues around bony prominences. There is, however, little known about the impact of SCI on skin wound healing due to the lack of suitable animal models for studies in controlled experimental settings. Herein we describe a reproducible and clinically relevant mouse model of PUs in the context of complete SCI. Adult male mice (BALB/c) were subjected to thoracic (T9-T10) complete SCI. Immediately after, a skin fold on the back of the mice was lifted and sandwiched between two magnetic discs held in place for 12 hours, thus creating an ischemic area that developed into a PU over the following days...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160129/injectable-nanosilica-chitosan-microparticles-for-bone-regeneration-applications
#17
Bipin Gaihre, Beata Lecka-Czernik, Ambalangodage C Jayasuriya
This study was aimed at assessing the effects of silica nanopowder incorporation into chitosan-tripolyphosphate microparticles with the ultimate goal of improving their osteogenic properties. The microparticles were prepared by simple coacervation technique and silica nanopowder was added at 0% (C), 2.5% (S1), 5% (S2) and 10% (S3) (w/w) to chitosan. We observed that this simple incorporation of silica nanopowder improved the growth and proliferation of osteoblasts along the surface of the microparticles. In addition, the composite microparticles also showed the increased expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteoblast specific genes...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160087/glyoxalase-1-modulation-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#18
Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley
SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing globally. There is also increasing associated complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and vascular complications of diabetes. There is currently no licensed treatment for NAFLD and no recent treatments for diabetic complications. New approaches are required, particularly addressing mechanism-based risk factors for health decline and disease progression. Recent advances: Dicarbonyl stress is the abnormal accumulation of reactive dicarbonyl metabolites such as methylglyoxal leading to cell and tissue dysfunction...
November 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160064/effect-of-polarization-reversal-in-ferroelectric-tin-hf0-5zr0-5o2-tin-devices-on-electronic-conditions-at-interfaces-studied-in-operando-by-hard-x-ray-photoemission-spectroscopy
#19
Yury Matveyev, Dmitry Nergov, Anna Chernikova, Yury Lebedinskii, Roman Kirtaev, Sergei Zarubin, Elena Suvorova, Andrei Gloskovskii, Andrei Zenkevich
Because of their compatibility with modern Si based technology, HfO2-based ferroelectric films have recently attracted attention as strong candidates for applications in memory devices, in particular, ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFET) or ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJ). A key property defining the functionality of these devices is the polarization dependent change of the electronic band alignment at the metal/ferroelectric interface. Here, we report on the effect of polarization reversal in functional ferroelectric TiN/Hf0...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160030/dihydromyricetin-enhances-glucose-uptake-by-inhibition-of-mek-erk-pathway-and-consequent-down-regulation-of-phosphorylation-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-3t3-l1-cells
#20
Lei Liu, Min Zhou, Hedong Lang, Yong Zhou, Mantian Mi
Accumulating evidence suggests that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling can reduce phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) at serine 273, which mitigates obesity-associated insulin resistance and might be a promising treatment for type 2 diabetes. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a flavonoid that has many beneficial pharmacological properties. In this study, mouse fibroblast 3T3-L1 cells were used to investigate whether DHM alleviates insulin resistance by inhibiting PPARγ phosphorylation at serine 273 via the MEK/ERK pathway...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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