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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163212/regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-plasticity-by-protein-arginine-methyltransferases-and-their-potential-roles-in-neuromuscular-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Derek W Stouth, Tiffany L vanLieshout, Nicole Y Shen, Vladimir Ljubicic
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues on target proteins, thereby mediating a diverse set of intracellular functions that are indispensable for survival. Indeed, full-body knockouts of specific PRMTs are lethal and PRMT dysregulation has been implicated in the most prevalent chronic disorders, such as cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD). PRMTs are now emerging as important mediators of skeletal muscle phenotype and plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160793/a-gal-m%C3%A2%C2%B5s-device-to-evaluate-cell-migratory-response-to-combined-galvano-chemotactic-fields
#2
Shawn Mishra, Maribel Vazquez
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF)...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156848/nomograms-for-prognostic-factors-of-spinal-giant-cell-tumor-combining-traditional-clinical-characteristics-with-inflammatory-biomarkers-after-gross-total-resection
#3
Jialin Li, Bo Li, Pingting Zhou, Jian Zhao, Zhipeng Wu, Xinghai Yang, Haifeng Wei, Tianrui Chen, Jianru Xiao
Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a common primary bone tumor, which exhibits local aggressiveness and recurrent potential, especially for the spinal lesion. Increasing evidence indicates that inflammation plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and progression. The prognostic value of inflammatory biomarkers in GCT has not been established. A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients with spinal GCT in Changzheng Hospital Orthopedic Oncological Center (CHOOC) between January 2005 and October 2015 and 129 patients were identified eligible...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154849/spinal-anesthesia-is-associated-with-lower-recurrence-rates-after-resection-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#4
Yuri Koumpan, Melanie Jaeger, Glenio Bitencourt Mizubuti, Rob Tanzola, Kunal Jain, Gregory Hosier, Wilma Hopman, D Robert Siemens
PURPOSE: To determine if anesthetic type (general vs. spinal) would influence cancer recurrence following transurethral resections of bladder tumors. MATERIALS & METHODS: With institutional ethics board approval, electronic medical records of all patients who underwent a transurethral bladder tumor resection for non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer between 2011-2013 at a single tertiary care centre were examined. Follow-up information was gathered for all patients in December 2016...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152110/comparison-of-the-effect-of-spinal-anesthesia-and-general-anesthesia-on-5-year-tumor-recurrence-rates-after-transurethral-resection-of-bladder-tumors
#5
Woo-Jong Choi, Seunghee Baek, Eun-Young Joo, Syn-Hae Yoon, Eunkyul Kim, Bumsik Hong, Jai-Hyun Hwang, Young-Kug Kim
Non-muscle invasive bladder tumors are early-stage tumors with high recurrence rates. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) is performed under spinal or general anesthesia; however, the effect of the two anesthetic techniques on non-muscle invasive bladder tumor recurrence is unknown. Thus, we compared their effects on tumor recurrence rates five years after TURB. Data from 876 patients who underwent TURB from 2000 to 2007 was reviewed. Patients received spinal or general anesthesia based on their choice or the clinician's preference...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151988/lumbar-spinal-angiolipoma-with-expanding-left-neural-foramen-mimicking-lumbar-schwannoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Yener Akyuva, Aylin Gonultas, Numan Karaaslan, Zehra Gulciftci Dagci, Semih Saglik, Mehmet Isyar, Mahir Mahirogullari
Aim: To describe a patient with lumbar angiolipoma mimicking schwannoma in the posterolateral side of the spinal canal with expansion of the left lumbar foramen and to discuss the clinical, radiologic, and surgical features of these lesions with literature. Methods: Without language restriction in this paper, the electronic databases; The Cochrane Collaboration the Cochrane, The Cochrane Library (Issue 2 of 12, Feb. 2011), ProQuest, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NLM) and PubMed dating from 1966 September to January Week 2 2017, were searched for comparative experimental studies using the terms: "OR", "AND"...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149320/organic-scintillator-for-real-time-neutron-dosimetry
#7
Kyle A Beyer, Angela Di Fulvio, Liliana Stolarczyk, Wiktor Parol, Natalia Mojzeszek, Renata Kopéc, Shaun D Clarke, Sara A Pozzi
We developed a radiation detector based on an organic scintillator for spectrometry and dosimetry of out-of-field secondary neutrons from clinical proton beams. The detector consists of an EJ-299-34 crystalline organic scintillator, coupled by fiber optic cable to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Proof of concept measurements were taken with 137Cs and 252Cf, and corresponding simulations were performed in MCNPX-PoliMi. Despite its small size, the detector is able to discriminate between neutron and gamma-rays via pulse shape discrimination...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148922/feasibility-and-safety-of-using-thoracic-and-lumbar-cortical-bone-trajectory-pedicle-screws-in-spinal-constructs-in-children-technical-note
#8
Jonathan N Sellin, Jeffrey S Raskin, Kristen A Staggers, Alison Brayton, Valentina Briceño, Amee J Moreno, Andrew Jea
Thoracic and lumbar cortical bone trajectory pedicle screws have been described in adult spine surgery. They have likewise been described in pediatric CT-based morphometric studies; however, clinical experience in the pediatric age group is limited. The authors here describe the use of cortical bone trajectory pedicle screws in posterior instrumented spinal fusions from the upper thoracic to the lumbar spine in 12 children. This dedicated study represents the initial use of cortical screws in pediatric spine surgery...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145292/recurrent-spinal-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-with-brain-and-bone-metastases-a-case-report
#9
Frank Chen, Shyh-Shin Chiou, Sheng-Fung Lin, Ann-Shung Lieu, Yi-Ting Chen, Chih-Jen Huang
RATIONALE: Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is relatively rare in all age groups, and the prognosis in most cases of spinal PNETs appears to be poor, with a median patient survival of 1 to 2 years. We present a case with recurrent spinal PNET with brain and bone metastases that was successfully treated by multimodality treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 14-year-old teenage girl had suffered from progressive left upper back pain with bilateral lower legs weakness and numbness for 1 year...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142772/rare-case-of-an-extraosseous-cervical-chordoma-with-both-intradural-and-extensive-extraspinal-involvement
#10
Victor Awuor, Christopher E Stewart, Albert Camma, Julie Renner, J M Tongson
Background: Chordomas must be considered among the differential diagnoses for extradural spinal tumors, especially involving the clival or sacrococcygeal regions. They are often locally invasive and destructive to the osseous structures from which they arise, but rarely extend intradurally. Here, we report a unique chordoma that was intradural and spanned nearly four subaxial cervical vertebral levels. Case Description: We report the case of an atypical intradural chordoma that spanned four subaxial levels of the cervical spine in an 81-year-old female...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140156/conditioned-medium-from-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protects-motor-neuron-like-nsc-34-cells-against-scratch-injury-induced-cell-death
#11
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Francesca Diomede, Placido Bramanti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
Neuronal cell death is a normal process during central nervous system (CNS) development and is also involved in the death of motor neurons in diverse spinal motor neuron degenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of secretory factors released from human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs) in mechanically injured murine motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells. The cells were exposed to scratch injury and the markers for apoptosis and oxidative stress were examined. Immunocytochemistry results showed that proapoptotic markers cleaved caspase-3 and Bax were elevated while anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was suppressed in scratch-injured NSC-34 cells...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138883/hallmarks-of-bone-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Rachelle W Johnson, Larry J Suva
Breast cancer bone metastasis develops as the result of a series of complex interactions between tumor cells, bone marrow cells, and resident bone cells. The net effect of these interactions are the disruption of normal bone homeostasis, often with significantly increased osteoclast and osteoblast activity, which has provided a rational target for controlling tumor progression, with little or no emphasis on tumor eradication. Indeed, the clinical course of metastatic breast cancer is relatively long, with patients likely to experience sequential skeletal-related events (SREs), often over lengthy periods of time, even up to decades...
November 14, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138827/gambogic-acid-inhibits-spinal-cord-injury-and-inflammation-through-suppressing-the-p38-and-akt-signaling-pathways
#13
Qiao Fu, Chaojian Li, Lehua Yu
Gamboge is the dry resin secreted by Garcinia hanburyi Hook.f, with the function of promoting blood circulation, detoxification, hemostasis and killing insects, used for the treatment of cancer, brain edema and other diseases. Gambogic acid is the main effective constituent of Gamboge. The present study investigated the protective effects of gambogic acid on spinal cord injury (SCI) and its anti‑inflammatory mechanism in an SCI model in vivo. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) testing was used to detect the protective effects of gambogic acid on nerve function of SCI rats...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136257/risk-factors-for-pathological-fracture-and-metastatic-epidural-spinal-cord-compression-in-patients-with-spinal-metastases
#14
Catherine S Hibberd, Gerald M Y Quan
Vertebral pathological fracture and metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) due to metastatic cancer inevitably cause pain, neurological deficit, impaired function, and decreased quality of life and are indications for surgery. In such cases, earlier surgical intervention has the potential to prevent permanent neurological deficit and disability and to maintain function and quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and evaluate risk factors for pathological fracture and MESCC in patients with spinal metastases...
November 11, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135884/prognostic-factors-and-treatment-of-spinal-astrocytomas-a-multi-institutional-cohort-analysis
#15
Yingjie Zou, James Sun, Yangying Zhou, Harrison Xiao Bai, Xiangyan Huang, Ranjith Babu, Alessandro Landi, Kap Sum Foong, Zishu Zhang, John Woo, Yongguang Tao, Xuejun Li, Xiangqi Tang, Bo Xiao, Paul Zhang, Li Yang
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of patients with spinal astrocytoma from multi-institutional data and the literature. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic factors, treatment, and survival of patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Our current understanding of the epidemiology, prognosis and optimal treatment of spinal astrocytoma is limited. The literature is confined to case reports or small institutional case series. METHOD: Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were extracted...
November 10, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135586/increased-hyperalgesia-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-the-spinal-cord-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-after-surgery-and-or-fentanyl-administration-in-rats
#16
Lu Chang, Fang Ye, Quehua Luo, Yuanxiang Tao, Haihua Shu
BACKGROUND: Perioperative fentanyl has been reported to induce hyperalgesia and increase postoperative pain. In this study, we tried to investigate behavioral hyperalgesia, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the activation of microglia in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in a rat model of surgical plantar incision with or without perioperative fentanyl. METHODS: Four groups of rats (n = 32 for each group) were subcutaneously injected with fentanyl at 60 μg/kg or normal saline for 4 times with 15-minute intervals...
November 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134342/an-introduction-and-overview-of-machine-learning-in-neurosurgical-care
#17
REVIEW
Joeky T Senders, Mark M Zaki, Aditya V Karhade, Bliss Chang, William B Gormley, Marike L Broekman, Timothy R Smith, Omar Arnaout
BACKGROUND: Machine learning (ML) is a branch of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn from large complex datasets without being explicitly programmed. Although ML is already widely manifest in our daily lives in various forms, the considerable potential of ML has yet to find its way into mainstream medical research and day-to-day clinical care. The complex diagnostic and therapeutic modalities used in neurosurgery provide a vast amount of data that is ideally suited for ML models...
November 13, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133210/high-speed-flow-cytometry-allows-the-detection-of-circulating-endothelial-cells-in-hemangioblastoma-patients
#18
Sara De Biasi, Lara Gibellini, Alberto Feletti, Giacomo Pavesi, Elena Bianchini, Domenico Lo Tartaro, Simone Pecorini, Anna De Gaetano, Rosalberta Pullano, Milena Nasi, Marcello Pinti, Andrea Cossarizza
Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) detach from the intima monolayer after endothelial damages. Their circulating endothelial progenitors (CEPs) represent less than 0.01% of nucleated blood cells. Increased levels of CECs and CEPs have been detected in patients with several types of cancer, suggesting that they could be a useful blood-based marker for detecting a tumor, or for monitoring its clinical course. However, their routine monitoring is time consuming and technically challenging. Here, we present a flow cytometry method for quantifying such cells in a cohort of patients with hemangioblastoma (HB)...
November 10, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132118/primary-malignant-melanoma-of-the-female-urethra-report-of-a-rare-neoplasm-of-the-urinary-tract
#19
Namita Bhutani, Pradeep Kajal, Devendra Pawar
INTRODUCTION: Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its occurance in the female urethra is extremely rare. We report a case of primary malignant urethral melanoma developed in an elderly female patient. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 70 years old female presented with dysuria, poor stream, gross haematuria, intermittent blood spots, and a painful mass. On physical examination, there were no suspicious lesions on the skin. On external genital examination, a lesion at the level of the urethral meatus was observed...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131367/influence-of-the-neural-microenvironment-on-prostate-cancer
#20
Christian Coarfa, Diego Florentin, NagiReddy Putluri, Yi Ding, Jason Au, Dandan He, Ahmed Ragheb, Anna Frolov, George Michailidis, MinJae Lee, Dov Kadmon, Brian Miles, Christopher Smith, Michael Ittmann, David Rowley, Arun Sreekumar, Chad J Creighton, Gustavo Ayala
BACKGROUND: Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease. METHOD: We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. We also performed a human neoadjuvant clinical trial using botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and saline in the same patient, before prostatectomy...
November 13, 2017: Prostate
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