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Spinal neoplasm

Maria Wostrack, Florian Ringel, Sven O Eicker, Max Jägersberg, Karl Schaller, Johannes Kerschbaumer, Claudius Thomé, Ehab Shiban, Michael Stoffel, Benjamin Friedrich, Victoria Kehl, Peter Vajkoczy, Bernhard Meyer, Julia Onken
OBJECTIVE Spinal ependymomas are rare glial neoplasms. Because their incidence is low, only a few larger studies have investigated this condition. There are no clear data concerning prognosis and therapy. The aim of the study was to describe the natural history, perioperative clinical course, and local tumor control of adult patients with spinal ependymomas who were surgically treated under modern treatment standards. METHODS The authors performed a multicenter retrospective study. They identified 158 adult patients with spinal ependymomas who had received surgical treatment between January 2006 and June 2013...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Grzegorz Guzik
BACKGROUND: Thoracic spine cancer metastases is frequently the cause of neurological deficits. Despite the availability of diagnostics, delays in treatment are still quite common. The aim of this work is to analyze the reasons for delayed diagnostics and treatment, in patients with neurological deficits in the course of metastatic spine disease. METHODS: In our study patients medical data was analyzed from 2013 to 2015. The analysis covered the following aspects: symptoms of metastases, time of neurological deficits occurrence, where and when initial diagnostics were performed, time from diagnosis to proper surgical treatment in an oncological centre...
March 7, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Anita Lwanga, David O Kamson, Tiffany E Wilkins, Vinny Sharma, Jefree J Schulte, James Miller, Ikram Hassan, Ricardo R Lastra
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (NMDARe) is one of 13 autoimmune-mediated encephalitides that have been discovered over the last decade. This case report describes the course of a 26-year-old female who presented with new-onset seizures and insomnia, complicated by encephalitis. The initial workup ruled out common causes of encephalitis, while a transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS), and computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis did not identify a mass. Based on the suspicion that she may have autoimmune encephalitis, the patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and plasma exchange, but continued to deteriorate...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Dong Keon Yon, Tae Keun Ahn, Dong Eun Shin, Gwang Il Kim, Moon Kyu Kim
BACKGROUND: Germ cell tumors (GCTs) in children are rare neoplasms with diverse pathological findings according to the site and age of presentation. The most common symptoms in children with mediastinal GCTs, which are nonspecific, are dyspnea, chest pain, cough, hemoptysis, vena cava occlusion syndrome, and fatigue/weakness. Because of these nonspecific symptoms, it is difficult to suspect a mediastinal mass. A posterior mediastinal tumor causing spinal cord compression is an important example of an oncologic emergency arising from a neurogenic tumor...
March 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Seddighi Afsoun, Seddighi Amir Saied, Nikouei Amir, Javadian Hamed
Giant cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, benign, and locally aggressive primary bone neoplasms. Spine is seldom affected, especially above the level of sacrum. In this report, we describe a case with GCT of the cervical vertebrae which causes collapse of the corpus. A 32-year-old female presented with gradual neck pain and abrupt paresthesia of the left hand. Computed tomography scan showed C6 vertebral collapse and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated vertebral plana of C6 by a low signal intensity lesion on T1- and T2-weighted images...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Mark Chukwunweike Chikani, Okwuoma Okwunodulu, Mathew Mesi, Wilfred C Mezue, Samuel C Ohaegbulam, Chika C Ndubuisi
Background: Primary spinal cord tumors are not as frequently encountered as their cranial counterparts. They could present in such an indolent manner that requires a reasonable index of suspicion for their diagnosis to be considered. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the incidence and pattern of primary spinal cord and appendage neoplasms in patients surgically treated in our institution over a decade of practice. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of clinical, radiological, and histopathology profiles of patients surgically treated for primary spinal cord tumor from 2006 to 2016 was carried out...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Georgios K Prezerakos, Parag Sayal, Antonios Kourliouros, Periclis Pericleous, George Ladas, Adrian Casey
PURPOSE: Cervicothoracic paravertebral neoplasms extending into the mediastinum pose a surgical challenge due the complex regional anatomy, their biological nature, rarity and surgeon's unfamiliarity with the region. We aim to define a surgical access framework addressing the aforementioned complexities whilst achieving oncological clearance. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective review of 28 consecutive patients operated in two tertiary referral centres between 1998 and 2015...
February 14, 2018: European Spine Journal
Nilesh H Pawar, Ealing Loke, Derrick C Aw
Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is a rare type of stroke. The initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually normal and can mimic the presentation of the acute transverse myelitis (ATM), acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and compressive myelopathies from neoplasm, epidural or subdural hematoma, or abscess. The aim of this report is to describe and discuss the case of a patient with SCI presenting as a diagnostic confusion with acute transverse myelitis. A 64-year-old male with a medical history of hypertension presented with an acute onset of urinary retention with lower limb weakness...
December 6, 2017: Curēus
Stylianos Kapetanakis, Danai Chourmouzi, Grigorios Gkasdaris, Vasileios Katsaridis, Eleftherios Eleftheriadis, Panagiotis Givissis
Paragangliomas are benign neoplasms that arise from the autonomic nervous system and the associated paraganglia. Although benign, they have been shown to possess metastatic potential. Involvement of the spine is rare. Even rarer is considered the involvement of the cervical spine. We report a case of a patient with a history of an extra-adrenal non-functional paraganglioma of the jugular foramen which was initially treated with intra-arterial embolization. After a 3-year disease-free follow-up, the patient was presented with symptoms of spinal cord compression due to spinal metastases in C2 and C3 vertebrae...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Hu Xu, Minfeng Tong, Jihong Liu, Gezhi Zhou, Feng Chen
Capillary hemangiomas (CAs) are benign endothelial cell neoplasms that are often encountered superficially in the soft tissues of the head and neck region. Most of the reported purely spinal epidural hemangiomas have been of cavernous type, and the occurrence of purely spinal epidural CA is exceedingly rare, and there are only 12 reported cases of spinal epidural CAs in the English literature. Herein, the authors report the 13th case of purely spinal epidural CAs, and the clinical characteristics, histopathological features, and treatment were also investigated...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Kevin T Huang, Malia McAvoy, Jeffrey Helgager, Viren Vasudeva, John H Chi
Spinal hemangiomas are common, benign vascular lesions that involve the bony portion of vertebral bodies and are generally asymptomatic. Rarely, they can become aggressive and present with predominantly epidural extension, mimicking other neoplasms. We present the case of a fifty-one year old woman who presented with myelopathy and was discovered to have a large mass causing epidural spinal cord compression, thought to be due to a peripheral nerve sheath tumor. She underwent surgery for tumor debulking. Intraoperatively, the mass was found to be mostly epidural with minimal bone involvement...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Vassilis Koutoulidis, Nickolas Papanikolaou, Lia A Moulopoulos
MRI plays an important role in the management of patients with plasma cell neoplasms and has been recognized as a biomarker of malignancy in the novel criteria for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Functional and molecular MRI techniques such as Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (Spinal or Whole Body), Intravoxel Incoherent Motion, and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, provide additional information related to tumor cellularity and angiogenesis, which may have prognostic implications for patients with smoldering and symptomatic myeloma...
February 2, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Romulus Emmanuel H Cruz, Ranhel C De Roxas, Carmela Concepcion A Sales-Callangan, Roland Dominic G Jamora
Widespread primary spinal oligodendrogliomas are a rare variety of tumors that usually affect children. Currently, there are only two adult cases reported worldwide. We report the first case of primary holocord oligodendroglioma with intracranial extension in a young adult female. The patient presented with a 4-month history of fluctuating hemiparesis of the left upper extremity eventually becoming quadriplegic after 1 month. Imaging findings revealed a contrast-enhancing holocord neoplasm spanning from the cervical region to the conus medullaris and with extension to the lower medulla...
February 2, 2018: CNS Oncology
Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk, Elżbieta Bernatowicz
Chest wall neoplasms mainly include malignancies, metastatic in particular. Differential diagnosis should include clinical data; tumor location, extent, delineation; the degree of homogeneity; the presence of calcifications; the nature of bone destruction and the degree of vascularization. The aim of the paper is to present both the benefits and limitations of ultrasound for the diagnosis of chest wall neoplasms. The neoplastic process may be limited to the chest wall; it may spread from the chest wall into the intrathoracic structures or spread from the inside of the chest towards the chest wall...
December 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
Borislav A Alexiev, Pauline M Chou, Lawrence J Jennings
CONTEXT: - Melanotic schwannoma (MS) is a nerve sheath tumor with a uniform composition of variably melanin-producing Schwann cells and metastatic potential. The MS is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of all nerve sheath tumors, with a predilection for spinal nerve involvement. Microscopically, the tumors are characterized by spindle and epithelioid cells arranged in interlacing fascicles, with marked accumulation of melanin in neoplastic cells and associated melanophages...
January 26, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Jeffrey P Mullin, Alvin Y Chan, Emily Bennett, Michael P Steinmetz
BACKGROUND: Bilateral extracavitary approach (BECA) is an option for decompression cases that require a more extended ventral approach. The clear advantage is increased accessibility to the most ventral aspects of the spine from a bilateral perspective. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of thoracic and thoracolumbar decompression and/or reconstruction from BECA. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed reviewing all patients who underwent BECA for thoracolumbar decompression from 2003 to 2012 at our institution...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
James M Shiflett, Betty L Herrington, David A Joyner, Ali G Saad
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly aggressive malignant primitive neoplasms that commonly occur in children younger than 2 years of age. The prognosis is generally dismal with a median survival time of <1 year. The majority of AT/RT occur in the posterior fossa and less frequently the supratentorium. Primary pediatric spinal AT/RT are exceedingly rare and only 15 cases have been reported to date. Here we report a very unusual case of primary spinal AT/RT extensively involving the spinal cord from T11 down to the cauda equina...
January 16, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Michael N Pakdaman, Matthew J Austin, Serguei Bannykh, Barry D Pressman
Hemangioblastomas are rare vascular tumors most often found in the posterior fossa and cervical spinal cord and commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau Disease. We report a case of sporadic hemangioblastoma in a patient without von Hippel-Lindau Disease. Imaging characteristics included a solid, suprasellar mass that was homogeneously enhancing. These findings most resembled a pituicytoma or choroid glioma because of the close association with the infundibulum and the homogeneous avid enhancement. Microscopically, the neoplasm was seen to be composed of vascular channels associated with foamy stromal cells, containing clear cytoplasmic vacuoles...
May 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Steffen Rosahl, Christopher Bohr, Michael Lell, Klaus Hamm, Heinrich Iro
Vestibular schwannomas (VS) expand slowly in the internal auditory canal, in the cerebellopontine angle, inside the cochlear and the labyrinth. Larger tumors can displace and compress the brainstem. With an annual incidence of 1:100,000 vestibular schwannoma represent 6-7% of all intracranial tumors. In the cerebellopontine angle they are by far the most neoplasm with 90% of all lesions located in this region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), audiometry, and vestibular diagnostics are the mainstays of the clinical workup for patients harboring tumors...
2017: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Kevin T Huang, Ziev B Moses, J Bryan Iorgulescu, John H Chi
Intradural spinal tumors are rare tumors of the central nervous system. Due to the eloquence of the spinal cord and its tracts, compact architecture of the cord and nerves and the infiltrative nature of some of these tumors, surgical resection is difficult to achieve without causing neurological deficits. Likewise, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are utilized more cautiously in the treatment of intradural spinal tumors than their cranial counterparts. Targeted therapies aimed at the genetic alterations and molecular biology tailored to these tumors would be helpful, but are lacking...
December 5, 2017: Neuro-oncology
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