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Spinal anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905522/intraoperative-angiography-via-the-popliteal-artery-a-useful-technique-for-patients-in-the-prone-position
#1
Nicolas W Villelli, David M Lewis, Thomas J Leipzig, Andrew J DeNardo, Troy D Payner, Charles G Kulwin
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative angiography can be a valuable tool in the surgical management of vascular disorders in the CNS. This is typically accomplished via femoral artery puncture; however, this can be technically difficult in patients in the prone position. The authors describe the feasibility of intraoperative angiography via the popliteal artery in the prone patient. METHODS Three patients underwent intraoperative spinal angiography in the prone position via vascular access through the popliteal artery. Standard angiography techniques were used, along with ultrasound and a micropuncture needle for initial vascular access...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904501/transpsoas-cystolitholapaxy-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-myelomeningocele-augmented-neobladder-and-mitrofanoff-appendicovesicostomy
#2
Spencer Lewis, Rajiv N Srinivasa, Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Kate H Kraft, Casey A Dauw, Ravi N Srinivasa
Recurrent urolithiasis is a common and potentially morbid complication of spina bifida. Although the size, the location, and the composition of these stones often necessitates percutaneous intervention, access is often complicated by body habitus and spinal deformity. There is little consensus regarding the approach to percutaneous lithotripsy when a clear path to the collecting system is unavailable, particularly in the setting of surgically augmented urological anatomy. Here we present the first known case in which a pediatric patient with spina bifida underwent percutaneous lithotripsy of bladder stones via a transpsoas approach...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893465/data-integrity-systems-for-organ-contours-in-radiation-therapy-planning
#3
Veeraj P Shah, Pranav Lakshminarayanan, Joseph Moore, Phuoc T Tran, Harry Quon, Curtiland Deville, Todd R McNutt
The purpose of this research is to develop effective data integrity models for contoured anatomy in a radiotherapy workflow for both real-time and retrospective analysis. Within this study, two classes of contour integrity models were developed: data driven models and contiguousness models. The data driven models aim to highlight contours which deviate from a gross set of contours from similar disease sites and encompass the following regions of interest (ROI): bladder, femoral heads, spinal cord, and rectum...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893070/perspective-review-on-applications-of-optics-in-spinal-surgery
#4
Daipayan Guha, Victor X D Yang
Optical technologies may be applied to multiple facets of spinal surgery from diagnostics to intraoperative image guidance to therapeutics. In diagnostics, the current standard remains cross-sectional static imaging. Optical surface scanning tools may have an important role; however, significant work is required to clearly correlate surface metrics to radiographic and clinically relevant spinal anatomy and alignment. In the realm of intraoperative image guidance, optical tracking is widely developed as the current standard of instrument tracking, however remains compromised by line-of-sight issues and more globally cumbersome registration workflows...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891075/the-cerebellum-from-the-fetus-to-the-elderly-history-advances-and-future-challenges
#5
Mario Manto, Thierry A G M Huisman
The cerebellum is now at the forefront of research in neuroscience. This is not just a coincidence, occurring about 250 years after the first description of the human cerebellum. The cerebellum contains the majority of neurons in the central nervous system and it is heavily connected with almost all cortical and subcortical areas of the supratentorial region as well as with the brainstem and the spinal cord. Cerebellar circuits are embedded in large-scale networks contributing to motor control and neurocognition...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885430/spinal-cord-ischemia-following-elective-endovascular-repair-of-infrarenal-aortic-aneurysms-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Konstantinos G Moulakakis, Vangelis G Alexiou, Georgios Karaolanis, George S Sfyroeras, George Theoharopoulos, Andreas Lazaris, John Kakisis, George Geroulakos
AIM: Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) is a rare but devastating complication. The mechanism underlying the occurrence of SCI following EVAR seems to be multifactorial and is underreported and not fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical outcomes in patients with this serious complication. MATERIAL-METHODS: A systematic review of the current literature, as per PRISMA statement guidelines, to evaluate the incidence of SCI following elective EVAR was performed...
June 6, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882714/evaluation-of-c2-pedicle-screw-placement-via-the-freehand-technique-by-neurosurgical-trainees
#7
Martin H Pham, Joshua Bakhsheshian, Patrick C Reid, Ian A Buchanan, Vance L Fredrickson, John C Liu
OBJECTIVE Freehand placement of C2 instrumentation is technically challenging and has a learning curve due the unique anatomy of the region. This study evaluated the accuracy of C2 pedicle screws placed via the freehand technique by neurosurgical resident trainees. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients treated at the LAC+USC Medical Center undergoing C2 pedicle screw placement in which the freehand technique was used over a 1-year period, from June 2016 to June 2017; all procedures were performed by neurosurgical residents...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877940/early-onset-scoliosis-contemporary-decision-making-and-treatment-options
#8
Carol C Hasler
Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) describes a wide array of diagnoses and deformities exposed to growth. This potentially life-threatening condition is still 1 of the biggest challenges in pediatric orthopaedics. The enlightenment of Bob Campbell's thoracic insufficiency syndrome concept and the negative impact of the earlier short and straight spine fusion approach on respiratory function and survival have fueled the evolution of EOS care. Despite all the progress made, growth-friendly spine surgery remains to be a burden to patients and caregivers...
July 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876281/postmortem-diffusion-mri-of-the-entire-human-spinal-cord-at-microscopic-resolution
#9
Evan Calabrese, Syed M Adil, Gary Cofer, Christian S Perone, Julien Cohen-Adad, Shivanand P Lad, G Allan Johnson
The human spinal cord is a central nervous system structure that plays an important role in normal motor and sensory function, and can be affected by many debilitating neurologic diseases. Due to its clinical importance, the spinal cord is frequently the subject of imaging research. Common methods for visualizing spinal cord anatomy and pathology include histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both of which have unique benefits and drawbacks. Postmortem microscopic resolution MRI of fixed specimens, sometimes referred to as magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), combines many of the benefits inherent to both techniques...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868260/redescription-of-phymolepis-cuifengshanensis-antiarcha-yunnanolepididae-using-high-resolution-computed-tomography-and-new-insights-into-anatomical-details-of-the-endocranium-in-antiarchs
#10
Yajing Wang, Min Zhu
Background: Yunnanolepidoids constitute either the most basal consecutive segments or the most primitive clade of antiarchs, a highly diversified jawed vertebrate group from the Silurian and Early Devonian periods. Although the general morphology of yunnanolepidoids is well established, their endocranial features remain largely unclear, thus hindering our further understanding of antiarch evolution, and early gnathostome evolution. Phymolepis cuifengshanensis , a yunnanolepidoid from the Early Devonian of southwestern China, is re-described in detail to reveal the information on endocranial anatomy and additional morphological data of head and trunk shields...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808632/lumbar-canal-stenosis-can-we-treat-it-endoscopically-our-experience
#11
Leonello Tacconi, Roberto Spinelli
BACKGROUND: The common treatment for lumbar canal stenosis involves an open surgical decompression with laminectomy and foraminotomy, even if spinal surgery is moving towards minimal invasiveness procedures. Minimal Invasive Surgery initially and recently spinal endoscopic techniques are becoming the standard procedures for lumbar disk prolapsed in consideration of the less surgical invasiveness with a considerable reducing in the amount of normal anatomy violation, in less risk of iatrogenic post-operative instability, minimal scar tissue formation and negligible blood loss when compared to the standard open approach...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808457/total-en-bloc-spondylectomy-through-a-posterior-approach-technique-and-surgical-outcome-in-thoracic-metastases
#12
Maurizio Domenicucci, Lorenzo Nigro, Roberto Delfini
BACKGROUND: In 1981, Roy-Camille et al. have firstly reported the total en-bloc spondylectomy (TES) through a posterior approach for cases of malignant spine tumors in order to reduce the local recurrence and to increase the patient's survival. By then, this surgery has been increasingly gaining recognition. However, it requires a high level of technical ability and knowledge of spinal anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics. METHOD: Herein, we report the patient's selection and technique to execute the TES for cases of thoracic metastasis...
July 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808146/spinal-accessory-nerve-duplication-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Eleni Papagianni, Panagiota Kosmidou, Sotiria Fergadaki, Athanasios Pallantzas, Panagiotis Skandalakis, Dimitrios Filippou
Aim of the present study is to expand our knowledge of the anatomy of the 11th cranial nerve and discuss the clinical importance and literature pertaining to accessory nerve duplication. We present one case of duplicated spinal accessory nerve in a patient undergoing neck dissection for oral cavity cancer. The literature review confirms the extremely rare diagnosis of a duplicated accessory nerve. Its clinical implication is of great importance. From this finding, a further extension to our knowledge of the existing anatomy is proposed...
2018: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807681/persons-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injuries-in-the-emergency-department-a-review-of-a-unique-population
#14
Mendel Kupfer, Brian T Kucer, Herschel Kupfer, Christopher S Formal
BACKGROUND: Persons with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are frequent utilizers of emergency medical services but are a poorly understood and medically complex population. As the treatment of acute spinal cord injuries improves, there is a growing population of patients suffering from the chronic neurological deficits and altered homeostasis resulting from those injuries. OBJECTIVES: We sought to highlight the unique diagnostic challenges of treating persons with SCIs and to review ailments uncommon in the general population but often encountered in this population...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792213/rate-of-presence-of-11-thoracic-vertebrae-and-6-lumbar-vertebrae-in-asymptomatic-chinese-adult-volunteers
#15
Ying-Zhao Yan, Qing-Ping Li, Cong-Cong Wu, Xiang-Xiang Pan, Zhen-Xuan Shao, Shao-Qing Chen, Ke Wang, Xi-Bang Chen, Xiang-Yang Wang
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies on spinal morphology in asymptomatic Asian and Western patients have been reported. Variation in spinal anatomy among patients is considered as the cause of wrong-level surgery in up to 40% of cases. The present study examined the rate of presence of 11 thoracic vertebrae and 6 lumbar vertebrae in 293 asymptomatic Chinese adult volunteers. METHODS: From May 27, 2016, to November 11, 2017, a cohort of 325 asymptomatic Chinese adults meeting the study exclusion criteria was recruited...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788188/importance-of-fenestration-size-for-definitive-treatment-of-a-quadrigeminal-arachnoid-cyst-endoscopic-inspection-of-the-cyst-and-surrounding-anatomy-2-dimensional-operative-video
#16
François Lechanoine, Pietro Spennato, Claudio Ruggiero, Giuseppe Cinalli
Arachnoid cysts are fluid-filled sacs, located between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane. Their prevalence in children is between 1% and 3%. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts represent 1% to 10% of them and are often associated with hydrocephalus, mostly by an obstructive mechanism, explained by compression of the tectum of the midbrain. When an indication for treatment is retained, 3 surgical options are available: microsurgical excision/fenestration, endoscopic fenestration, and shunt placement...
May 18, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778596/anterior-vs-posterior-approach-for-thoracic-corpectomy-an-analysis-of-risk-factors-outcomes-and-complications
#17
Ryan G Chiu, Jonathan Hobbs, Darian R Esfahani, Saavan Patel, David Rosenberg, Clayton L Rosinski, Akash S Patel, Anisse N Chaker, Ankit I Mehta
BACKGROUND: Thoracic corpectomies are performed for various reasons including spinal deformity, trauma, neoplasms, and infection. Regardless of indication, both anterior and posterior approaches are surgical options, selected based on pathology, anatomy, patient characteristics, and surgical experience. Risk profiles and outcomes for these procedures are poorly characterized, however, and the choice between the two approaches remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To compare risk factors and complications for adult patients undergoing anterior and posterior thoracic corpectomies...
May 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765790/direct-posterior-bipolar-cervical-facet-radiofrequency-rhizotomy-a-simpler-and-safer-approach-to-denervate-the-facet-capsule
#18
Ovidiu Palea, Haroon M Andar, Ramon Lugo, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson
Radiofrequency cervical rhizotomy has been shown to be effective for the relief of chronic neck pain, whether it be due to soft tissue injury, cervical spondylosis, or post-cervical spine surgery. The target and technique have traditionally been taught using an oblique approach to the anterior lateral capsule of the cervical facet joint. The goal is to position the electrode at the proximal location of the recurrent branch after it leaves the exiting nerve root and loops back to the cervical facet joint. The standard oblique approach to the recurrent nerve requires the testing of both motor and sensory components to verify the correct position and ensure safety so as to not damage the slightly more anterior nerve root...
March 14, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738061/use-of-ultrasound-guided-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-as-an-anesthesia-technique-in-a-patient-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-case-report
#19
Emine Aysu Şalvız, Emre Sertaç Bingül, Meltem Savran Karadeniz, Ömer Berköz, Erman Ak, Kamil Mehmet Tuğrul
Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by cutaneous and/or plexiform neurofibromas and hyperpigmented café-au-lait spots. It affects multiple endocrine and visceral organs and can be associated with several difficulties such as potential airway (ventilation/intubation) problems, abnormal spinal anatomy, and peripheral neurofibromas. Therefore, anesthesia technique selection becomes more of an issue in terms of avoiding complications and decreasing morbidity and mortality...
April 2018: Aǧrı: Ağrı (Algoloji) Derneği'nin Yayın Organıdır, the Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731281/three-dimensional-angioarchitecture-and-microsurgical-treatment-of-arteriovenous-fistulas-at-the-craniocervical-junction
#20
So Fujimoto, Keisuke Takai, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Taichi Kin, Nobuhito Saito
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard for diagnosing vascular malformations; however, difficulties are associated with visualizing the angioarchitecture of arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction (CCJ AVFs) using DSA because of their complex regional neurovascular anatomy. The present study evaluated the application of 3-dimensional computer graphics (3D CG) to the surgical planning of CCJ AVFs. Six patients with CCJ AVFs who underwent microsurgery and/or endovascular treatment were included...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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