keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Spinal anatomy

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664878/c2-translaminar-screw-fixation-in-children
#1
Brian W Yang, Michael P Glotzbecker, Michael Troy, Mark R Proctor, Michael T Hresko, Daniel J Hedequist
BACKGROUND: Axis (C2) screw fixation has been shown to be effective in treating disorders that necessitate cervical stabilization. Although translaminar C2 screws have demonstrated clinical efficacy in adults, this technique has not yet been thoroughly investigated in children. This study describes the indications, technique, and results of translaminar C2 screw fixation in a case series of pediatric cervical spine disorders. METHODS: We searched the orthopaedic database at our institution for patients who had undergone a cervical spinal fusion that encompassed C2 between 2007 and 2017...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663038/-relevance-of-spinal-navigation-in-reconstructive-surgery-of-the-cervical-spine
#2
REVIEW
R Kothe, M Richter
BACKGROUND: Spinal navigation has made significant advances in the last two decades. After initial experiences with pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar spine, technological improvements have resulted in their increased application in the cervical spine. Instrumentation techniques like cervical pedicle screws, lateral mass screws in C1 and transarticular screws C1/C2 have become standard due to the application of image guidance. TECHNIQUE: Different navigation techniques can be distinguished based on the type of imaging...
April 16, 2018: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657469/anatomical-differences-in-the-bony-structure-of-l5-and-l4-a-possible-classification-according-to-the-lateral-tilt-of-the-pedicles
#3
Giorgio Cacciola, Giuseppe Anastasi, Salvatore Bertino, Giuseppina Rizzo, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Fabio Trimarchi, Alessandro Pisani, Pietro Cavaliere, Andrea Barbanera, Daniele Bruschetta
The aim of this study is to underline the necessity of a better knowledge of pedicles anatomy in order to improve surgical treatment of spine disorders such us low back pain, spinal fractures and scholiosis. A classification of pedicles lateral tilt which could help surgeons before the application of screws during transpedicular fixation is reported. Anatomical differences in the orientiation of the pedicles of L5 and L4 have been found. For each patient that met the inclusion criteria underwent: Radiography of the lumbo-sacral region, CT examination, MRI acquisition...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656809/lateral-knee-compartment-portals-a-cadaveric-study-defining-a-posterolateral-viewing-safety-zone
#4
Brian Dilworth, Victor Fehrenbacher, John Nyland, Jamie Clark, Joseph W Greene
PURPOSE: This study attempted to define a reproducible "safe zone" based on extra- and intra-articular knee anatomy for placing one or 2 accessory portals in the lateral tibiofemoral compartment for posterolateral region viewing. METHODS: Standard portals were created in 10 cadaveric knees to enable posterolateral region arthroscopic lateral tibiofemoral joint compartment viewing. After identifying the lateral knee surface tissue "soft spot," an accessory posterolateral portal (A) was created using an 18-gauge spinal needle and 4-mm cannula under direct visualization of a 70° arthroscope through the anteromedial portal...
April 12, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655446/practical-anatomy-of-the-neuromuscular-junction-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Hiroshi Nishimune, Kazuhiro Shigemoto
Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) form between nerve terminals of spinal cord motor neurons and skeletal muscles, and perisynaptic Schwann cells and kranocytes cap NMJs. One muscle fiber has one NMJ, which is innervated by one motor nerve terminal. NMJs are excitatory synapses that use P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels to release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine receptors accumulate at the postsynaptic specialization called the end plate on the muscle fiber membrane, the sarcolemma. Proteins essential for the organization of end plates include agrin secreted from nerve terminals, Lrp4 and MuSK receptors for agrin, and Dok-7 and rapsyn cytosolic proteins in the muscle...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652578/mr-imaging-of-the-fetal-face-comprehensive-review
#6
Murali Nagarajan, Kedar G Sharbidre, Sudeep H Bhabad, Sharon E Byrd
The human face is a complex anatomic structure with an equally complex embryologic development. Derangement of the developmental process can result in various structural anomalies, which range from a mainly cosmetic deformity, such as cleft lip, to potentially life-threatening conditions such as arhinia. These anomalies (a) can occur as isolated anomalies; (b) can be associated with intracranial, spinal, or dental anomalies; or (c) can be a part of various syndromes, thus serving as diagnostic clues in such cases...
April 13, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651329/ischaemia-of-the-medullary-cone-after-stent-graft-implantation-in-a-patient-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-case-study
#7
Mariusz Wachowski, Michał Polguj, Janusz Ścibór, Agata Majos
Preoperative visualization of the Adamkiewicz artery - the vessel which is to a great extent responsible for supplying blood to the medullary cone - is an important step which must be taken before initiating restorative procedures in the aorta. We present a case of a 67-year-old patient who underwent an intravascular stent-graft implantation procedure, due to clinical signs of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Routine pre-operative computed tomography examination failed to demonstrate the Adamkiewicz artery. On the second day after the surgery, as a result of unexpected clinical deterioration, an magnetic resonance imaging examination of the lumbar spine was carried out...
March 2018: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627871/autonomic-regulation-and-ventricular-arrhythmias
#8
REVIEW
Lingjin Meng, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi Ajijola
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) has a crucial role of regulating cardiac function in the physiological state and contributes to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in the diseased state. The cardiac neuraxis consists of multiple feedback loops consisting of efferent and afferent limbs, mediating neurotransmission to and from the heart. Efferent parasympathetic neurotransmission is mediated by the vagus nerve, while paravertebral sympathetic ganglia relay efferent sympathetic neurotransmission to the heart. The association between autonomic activity and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) has been studied extensively in both experimental models and humans...
April 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616497/malformed-vertebrae-a-clinical-and-imaging-review
#9
REVIEW
Apeksha Chaturvedi, Nina B Klionsky, Umakanthan Nadarajah, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Steven P Meyers
A variety of structural developmental anomalies affect the vertebral column. Malformed vertebrae can arise secondary to errors of vertebral formation, fusion and/or segmentation and developmental variation. Malformations can be simple with little or no clinical consequence, or complex with serious structural and neurologic implications. These anomalies can occasionally mimic acute trauma (bipartite atlas versus Jefferson fracture, butterfly vertebra versus burst fracture), or predispose the affected individual to myelopathy...
April 3, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613893/vascular-disorders-of-the-spinal-cord
#10
Christopher L Kramer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prompt recognition and timely management of vascular disorders of the spinal cord can improve patient outcomes. This article provides contemporary and practical knowledge about the most common vascular myelopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have provided additional information on the risk factors and impact of neurologic monitoring on perioperative spinal cord infarction. Additionally, recent publications have provided information on the impact of misdiagnosis, corticosteroid treatment, and postoperative prognosis in the treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas and have discussed the outcome of patients with spinal arteriovenous malformations treated with embolization, surgery, and stereotactic radiosurgery...
April 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613892/approach-to-myelopathy
#11
Tracey A Cho, Shamik Bhattacharyya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelopathy is commonly encountered in clinical practice and is associated with a large number of causes. This article reviews the anatomy of the spinal cord and discusses how the clinical findings, time course, and radiographic patterns can help to identify the causes of myelopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Imaging observations such as MRI "pancake" gadolinium enhancement pattern with spondylotic myelopathy and subpial enhancement with neurosarcoidosis have improved diagnostic specificity...
April 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599183/embolization-through-the-thyrocervical-trunk-vascular-anatomy-variants-and-a-case-series
#12
Carlos Pérez-García, Carlos Malfaz, Mariano Del Valle Diéguez, Fernando Fortea Gil, Javier Saura Lorente, Miguel Echenagusia Boyra, Manuel González Leyte, Antonio Pérez-Higueras, Enrique Castro-Reyes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The thyrocervical trunk (TCT) is the second ascending branch of the subclavian artery. It is considered a 'border territory' between interventional vascular radiology and interventional neuroradiology because it gives rise to branches both cervical and to the upper limbs. We describe the TCT branches anatomy, the most frequent variants, and expose eight endovascular procedures performed through the thyrocervical trunk. METHODS: A retrospective review of all the interventional radiology procedures carried out through the TCT in our tertiary care center from August 2014 to January 2017 is presented...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596278/changes-in-lumbar-endplate-area-and-concavity-associated-with-disc-degeneration
#13
Philip K Louie, Alejandro A Espinoza Orías, Louis F Fogg, Mark LaBelle, Howard S An, Gunnar B J Andersson, Nozomu Inoue
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective image-based analysis. OBJECTIVE: To measure endplate three-dimensional (3D) geometry, endplate changes in vivo and to investigate correlations between disc degeneration and endplate 3D geometry dependent on symptoms of low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: It has been hypothesized that alteration of load transmission from the nucleus pulposus to the annulus fibrosus affects vertebral endplate geometry...
March 27, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584503/influence-of-morphological-variations-on-cervical-spine-segmental-responses-from-inertial-loading
#14
Jobin D John, Narayan Yoganandan, Mike W J Arun, G Saravana Kumar
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of morphological variations in osteoligamentous lower cervical spinal segment responses under postero-anterior inertial loading. METHODS: A parametric finite element model of the C5-C6 spinal segment was used to generate models. Variations in the vertebral body and facet depth (anteroposterior), posterior process length, intervertebral disc height, facet articular process height and slope, segment orientation ranging from lordotic to straight, and segment size were parameterized...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571668/odor-preference-and-olfactory-memory-are-impaired-in-olfaxin-deficient-mice
#15
Saiful Islam, Masashi Ueda, Emika Nishida, Miao-Xing Wang, Masatake Osawa, Dongsoo Lee, Masanori Itoh, Kiyomi Nakagawa, Tana, Toshiyuki Nakagawa
Olfaxin, which is a BNIP2 and Cdc42GAP homology (BCH) domain-containing protein, is predominantly expressed in mitral and tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb (OB). Olfaxin and Caytaxin, which share 56.3% amino acid identity, are similar in their glutamatergic terminal localization, kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) interaction, and caspase-3 substrate. Although the deletion of Caytaxin protein causes human Cayman ataxia and ataxia in the mutant mouse, the function of Olfaxin is largely unknown. In this study, we generated Prune2 gene mutant mice (Prune2Ex16-/- ; knock out [KO] mice) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, during which the exon 16 containing start codon of Olfaxin mRNA was deleted...
March 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565958/the-morphology-and-possible-clinical-significance-of-the-intraforaminal-ligaments-in-the-entrance-zones-of-the-l1-l5-levels
#16
Enyi Zhong, Qinghao Zhao, Benchao Shi, Yushan Xie, Zihai Ding, Hai Lv, Shizhen Zhong, Wenhua Huang
BACKGROUND: The extraforaminal ligaments between the L1-L5 lumbar spinal nerves and the tissues surrounding the intervertebral foramina (IVF) have been well studied. However, little research has been performed to describe the local anatomy of the entrance zones at the L1-L5 level. Detailed anatomic studies of the intraforaminal ligaments (IFLs) in the entrance zones at the L1-L5 levels have not been performed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to identify and describe the IFLs in the entrance zones of the L1-L5 IVF and to determine their possible clinical significance...
March 2018: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565946/anatomy-pathophysiology-and-interventional-therapies-for-chronic-pelvic-pain-a-review
#17
Corey W Hunter, Brad Stovall, Grant Chen, Jonathan Carlson, Robert Levy
BACKGROUND: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) represents a group of poorly understood disorders that are often refractory to conventional treatment. Referral to pain management typically occurs later in the continuum of care; as such, many of the injections and nerve blocks commonly prescribed for such patients are potentially limited in efficacy. While neuromodulation is conventionally considered the next algorithmic step in the treatment of chronic pain after injections fail, there is a common perception that neuromodulation is largely ineffective for CPP conditions...
March 2018: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558244/a-novel-approach-to-identifying-the-spinal-accessory-nerve-in-surgical-neck-dissection
#18
Michael James Eastwood, And Ajith Paulose George
Intraoperative identification of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) is key in reducing nerve injury. This study aims to explore the surgical anatomy of the SAN and 2 landmarks for its identification-the sternocleidomastoid branch of the occipital artery (SBOA) and superior sternocleidomastoid tendon (SST)-to propose a novel method of identifying the SAN during surgical neck dissections. Twelve cadavers underwent bilateral level II-V neck dissection identifying the SAN, SBOA, and SST. Variation was documented and distance between landmarks and the SAN measured...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556419/inflammatory-and-structural-changes-in-vertebral-bodies-and-posterior-elements-of-the-spine-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-construct-validity-responsiveness-and-discriminatory-ability-of-the-anatomy-based-canden-scoring-system-in-a-randomised-placebo-controlled
#19
Simon Krabbe, Inge J Sørensen, Bente Jensen, Jakob M Møller, Lone Balding, Ole R Madsen, Robert G W Lambert, Walter P Maksymowych, Susanne J Pedersen, Mikkel Østergaard
Background: The Canada-Denmark (CANDEN) definitions of spinal MRI lesions allow a detailed anatomy-based evaluation of inflammatory and structural lesions in vertebral bodies and posterior elements of the spine in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). The objective was to examine the reliability, responsiveness and discrimination of scores for spinal inflammation, fat, bone erosion and new bone formation based on the CANDEN system and to describe patterns of inflammatory and structural lesions and their temporal development...
2018: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545223/vertebral-venous-collaterals-with-underlying-agenesis-of-the-inferior-vena-cava-implications-for-spinal-surgery
#20
Jang W Yoon, Sara Ganaha, Clarence Watridge
BACKGROUND: Congenital agenesis of the inferior vena cava (IVC) can lead to the development of a prominent venous collateral system within and around the spine due to the development of venous collaterals. Surgery on such patients can harbor the risk of catastrophic bleeding or decompensation of a delicate venous drainage pattern during spinal manipulation or even epidural exploration. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 49-year old man with a congenital agenesis of the IVC presented with signs and symptoms of an L5 radiculopathy...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
keyword
keyword
31826
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"