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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776863/vitamin-d-in-burn-injured-patients
#1
REVIEW
Megan A Rech, Daniel Colon Hidalgo, Jennifer Larson, Sarah Zavala, Michael Mosier
Recently, many studies have demonstrated pleotropic effects of vitamin D, including immune modulation and cardiovascular system activity. Sufficient vitamin D concentrations and supplementation of vitamin D may be of benefit in burn-injured patients. Low 25(OH)D has been observed in nearly all pediatric and most adult burn patients. Vitamin D has primarily been studied in pediatric burn patients, focusing on bone marker measurements and the incidence of fractures. The preferred vitamin D dose, formulation, and route of administration remain unknown, and there is limited data on the impact of vitamin D status on clinical outcomes...
May 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763833/%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-signalling-bias-in-asthma-and-copd-and-the-potential-impact-on-the-comorbidities-associated-with-these-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Maria Gabriella Matera, Clive Page, Barbara Rinaldi
Inhaled selective β2-agonists are the most widely used treatment for obstructive airway diseases. The classical mechanism of action of these drugs is considered as their ability to activate β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) on airway smooth muscle leading to G-protein activation and subsequent generation of c-AMP causing bronchodilation. However, there is now growing evidence to suggest that binding of β2-agonists to β2-AR is pleotropically coupled to many intracellular pathways whereby depending on the state of the β2-AR when activated, a subset of different intracellular responses can be triggered...
May 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755666/impact-of-lenalidomide-maintenance-on-the-immune-environment-of-multiple-myeloma-patients-with-low-tumor-burden-after-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Karel Fostier, Jo Caers, Nathalie Meuleman, Katrijn Broos, Jurgen Corthals, Kris Thielemans, Rik Schots, Brenda De Keersmaecker
Lenalidomide is a potent anti-myeloma drug with immunomodulatory properties. It is increasingly used in a low-dose maintenance setting to prolong remission duration after standard treatment. Data on the in vivo effects of lenalidomide are scarce and sometimes different from the well-described in vitro effects. We therefore evaluated the numerical, phenotypical and functional impact of lenalidomide maintenance on several immune cell types in a cohort of seventeen homogeneously treated myeloma patients achieving a low residual myeloma burden after a bortezomib based-induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721511/vitamin-d-status-and-its-influence-on-outcomes-following-major-burn-injury-and-critical-illness
#4
REVIEW
Khaled Al-Tarrah, Martin Hewison, Naiem Moiemen, Janet M Lord
Vitamin D deficiency is common among the general population. It is also observed in up to 76% of critically ill patients. Despite the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in critical illness, vitamin D is often overlooked by medical staff as the clinical implications and consequences of vitamin D deficiency in acute contexts remain to be fully understood. Vitamin D has a broad range of pleotropic effects on various processes and systems including the immune-inflammatory response. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D), has been shown to promote a tolerogenic immune response limiting deleterious inflammatory effects, modulation of the innate immune system, and enhancement of anti-microbial peptides...
2018: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626696/fine-tuning-pro-angiogenic-effects-of-cobalt-for-simultaneous-enhancement-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-secretion-and-implant-neovascularization
#5
Yoke Chin Chai, Luis Freitas Mendes, Nick van Gastel, Geert Carmeliet, Frank P Luyten
Rapid neovascularization of a tissue-engineered (TE) construct by the host vasculature is quintessential to warrant effective bone regeneration. This process can be promoted through active induction of angiogenic growth factor secretion or by implementation of in vitro pre-vascularization strategies. In this study, we aimed at optimizing the pro-angiogenic effect of Cobalt (Co2+ ) to enhance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by human periosteum-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDCs). Simultaneously we set out to promote microvascular network formation by co-culturing with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
April 4, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576234/usefulness-of-statins-for-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism
#6
REVIEW
Patricia Chaffey, Mary Thompson, Ajit D Pai, Ali R Tafreshi, Javad Tafreshi, Ramdas G Pai
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is common with an annual incidence of 1 to 5 per 1,000, resulting in major morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. It is more common in the elderly, obese, those with cancer, those undergoing surgery, and those with previous VTE. Strategy to reduce its occurrence has important public health implications. Pleotropic effects of statins may have beneficial effects on a number of potential targets associated with VTE...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365464/pro-inflammatory-macrophages-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-a-pleotropic-effect-of-statins
#7
Rudolf Poledne, Ivana Kralova Lesna, Marek Petras, Jiri Fronek, Anna Kralova, Sona Cejkova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355530/spexin-as-a-neuroendocrine-signal-with-emerging-functions
#8
REVIEW
Ani Ma, Jin Bai, Mulan He, Anderson O L Wong
Spexin (SPX), a novel peptide coevolved with the galanin/kisspeptin family, was first identified by bioinformatics prior to its protein purification/functional studies. Its mature peptide is highly conserved among different vertebrate classes. Based on the studies in mammals and fish models, SPX was found to be widely distributed at tissue level, secreted into systemic circulation, identified at notable levels in central nervous system and peripheral tissues, and has been confirmed/implicated in multiple functions in different tissues/organs, suggesting that SPX may serve as a neuroe​ndocrine signal with pleotropic functions...
January 20, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341123/do-longer-root-hairs-improve-phosphorus-uptake-testing-the-hypothesis-with-transgenic-brachypodium-distachyon-lines-overexpressing-endogenous-rsl-genes
#9
Chunyan Zhang, Richard J Simpson, Chul Min Kim, Norman Warthmann, Emmanuel Delhaize, Liam Dolan, Mary E Byrne, Yu Wu, Peter R Ryan
Mutants without root hairs show reduced inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) uptake and compromised growth on soils when Pi availability is restricted. What is less clear is whether root hairs that are longer than wild-type provide an additional benefit to phosphorus (P) nutrition. This was tested using transgenic Brachypodium lines with longer root hairs. The lines were transformed with the endogenous BdRSL2 and BdRSL3 genes using either a constitutive promoter or a root hair-specific promoter. Plants were grown for 32 d in soil amended with various Pi concentrations...
January 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338542/the-novel-microtubule-associated-cap-glycine-protein-cgp1-governs-growth-differentiation-and-virulence-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#10
Li Li Wang, Kyung-Tae Lee, Kwang-Woo Jung, Dong-Gi Lee, Yong-Sun Bahn
Microtubules are involved in mechanical support, cytoplasmic organization, and several cellular processes by interacting with diverse microtubule-associated proteins such as plus-end tracking proteins, motor proteins, and tubulin-folding cofactors. A number of the cytoskeleton-associated proteins (CAPs) contain the CAP-glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain, which is evolutionarily conserved and generally considered to bind to α-tubulin to regulate the function of microtubules. However, there has been a dearth of research on CAP-Gly proteins in fungal pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans, which is a global cause of fatal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients...
January 1, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334676/statins-in-the-treatment-of-copd-and-asthma-where-do-we-stand
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer Y So, Santosh Dhungana, Joanna J Beros, Gerard J Criner
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the two most prevalent obstructive lung diseases that account for tremendous morbidity and mortality throughout the world. These diseases have strong inflammatory components, with multiple prior studies showing elevated levels of various inflammatory markers and cells in those with COPD and asthma. Therefore, efforts to target inflammation in management of these diseases are of great interest. Statins, which define a class of drugs that are HMG-CoA inhibitors, are used to decrease cholesterol levels and have also been described to have many pleotropic effects that include anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325023/the-extending-spectrum-of-npc1-related-human-disorders-from-niemann-pick-c1-disease-to-obesity
#12
Amel Lamri, Marie Pigeyre, William S Garver, David Meyre
The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein regulates the transport of cholesterol and fatty acids from late endosomes/lysosomes and has a central role in maintaining lipid homeostasis. NPC1 loss-of-function mutations in humans cause NPC1 disease, a rare autosomal-recessive lipid-storage disorder characterized by progressive and lethal neurodegeneration, as well as liver and lung failure, due to cholesterol infiltration. In humans, genome-wide association studies and post-genome-wide association studies highlight the implication of common variants in NPC1 in adult-onset obesity, body fat mass, and type 2 diabetes...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308360/influence-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-on-wound-healing-in-male-wistar-rats-an-experimental-study
#13
Anupama M Gudadappanavar, Prashant R Hombal, Somling S Timashetti, S B Javali
Context and Aim: Probiotics have been documented with various pleotropic effects other than improving general gut health, but the potential benefits of strain-specific Lactobacillus on wound healing are unknown. Hence, the objective of the study is to evaluate and compare the wound healing property of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum on various wound models in male Wistar rats. Subjects and Methods: Excision wound, resutured incision wound, and dead space wounds were inflicted under light thiopentone anesthesia in male Wistar rats ( n = 6, in each group)...
October 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298835/histone-deacetylases-srt1-and-srt2-interact-with-enap1-to-mediate-ethylene-induced-transcriptional-repression
#14
Fan Zhang, Likai Wang, Eun Esther Ko, Kevin Shao, Hong Qiao
Ethylene plays pleiotropic roles in plant growth, plant development, and stress responses. Although the effects of ethylene on plants are well documented, little is known about molecular-level events that result in transcriptional repression during the ethylene response. In this study, we found that two histone deacetylases, SRT1 and SRT2, interact with ENAP1, which associates with EIN2 in the nucleus. Genetic and transcriptome analyses revealed that SRT1 and SRT2 are required for negative regulation of certain ethylene-responsive genes...
January 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291386/nifuroxazide-a-stat3-inhibitor-mitigates-inflammatory-burden-and-protects-against-diabetes-induced-nephropathy-in-rats
#15
Eman Said, Sawsan A Zaitone, Mohamed Eldosoky, Nehal M Elsherbiny
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Moreover,it is amongst the most common causes of end-stage renal failure. Inflammation is a crucial player in both development and progression of DN. JAK2/STA3 is a pleotropic cascade reported to regulate diverse inflammatory events. Previous studies reported involvement of JAK2/STA3 signal transduction pathway in diabetes-associated renal injury. In the current study, the inhibitory effect of nifuroxazide (25 mg/kg/day, orally) against inflammatory condition associating diabetic kidney progression in rats was evaluated...
February 1, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288444/usage-of-a-bioluminescence-reporter-system-to-image-promoter-activity-during-host-infection
#16
Gili Aviv, Ohad Gal-Mor
Bioluminescence is the process of production and emission of light by a living organism, usually as the by-product of the oxidative enzyme, luciferase. Currently available technology allows for the exploitation of a bioluminescent reporter system to study bacterial gene regulation during rodent infection, in real time, over a large dynamic range. Here we show how this imaging system can be used to study virulence gene regulation during Salmonella enterica infection in the mouse model. To demonstrate this technique we show the ex vivo expression pattern of the gene dksA, encoding a conserved and pleotropic regulator, which plays a key role in Salmonella pathogenicity [1]...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230865/glial-source-of-nitric-oxide-in-epileptogenesis-a-target-for-disease-modification-in-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Shaunik Sharma, Sreekanth Puttachary, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Epileptogenesis is the process of developing an epileptic condition and/or its progression once it is established. The molecules that initiate, promote, and propagate remarkable changes in the brain during epileptogenesis are emerging as targets for prevention/treatment of epilepsy. Epileptogenesis is a continuous process that follows immediately after status epilepticus (SE) in animal models of acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Both SE and epileptogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the discovery of anticonvulsants and antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying agents...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#18
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2 ) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221962/drug-delivery-and-tissue-engineering-to-promote-wound-healing-in-the-immunocompromised-host-current-challenges-and-future-directions
#19
Alexander M Tatara, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Antonios G Mikos
As regenerative medicine matures as a field, more promising technologies are being translated from the benchtop to the clinic. However, many of these strategies are designed with otherwise healthy hosts in mind and validated in animal models without other co-morbidities. In reality, many of the patient populations benefiting from drug delivery and tissue engineering-based devices to enhance wound healing also have significant underlying immunodeficiency. Specifically, patients suffering from diabetes, malignancy, human immunodeficiency virus, post-organ transplantation, and other compromised states have significant pleotropic immune defects that affect wound healing...
December 6, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187283/new-insight-into-transglutaminase-2-and-link-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Boram Min, Kwang Chul Chung
Formation of toxic protein aggregates is a common feature and mainly contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), which include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and prion diseases. The transglutaminase 2 (TG2) gene encodes a multifunctional enzyme, displaying four types of activity, such as transamidation, GTPase, protein disulfide isomerase, and protein kinase activities. Many studies demonstrated that the calcium-dependent transamidation activity of TG2 affects the formation of insoluble and toxic amyloid aggregates that mainly consisted of NDD-related proteins...
January 2018: BMB Reports
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