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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908965/inf-%C3%AE-encoding-plasmid-administration-triggers-bone-loss-and-disrupts-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#1
Dimitrios Agas, Guilherme Gusmâo Silva, Fulvio Laus, Andrea Marchigiani, Melania Capitani, Cecilia Vullo, Giuseppe Catone, Giovanna Lavava, Antonio Concetti, Luigi Marchetti, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti
IFN-γ is a pleotropic cytokine produced in the bone microenvironment. Although IFN-γ is known to play a critical role on bone remodeling, its function is not fully elucidated. Consistently, outcomes on the effects of IFN-γ recombinant protein on bone loss are contradictory among reports. In our work we explored, for the first time, the role of IFN-γ encoding plasmid (pIFN-γ) in a mouse model of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy and in the sham-operated counterpart to estimate its effects in skeletal homeostasis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879405/does-citrulline-sit-at-the-nexus-of-metformin-s-pleotropic-effects-on-metabolism-and-mediate-its-salutatory-effects-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
Brian A Irving, Guillaume Spielmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836669/genetic-deletion-of-galectin-3-enhances-neuroinflammation-affects-microglial-activation-and-contributes-to-sub-chronic-injury-in-experimental-neonatal-focal-stroke
#3
Sophorn Chip, David Fernández-López, Fan Li, Joel Faustino, Nikita Derugin, Zinaida S Vexler
The pathophysiology of neonatal stroke and adult stroke are distinct in many aspects, including the inflammatory response. We previously showed endogenously protective functions of microglial cells in acute neonatal stroke. We asked if galectin-3 (Gal3), a pleotropic molecule that mediates interactions between microglia/macrophages and the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a role in early injury after transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) in postnatal day 10 mice. Compared to wild type (WT) pups, in Gal3 knockout pups injury was worse and cytokine/chemokine production altered, including further increase of MIP1α and MIP1β levels and reduced IL6 levels 72 hours after tMCAO...
November 8, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785114/lipoprotein-apheresis-in-the-management-of-severe-hypercholesterolemia-and-of-elevation-of-lipoprotein-a-current-perspectives-and-patient-selection
#4
REVIEW
Ulrich Julius
This review reports the current situation with respect to therapeutic options (lifestyle and drugs) reducing the concentrations of atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]). Three lipoprotein apheresis (LA) principles have been realized: precipitation, filtration, and adsorption. Available LA methods are herein described in detail - major components, pumps, extracorporeal volume, treated volume, and anticoagulation. General features of all LA methods as well as pleotropic effects are elaborated...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720306/epigenetic-regulation-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-secretion-by-sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-in-acute-lung-injury-role-of-s1p-lyase
#5
REVIEW
David L Ebenezer, Panfeng Fu, Vidyani Suryadevara, Yutong Zhao, Viswanathan Natarajan
Cellular level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the simplest bioactive sphingolipid, is tightly regulated by its synthesis catalyzed by sphingosine kinases (SphKs) 1 & 2 and degradation mediated by S1P phosphatases, lipid phosphate phosphatases, and S1P lyase. The pleotropic actions of S1P are attributed to its unique inside-out (extracellular) signaling via G-protein-coupled S1P1-5 receptors, and intracellular receptor independent signaling. Additionally, S1P generated in the nucleus by nuclear SphK2 modulates HDAC1/2 activity, regulates histone acetylation, and transcription of pro-inflammatory genes...
September 29, 2016: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684953/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-the-molecular-signatures-of-annexin-a5-in-lung-squamous-carcinoma-cells
#6
Bing Sun, Yuxin Bai, Liyuan Zhang, Linlin Gong, Xiaoyu Qi, Huizhen Li, Faming Wang, Xinming Chi, Yulin Jiang, Shujuan Shao
Lung cancer remains the leading cancer killer around the world. It's crucial to identify newer mechanism-based targets to effectively manage lung cancer. Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is a protein kinase C inhibitory protein and calcium dependent phospholipid-binding protein, which may act as an endogenous regulator of various pathophysiological processes. However, its molecular mechanism in lung cancer remains poorly understood. This study was designed to determine the mechanism of ANXA5 in lung cancer with a hope to obtain useful information to provide a new therapeutic target...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633970/epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-as-therapy-for-diabetic-and-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#7
Mikhail Romashko, Joseph Schragenheim, Nader G Abraham, John A McClung
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Among many potential targets for pharmacological intervention, a promising strategy involves epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) and soluble epoxide hydroxylase (sEH) inhibition. sEH is the enzyme that converts EET to its less potent metabolite; therefore, EET is upregulated by its inhibitor. EET has pleotropic effects that collectively reduce inflammation, while increasing vasodilation and insulin sensitivity. Recent reports indicate that EET agonists and sEH inhibitors are capable of not only reversing endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, but also of reversing cardiac remodeling, which is a hallmark of cardiomyopathy and the metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612988/marked-overlap-of-four-genetic-syndromes-with-dyskeratosis-congenita-confounds-clinical-diagnosis
#8
Amanda J Walne, Laura Collopy, Shirleny Cardoso, Alicia Ellison, Vincent Plagnol, Canan Albayrak, Davut Albayrak, Sara Sebnem Kilic, Turkan Patıroglu, Haluk Akar, Keith Godfrey, Tina Carter, Makia Marafie, Ajay Vora, Mikael Sundin, Thomas Vulliamy, Hemanth Tummala, Inderjeet Dokal
Dyskeratosis congenita is a highly pleotropic genetic disorder. This heterogeneity can lead to difficulties in making an accurate diagnosis and delays in appropriate management. The aim of this study was to determine the underlying genetic basis in patients presenting with features of dyskeratosis congenita and who were negative for mutations in the classical dyskeratosis congenita genes. By whole exome and targeted sequencing, we identified biallelic variants in genes that are not associated with dyskeratosis congenita in 17 individuals from 12 families...
October 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558002/evaluation-of-the-vascular-protective-effects-of-new-oral-anticoagulants-in-high-risk-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-prefer-af-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Jin-Bae Kim, Hyun Jun Joung, Jung Myung Lee, Jong Shin Woo, Woo-Shik Kim, Kwon Sam Kim, Kyung Hye Lee, Weon Kim
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is known to be associated with several pathophysiological mechanisms including endothelial dysfunction of the heart and arterial vessels. Recent evidence suggests that new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment may improve endothelial function and the inflammatory process involved in atherosclerosis in AF patients. This study is designed to determine the efficacy of NOAC therapy in the prevention of endothelial dysfunction and the progression of atherosclerosis of AF subjects...
August 24, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537208/up-regulation-of-the-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channel-by-glycogen-synthase-kinase-gsk3%C3%AE
#10
Myriam Fezai, Musaab Ahmed, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The pleotropic functions of the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (maxi K+ channel or BK channels) include regulation of neuronal excitation and cell volume. Kinases participating in those functions include the glycogen synthase kinase GSK3 ß which is under negative control of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). GSK3ß is inhibited by the antidepressant Lithium. The present study thus explored whether GSK3ß modifies the activity of BK channels. METHODS: cRNA encoding the Ca2+ insensitive BK channel mutant BKM513I+Δ899-903 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type GSK3ß, inactive K85RGSK3ß, or wild-type GSK3ß with wild-type PKB...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500129/effect-of-statins-on-the-mortality-of-bacteremic-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#11
Pragya Shrestha, Dilli R Poudel, Ranjan Pathak, Sushil Ghimire, Rashmi Dhital, Madan R Aryal, Maryam Mahmood, Paras Karmacharya
BACKGROUND: Statins modify inflammatory cell signaling during the immune response to infection. This has been considered as a pleotropic effect. Effects of statins in inflammatory conditions such as bacteremia have been found to be controversial. AIMS: We examined the effect of statins on the mortality of bacteremia patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Major databases were searched for the pertinent clinical trials. RESULTS: Six cohort studies comprising 7553 patients were included...
June 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455134/regional-hyperthermia-for-high-risk-soft-tissue-sarcoma-treatment-present-status-and-next-questions
#12
Rolf Issels, Lars H Lindner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent developments of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy treatment strategies for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS) with special emphasis on regional hyperthermia (RHT) are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Attempts to improve outcomes using up-front strategies in addition to surgery have essentially focused on neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy or preoperative radiochemotherapy. Unfortunately, the results are either confounded by retrospective analyses of nonrandomized studies with small sample size or are negative showing no substantial clinical benefit in the few randomized trials...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445980/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-null-mice-do-not-exhibit-an-impaired-response-to-fasting
#13
Patrick Joseph Antonellis, Meghan Patricia Hayes, Andrew Charles Adams
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a pleotropic metabolic regulator, expression of which is elevated during fasting. To this end, the precise role played by FGF21 in the biology of fasting has been the subject of several recent studies, which have demonstrated contributions to the regulation of both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In the present study, we compared wild-type (WT) and FGF21-null (FGF21KO) mice, demonstrating that, despite the significant induction of FGF21 during fasting in the WT animals, our strain of FGF21-null mice exhibits only limited impairments in their adaptation to nutrient deprivation...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405876/interleukin-21-its-potential-role-in-the-therapy-of-b-cell-lymphomas
#14
Shruti Bhatt, Kristopher A Sarosiek, Izidore S Lossos
Interleukin-21 (IL-21), a member of IL-2 cytokine family, has pleotropic biological effects on lymphoid and myeloid cells. During the past 15 years, since the discovery of IL-21, great advances have been made regarding its biological activity and the mechanisms controlling IL-21-mediated cellular responses, especially in hematological malignancies. Preclinical studies have shown that IL-21R is expressed on healthy and neoplastic B-cells and exogenous IL-21 can induce direct apoptosis of IL-21R expressing B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), making it a potentially attractive anti-lymphoma therapy...
January 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401803/systematic-review-and-stratified-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-carnosine-in-animal-models-of-ischemic-stroke
#15
Charles K Davis, Peter J Laud, Zsanett Bahor, G K Rajanikant, Arshad Majid
Carnosine is a naturally occurring pleotropic dipeptide which influences multiple deleterious mechanisms that are activated during stroke. Numerous published studies have reported that carnosine has robust efficacy in ischemic stroke models. To further evaluate these data, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We included publications describing in vivo models of ischemic stroke where the neuroprotective efficacy of carnosine was being evaluated through the reporting of infarct volume and/or neurological score as outcomes...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367048/phenotypic-characterization-and-genetic-dissection-of-growth-period-traits-in-soybean-glycine-max-using-association-mapping
#16
Zhangxiong Liu, Huihui Li, Xuhong Fan, Wen Huang, Jiyu Yang, Candong Li, Zixiang Wen, Yinghui Li, Rongxia Guan, Yong Guo, Ruzhen Chang, Dechun Wang, Shuming Wang, Li-Juan Qiu
The growth period traits are important traits that affect soybean yield. The insights into the genetic basis of growth period traits can provide theoretical basis for cultivated area division, rational distribution, and molecular breeding for soybean varieties. In this study, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was exploited to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for number of days to flowering (ETF), number of days from flowering to maturity (FTM), and number of days to maturity (ETM) using 4032 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with 146 cultivars mainly from Northeast China...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349515/in-vitro-studies-on-the-pleotropic-antidiabetic-effects-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#17
Swati C Asani, Rinku D Umrani, Kishore M Paknikar
AIM: Our earlier study demonstrated antidiabetic activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZON) in diabetic rats. The present study was performed to elucidate its mechanism of antidiabetic action. METHODS: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, protein kinase B and hormone sensitive lipase phosphorylation; glucose transporter 4 translocation and glucose uptake; glucose 6 phosphatase, phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase and glucokinase expression; and pancreatic beta cell proliferation were evaluated after ZON treatment to cells...
July 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325362/novel-treatments-in-neuroprotection-for-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
REVIEW
Robert F James, Daniel R Kramer, Zaid S Aljuboori, Gunjan Parikh, Shawn W Adams, Jessica C Eaton, Hussam Abou Al-Shaar, Neeraj Badjatia, William J Mack, J Marc Simard
New neuroprotective treatments aimed at preventing or minimizing "delayed brain injury" are attractive areas of investigation and hold the potential to have substantial beneficial effects on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) survivors. The underlying mechanisms for this "delayed brain injury" are multi-factorial and not fully understood. The most ideal treatment strategies would have the potential for a pleotropic effect positively modulating multiple implicated pathophysiological mechanisms at once...
August 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318328/histological-chorioamnionitis-shapes-the-neonatal-transcriptomic-immune-response
#19
Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp, Scott O Guthrie, Hector R Wong, Lyle L Moldawer, Henry V Baker, James L Wynn
BACKGROUND: Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is commonly associated with preterm birth and deleterious post-natal outcomes including sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Transcriptomic analysis has been used to uncover gene signatures that permit diagnosis and prognostication, show new therapeutic targets, and reveal mechanisms that underlie differential outcomes with other complex disease states in neonates such as sepsis. AIMS: To define the transcriptomic and inflammatory protein response in peripheral blood among infants with exposure to histologic chorioamnionitis...
July 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307073/mapping-ptgers-to-the-ovulatory-follicle-regional-responses-to-the-ovulatory-pge2-signal
#20
Soon Ok Kim, Diane M Duffy
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key intrafollicular mediator of ovulation in many, if not all, mammalian species. PGE2 acts at follicular cells via four distinct PGE2 receptors (PTGERs). Within the ovulatory follicle, each cell type (e.g., oocyte, cumulus granulosa cell, mural granulosa cell, theca cell, endothelial cell) expresses a different subset of the four PTGERs. Expression of a subset of PTGERs has consequences for the generation of intracellular signals and ultimately the unique functions of follicular cells that respond to PGE2...
August 2016: Biology of Reproduction
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