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Patrick K Munywoki, Dorothy C Koech, Charles N Agoti, Patricia A Cane, Graham F Medley, D James Nokes
Background: Households are high intensity close-contact environments favorable for transmission of respiratory viruses, yet little is known for low-income settings. Methods: Active surveillance was completed on 47 households in rural coastal Kenya over six months during a respiratory syncytial virus(RSV) season. Nasopharyngeal swabs(NPS) were taken from 483 household members twice-weekly irrespective of symptoms. NPS from 6 households were screened for 15 respiratory viruses by molecular diagnostics and the remainder only for the most frequent viruses observed: rhinovirus (RV), human coronaviruses(hCoV; comprising 229E, OC43 and NL63), adenovirus(AdV) and RSV(A and B)...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Shima Mahmoudi, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Hediyeh Sadat Alavi, Hamid Eshaghi, Alireza Aziz Ahari, Setareh Mamishi
The aim of this study was to recognize the identity and frequency of etiologic agents of the pertussis-like syndrome in children < 2 years of age. A cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted from August 2014 to August 2015. All children < 2 years of age (n=100) who were suspected as pertussis infected were enrolled in this study and tested for Bordetella pertussis, adenovirus (Adv), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and influenza virus A (INF-A) by real-time PCR technique...
2018: Prague Medical Report
Thiago A de Assis, Fernando F Dall'Agnol
Numerical simulations are important when assessing the many characteristics of field emission related phenomena. In small simulation domains, the electrostatic effect from the boundaries is known to influence the calculated apex field enhancement factor (FEF) of the emitter, but no established dependence has been reported at present. In this work, we report the dependence of the lateral size, L, and the height, H, of the simulation domain on the apex-FEF of a single conducting ellipsoidal emitter. Firstly, we analyze the error, ε, in the calculation of the apex-FEF as a function of H and L...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Hao Wu, David Reens, Tim Langen, Yuval Shagam, Daniela Fontecha, Jun Ye
A high-intensity supersonic beam source has been a key component in studies of molecular collisions, molecule-surface interaction, chemical reactions, and precision spectroscopy. However, the molecular density available for experiments in a downstream science chamber is limited by skimmer clogging, which constrains the separation between a valve and a skimmer to at least several hundred nozzle diameters. A recent experiment (Sci. Adv., 2017, 3, e1602258) has introduced a new strategy to address this challenge: when a skimmer is cooled to a temperature below the freezing point of the carrier gas, skimmer clogging can be effectively suppressed...
April 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ralf-Bodobs Trö
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Maryam Farzadkhoo, Alireza Keshavarzi, Hossein Hamidifar, Mahmood Javan
Releasing and mixing of pollutants in rivers can cause serious threats for downstream users. Longitudinal dispersion is an important factor in describing pollutant transport process in rivers. The focus of this study is on the effect of floodplain rigid vegetation characteristics including its arrangement, density and relative depth (the ratio of the flow depth in the main channel to that over floodplain) on flow and longitudinal dispersion coefficient in a meandering channel with compound cross section. Digital image processing technique was used to measure the tracer concentration...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Anthony Rios, Ramakanth Kavuluru, Zhiyong Lu
Motivation: Creating large datasets for biomedical relation classification can be prohibitively expensive. While some datasets have been curated to extract protein-protein and drug-drug interactions from text, we are also interested in other interactions including gene-disease and chemical-protein connections. Also, many biomedical researchers have begun to explore ternary relationships. Even when annotated data is available, many datasets used for relation classification are inherently biased...
March 26, 2018: Bioinformatics
Weiqiong Wang, Xiaowen Liu, Xiaomei Guo, Huanhuan Quan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cervical carcinoma continues to be one of the most dangerous cancer types, and more effective therapies are urgently needed for cervical carcinoma treatment. Mitochondria-associated Mitofusin 2 has influence on the progression of many cancers. In the current study, we aimed to focus on the cell apoptotic effects of Mfn2 on cervical carcinoma HeLa cells in vitro and to try to explore its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, we investigated the anticancer potential of Mfn2 in a cervical carcinoma mouse model...
March 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ersan Akkaya, Alexander Berkowitsch, Sergej Zaltsberg, Harald Greiss, Christian W Hamm, Johannes Sperzel, Thomas Neumann, Malte Kuniss
INTRODUCTION: Antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has limitations. We investigated the 2-year outcome and pre-procedural predictors of recurrence for first-line catheter ablation using the second-generation cryoballoon (CB-Adv) in a large cohort of patients with symptomatic AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: For this prospective observational study, we enrolled 457 patients with symptomatic AF (278 paroxysmal, 179 persistent) who had no history of AAD use and who underwent pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with the CB-Adv at our institution...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Yu Zhao, Xiaoyin Li, Junyi Liu, Cunzhi Zhang, Qian Wang
Different from the isotropic Dirac cones existing in other 2D materials, anisotropic Dirac cones have a merit of anisotropic carrier mobility for applications in direction-dependent quantum devices. Motivated by the recent experimental finding of anisotropic Dirac cone in borophene (Adv. Mater. 2018, 30, 1704025), here we report a new 2D anisotropic Dirac cone material, B2S monolayer, identified by using global structure search method and first principles calculation combined with tight-binding model. The B2S monolayer is found to be stable mechanically, thermally and dynamically, and exhibits an anisotropic Dirac cone exactly at the Fermi level, showing a Fermi-velocity of 106 m/s in the same order of magnitude as that of graphene...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Zhenlong Chen, Suellen D'Arc Oliveira, Adriana M Zimnicka, Ying Jiang, Tiffany Sharma, Stone Chen, Orly Lazarov, Marcelo G Bonini, Jacob M Haus, Richard D Minshall
We hypothesized that the maintenance of vascular homeostasis is critically dependent on the expression and reciprocal regulation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells (ECs). Skeletal muscle biopsies from subjects with type II diabetes showed 50% less Cav-1 and eNOS compared to lean healthy controls. The Cav-1:eNOS expression ratio was 200:1 in primary culture human ECs. Cav-1 siRNA reduced eNOS protein and gene expression in association with a 2-fold increase in eNOS phosphorylation and nitrate production per molecule of eNOS which was reversed in cells overexpressing Adv-Cav-1-GFP...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Olivier Castagna, Sébastien de Maistre, Bruno Schmid, Delphine Caudal, Jacques Regnard
In healthy divers, the occurrence of immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is commonly caused by contributory factors including strenuous exercise, cold water and negative-pressure breathing. Contrary to this established paradigm, this case reports on a 26-year-old, well-trained combat swimmer who succumbed to acute IPE during static immersion in temperate (21°C) water, while using a front-mounted counterlung rebreather. The incident occurred during repeated depth-controlled ascent practice at the French military diving school...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Hongyun Zhao, Meng Wu, Leilei Zhu, Yi Tian, Mingxing Wu, Yizhen Li, Liming Deng, Wei Jiang, Wei Shen, Zhigang Wang, Zhechuan Mei, Pan Li, Haitao Ran, Zhiyi Zhou, Jianli Ren
Objective: Prepare a multifunctional ultrasound molecular probe, hyaluronic acid-mediated cell-penetrating peptide-modified 10-hydroxycamptothecin-loaded phase-transformation lipid nanoparticles (HA/CPPs-10-HCPT-NPs), and to combine HA/CPPs-10-HCPT-NPs with low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) for precision theranostics against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: HA/CPPs-10-HCPT-NPs were prepared using thin-film dispersion, ultrasound emulsification, and electrostatic effects. HA/CPPs-10-HCPT-NPs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading efficiency...
2018: Theranostics
Zhengtu Li, Junling Zhao, Hongxia Zhou, Li Li, Yuyang Ding, Jing Li, Beixian Zhou, Haiming Jiang, Nanshan Zhong, Wenhui Hu, Zifeng Yang
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of Cappariloside A, a chemically synthesized compound, against virus and inflammation induced by influenza virus. MAIN METHODS: The inhibitory activity of Cappariloside A against influenza virus was determined by plaque assay and cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Quantitative real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Bio-Plex methods were used to quantify cytokine and chemokine expression profiles...
March 16, 2018: Life Sciences
Charu Aggarwal, Andrew R Haas, Susan Metzger, Laura K Aguilar, Estuardo Aguilar-Cordova, Andrea G Manzanera, Gregoria Gómez-Hernández, Sharyn I Katz, Evan W Alley, Tracey L Evans, Joshua M Bauml, Roger B Cohen, Corey J Langer, Steven M Albelda, Daniel H Sterman
Gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy (GMCI) is an immune strategy implemented through local delivery of an adenovirus-based vector expressing the thymidine kinase gene (aglatimagene besadenovec, AdV-tk) followed by anti-herpetic prodrug valacyclovir. A phase I dose escalation trial of GMCI followed by chemotherapy was conducted in patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). AdV-tk was administered intrapleurally (IP) in three cohorts at a dose of 1 × 1012 to 1013 vector particles. Primary endpoint was safety; secondary endpoints included response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Na Jiang, Lei Shi, Jieping Lin, Lifang Zhang, Yanxia Peng, Huiying Sheng, Ping Wu, Qingjun Pan
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) and enteric adenovirus (AdV) mainly cause infantile infectious gastroenteritis. Several separate test methods for the detection of RV or AdV are currently available, but few tests are able to simultaneously detect both RV and AdV viruses, especially in primary medical institutions. METHODS: The present study was mainly designed to compare the performance of two combined test strips for the detection of RV and AdV: a rotavirus-adenovirus strip with fluorescent microspheres for tracers (FMT); and the CerTest rotavirus-adenovirus blister strip with colored microspheres for tracers (CMT)...
March 13, 2018: Virology Journal
Ruiwu Liu, Xiaocen Li, Wenwu Xiao, Kit S Lam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Shenglin Weng, Yiping Li, Jin Wei, Wei Du, Xiaomeng Gao, Wencai Wang, Jianwei Wang, Kumud Acharya, Liancong Luo
The identification of coherent structures is very important in investigating the sediment transport mechanism and controlling the eutrophication in shallow lakes. This study analyzed the turbulence characteristics and the sensitivity of quadrant analysis to threshold level. Simultaneous in situ measurements of velocities and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were conducted in Lake Taihu with acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and optical backscatter sensor (OBS) instruments. The results show that the increase in hole size makes the difference between dominant and non-dominant events more distinct...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Stefan Grünewald, Yangjing Long, Yaokun Wu
Böcker and Dress (Adv Math 138:105-125, 1998) presented a 1-to-1 correspondence between symbolically dated rooted trees and symbolic ultrametrics. We consider the corresponding problem for unrooted trees. More precisely, given a tree T with leaf set X and a proper vertex coloring of its interior vertices, we can map every triple of three different leaves to the color of its median vertex. We characterize all ternary maps that can be obtained in this way in terms of 4- and 5-point conditions, and we show that the corresponding tree and its coloring can be reconstructed from a ternary map that satisfies those conditions...
March 9, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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