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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023803/hbeag-levels-at-week-24-predict-response-to-8%C3%A2-years-of-tenofovir-in-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#1
D Wong, M Littlejohn, L Yuen, K Jackson, H Mason, J Bayliss, G Rosenberg, A Gaggar, K Kitrinos, M Subramanian, P Marcellin, M Buti, H L A Janssen, E Gane, S Locarnini, A Thompson, P A Revill
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is a treatment endpoint for HBeAg-positive CHB, and a necessary precursor to HBsAg loss. Biomarkers that predict serological outcomes would be useful. AIM: To evaluate the utility of measuring HBeAg levels for predicting HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss under long-term tenofovir (TDF) therapy. METHODS: A total of 266 patients were enrolled into a phase III study of TDF vs adefovir (ADV) for 48 weeks in HBeAg-positive patients, followed by open-label TDF up to 384 weeks...
October 11, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020844/nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#2
Soheil Tavakolpour, Mohammad Darvishi, Hajar Sadat Mirsafaei, Mojtaba Ghasemiadl
BACKGROUND: Women of childbearing age who have developed chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, especially HBeAg-positive highly viraemic pregnant women, are largely responsible for the familial transmission of the infection. Therefore, choosing the most effective and safest antiviral medications to manage pregnant CHB patients is of crucial importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed and Scopus databases were searched through September 2017, for all the journal articles possessing original results regarding treatment of CHB pregnant women with any nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapies, including lamivudine (LAM), adefovir (ADV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), and tenofovir (TDF)...
October 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020348/kinetics-of-double-stranded-dna-viremia-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#3
Joshua A Hill, Bryan T Mayer, Hu Xie, Wendy M Leisenring, Meei-Li Huang, Terry Stevens-Ayers, Filippo Milano, Colleen Delaney, Keith R Jerome, Danielle M Zerr, Garrett Nichols, Michael Boeckh, Joshua T Schiffer
Background: Improved understanding of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus kinetics after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) would facilitate development of therapeutic strategies. Methods: We tested weekly plasma samples from 404 patients through day 100 after allogeneic HCT for cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), HHV-6A, BK polyomavirus (BKV), adenovirus (AdV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using quantitative PCR. Episodes lasting ≤1 week were defined as blips and >1 week as persistent...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016938/preclinical-investigation-of-gene-mediated-cytotoxic-immunotherapy-and-checkpoint-blockade-in-glioblastoma
#4
Maria-Carmela Speranza, Carmela Passaro, Franz Ricklefs, Kazue Kasai, Sarah R Klein, Hiroshi Nakashima, Johanna K Kaufmann, Abdul-Kareem Ahmed, Michal O Nowicki, Prisca Obi, Agnieszka Bronisz, Estuardo Aguilar-Cordova, Laura K Aguilar, Brian W Guzik, Xandra Breakefield, Ralph Weissleder, Gordon J Freeman, David A Reardon, Patrick Wen, E Antonio Chiocca, Sean E Lawler
Background: Combined immunotherapy approaches are promising cancer treatments. We evaluated anti-PD-1 treatment combined with Gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy (GMCI) performed by intratumoral injection of a prodrug metabolizing non-replicating adenovirus (AdV-tk), providing insitu chemotherapy and immune stimulation. Methods: The effects of GMCI on PD-L1 expression in glioblastoma were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of the combination was investigated in two syngeneic mouse glioblastoma models (GL261 and CT-2A)...
July 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989748/magic-informationally-complete-povms-with-permutations
#5
Michel Planat, Zafer Gedik
Eigenstates of permutation gates are either stabilizer states (for gates in the Pauli group) or magic states, thus allowing universal quantum computation (Planat, Rukhsan-Ul-Haq 2017 Adv. Math. Phys. 2017, 5287862 (doi:10.1155/2017/5287862)). We show in this paper that a subset of such magic states, when acting on the generalized Pauli group, define (asymmetric) informationally complete POVMs. Such informationally complete POVMs, investigated in dimensions 2-12, exhibit simple finite geometries in their projector products and, for dimensions 4 and 8 and 9, relate to two-qubit, three-qubit and two-qutrit contextuality...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988741/smad7-alleviates-glomerular-mesangial-cell-proliferation-via-the-ros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#6
Nana Lin, Zequan Ji
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that altered gene expression of Smad7regulated NF-κB expression and ROS production on Ang II (Angiotensin II)-induced rat glomerular mesangial cell (GMC) proliferation. METHODS: pAdTrack-CMV-Smad7 was transduced into rat GMC by adeno-transduction using an ADV (adenovirus)-mediated vector in vivo. Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) pre-treated GMC, and blocked ROS generation as determined by DCFH-DA method. Altered expressions of IκBα and p65 were monitored by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence...
October 5, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982327/comparative-study-of-adeno-associated-virus-adenovirus-baculovirus-and-lentivirus-vectors-for-gene-therapy-of-the-eyes
#7
Giedrius Kalesnykas, Emmi Kokki, Laura Alasaarela, Hanna P Lesch, Timo Tuulos, Kati Kinnunen, Hannu Uusitalo, Kari Airenne, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Background The eye possesses unique anatomical features that make it a valuable target for gene therapy applications. Objective The aim of the current study was to compare transduction efficiency, safety and biodistribution of four viral vectors following intravitreal injection. Method Adenovirus (AdV), adeno-associated virus (AAV), baculovirus (BV) and lentivirus (LV) vectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected bilaterally intravitreally into adult C57BL/6OlaHsd mice. Control mice received saline...
October 3, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980083/adenovirus-infection-in-savanna-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii-in-the-issa-valley-tanzania
#8
Eva Dadáková, Kristýna Brožová, Alex K Piel, Fiona A Stewart, David Modrý, Vladimír Celer, Kristýna Hrazdilová
Adenoviruses are a widespread cause of diverse human infections with recently confirmed zoonotic roots in African great apes. We focused on savanna-dwelling chimpanzees in the Issa Valley (Tanzania), which differ from those from forested sites in many aspects of behavior and ecology. PCR targeting the DNA polymerase gene detected AdV in 36.7% (69/188) of fecal samples. We detected five groups of strains belonging to the species Human mastadenovirus E and two distinct groups within the species Human mastadenovirus C based on partial hexon sequence...
October 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975629/etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-1500-hospitalized-children
#9
Oumei Hao, Xuefeng Wang, Jianping Liu, Kunling Shen, Rong Ma, Zhenze Cui, Li Deng, Huimin Yan, Lining Wang, Zhaolan Liu, Xinmin Li, Hua Xu, Zhiyan Jiang, Yanning Li, Yan Huang, Baoqing Zhang, Xiaochun Feng, Chunhui He, Yonghong Jiang, Xue Zhao, Wei Wei, Zi Wang
Childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common illness; however, comprehensive studies of hospitalizations for CAP among children in China based on prospective and multicenter data collection are limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the respiratory pathogens responsible for CAP in hospitalized children. From January to December 2015, oropharyngeal swabs and blood serum were collected from hospitalized children with CAP symptoms ranging in age from 6 months to 14 years at 10 hospitals across China...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947137/hint2-triggers-mitochondrial-ca-2-influx-by-regulating-the-mitochondrial-ca-2-uniporter-mcu-complex-and-enhances-gemcitabine-apoptotic-effect-in-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Linghui Chen, Qiang Sun, Dongkai Zhou, Wei Song, Qifan Yang, Bingjie Ju, Lufei Zhang, Haiyang Xie, Lin Zhou, Zhenhua Hu, Hangping Yao, Shusen Zheng, Weilin Wang
In early studies, it was shown that HINT2, which sensitizes cells to mitochondrial apoptosis, is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (Martin et al., 2006). However, the molecular mechanism of this effect is unknown. Immunohistochemistry revealed that HINT2 expression is relatively low in pancreatic cancer tissues, compared to that in adjacent tissues (P < 0.05). Furthermore, its expression was related to pathological grade and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0161 and 0.0108, respectively); in addition, down-regulation of HINT2 was found to be associated with relatively poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients...
September 23, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943338/structure-of-a-reptilian-adenovirus-reveals-a-phage-tailspike-fold-stabilizing-a-vertebrate-virus-capsid
#11
Rosa Menéndez-Conejero, Thanh H Nguyen, Abhimanyu K Singh, Gabriela N Condezo, Rachel E Marschang, Mark J van Raaij, Carmen San Martín
Although non-human adenoviruses (AdVs) might offer solutions to problems posed by human AdVs as therapeutic vectors, little is known about their basic biology. In particular, there are no structural studies on the complete virion of any AdV with a non-mammalian host. We combine mass spectrometry, cryo-electron microscopy, and protein crystallography to characterize the composition and structure of a snake AdV (SnAdV-1, Atadenovirus genus). SnAdV-1 particles contain the genus-specific proteins LH3, p32k, and LH2, a previously unrecognized structural component...
September 6, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934814/prenatal-diagnosis-of-agenesis-of-ductus-venosus-a-retrospective-study-of-anatomic-variants-associated-anomalies-and-impact-on-postnatal-outcome
#12
Brigitte Strizek, Aikaterini Zamprakou, Ingo Gottschalk, Maria Roethlisberger, Astrid Hellmund, Andreas Müller, Ulrich Gembruch, Annegret Geipel, Christoph Berg
Purpose To assess the anatomic variants, associated anomalies and postnatal outcome of fetuses with a prenatally diagnosed agenesis of ductus venosus (ADV). Materials and Methods Retrospective study of 119 cases with agenesis of ductus venosus diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound in two tertiary referral centers from 2006 to 2014. The type and location of the umbilical venous drainage site was noted. Charts were reviewed for associated structural or chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy outcome and postnatal course...
September 21, 2017: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923508/generation-of-an-infectious-clone-of-amdv-and-identification-of-capsid-residues-essential-for-infectivity-in-cell-culture
#13
Ji Xi, Yanlong Zhang, Jigui Wang, Yongle Yu, Xiaomei Zhang, Zhaoda Li, Shangjin Cui, Weiquan Liu
Pathogenic strains of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) such as Utah-1 do not replicate in cell culture (e.g., Crandell Rees feline kidney cells) while the in vitro-adapted AMDV strain ADV-Gorham (ADV-G) is not pathogenic. Here, we constructed a full-length infectious clone (pADV-G). Alignment of the VP2 gene of ADV-G with that of other AMDV strains revealed many amino acid (a.a.) residues conserved among pathogenic isolates that differed in ADV-G. Four virulence-associated, conserved residues of pADV-G VP2 were studied by site-directed mutagenesis (H92A, Q94S, Y115F, and I116L)...
September 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919034/a-sensitive-and-specific-lateral-flow-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-antibodies-against-glycoprotein-b-of-aujeszky-s-disease-virus
#14
Veronika V Vrublevskaya, Vladimir N Afanasyev, Andrey A Grinevich, Yuri Y Skarga, Pavel P Gladyshev, Sagila A Ibragimova, Dmitry V Krylsky, Sergey V Dezhurov, Oleg S Morenkov
A direct double antibody lateral flow assay (DDA-gB-LFA) for the detection of antibodies against the glycoprotein B (gB) of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in swine sera was developed. A native ADV gB was used for the preparation of a conjugate with colloidal gold particles and the immobilization on the strip membrane. The gB purified from ADV virions by immunoaffinity chromatography retained its native epitope structure after adsorption on the nitrocellulose membrane and the surface of colloidal gold particles...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913988/prevalence-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-korean-adult-asthmatics-with-acute-exacerbations-comparison-with-those-with-stable-state
#15
Ki Hyun Seo, Da Jeong Bae, Ji Na Kim, Ho Sung Lee, Yong Hoon Kim, Jong Sook Park, Myung Shin Kim, Hun Soo Chang, Ji Hye Son, Dong Gyu Baek, Jun Suk Lee, Choon Sik Park
PURPOSE: Viral infections are involved in ~50% of exacerbations among Caucasian adult asthmatics. However, there have been few reports on the causative virus of exacerbations in Korean adult asthmatics. Thus, we compared frequencies and types of viruses between lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) with exacerbations (exacerbated LRTIs) and those without exacerbations (stable LRTIs) to evaluate contribution of respiratory viruses to exacerbations. METHODS: Viral RNA was extracted from sputum using the Viral Gene-spin™ Kit...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899646/early-life-adversity-potentiates-expression-of-addiction-related-traits
#16
Tristan J Hynes, Catherine S Thomas, Alicia S Zumbusch, Anna Samson, Ioana Petriman, Una Mrdja, Angelique Orr, Emilie Cutts, Bruce G Ruzindana, Alimohamed Hazari, Margaret Zjadewicz, Vedran Lovic
Many individuals sporadically and circumstantially sample addictive drugs, yet few become addicted. The individual vulnerabilities underlying the development of addiction are not well understood. Correlational findings show that early life adversity is associated with a greater propensity to develop drug addiction. However, the mechanisms by which early life adversity increases addiction vulnerability are unknown. Separate lines of research have found that several traits are associated with addiction. Here, we examined the effects of early life adversity on addiction-related traits in adulthood...
September 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870666/tenofovir-alafenamide-as-a-rescue-therapy-in-a-cirrhotic-hbv-patient-with-a-hystory-of-fanconi-syndrome-and-multidrug-resistance-a-case-report
#17
Glenda Grossi, Alessandro Loglio, Floriana Facchetti, Marta Borghi, Roberta Soffredini, Enrico Galmozzi, Giovanna Lunghi, Anuj Gaggar, Pietro Lampertico
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a recommended first-line therapy for both naïve and experienced chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients although reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia and Fanconi syndrome have been reported in some patients. Entecavir (ETV) could be considered as a rescue therapy for TDF treated patients developing renal dysfunction, though patients with prior history of treatment with Lamivudine (LAM) can develop ETV resistance strains which can lead to potentially severe hepatitis flares...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854883/addition-of-nucleoside-analogues-to-peg-ifn%C3%AE-2a-enhances-virological-response-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-without-early-response-to-peg-ifn%C3%AE-2a-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Yan Xu, Xu Wang, Zhenhua Liu, Changyu Zhou, Wenqian Qi, Jian Jiao, Fan Yu, Honghua Guo, Ping Zhao, Jiangbin Wang
BACKGROUND: Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) include pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFN-α) which is an immune modulator, and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) which directly inhibit HBV DNA polymerase. With the limited efficacy of PEG-IFN-α and prolonged treatment periods associated with NAs, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies, especially for patients with a poor early response to anti-viral therapy. METHODS: In this study, 178 patients with chronic hepatitis B (n = 131) and compensated (n = 47) HBV-induced cirrhosis were enrolled, 120 patients with HBeAg (+)...
August 30, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854818/recent-advances-in-preclinical-developments-using-adenovirus-hybrid-vectors
#19
Eric Ehrke-Schulz, Wenli Zhang, Jian Gao, Anja Ehrhardt
Adenovirus (Ad) based vectors are efficient gene transfer vehicles to deliver foreign DNA into living organisms offering large cargo capacity low immunogenicity and genotoxicity. As Ad shows low integration rates of their genomes into host chromosomes, vector derived gene expression decreases due to continuous cell cycling in regenerating tissues and dividing cell populations. To overcome this hurdle adenoviral delivery can be combined with mechanisms leading to maintenance of therapeutic DNA and long-term effects of the desired treatment...
August 30, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837444/small-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-low-tumor-marker-expression-benefits-more-from-anatomical-resection-than-tumors-with-aggressive-biology
#20
Dong-Hwan Jung, Shin Hwang, Young-Joo Lee, Ki-Hun Kim, Gi-Won Song, Chul-Soo Ahn, Deok-Bog Moon, Sung-Gyu Lee
OBJECTIVE: We assessed prognostic advantage of anatomical resection (AR) over nonanatomical resection (NAR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to multiplication of α-fetoprotein, des-γ-carboxyprothrombin, and tumor volume (ADV) scores. BACKGROUND: Superiority of AR over NAR is debated. ADV score is surrogate marker of postresection prognosis for solitary HCC. METHODS: This study included 1572 patients who underwent curative resection for solitary HCC of 2...
August 23, 2017: Annals of Surgery
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