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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079152/a-novel-toolbox-for-the-in-vitro-assay-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection
#1
Jing-Hua Zhao, Ya-Li Zhang, Tian-Ying Zhang, Lun-Zhi Yuan, Tong Cheng, Pei-Jer Chen, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its life cycle. The in vitro HDV infection system is widely used as a surrogate model to study cellular infection with both viruses owing to its practical feasibility. However, previous methods for running this system were less efficient for high-throughput screening and large-scale studies. Here, we developed a novel method for the production of infectious HDV by adenoviral vector (AdV)-mediated transduction...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069109/immunomodulatory-effects-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-heme-oxygenase-1-protective-effects-on-acute-rejection-following-reduced-size-liver-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#2
Zhong-Yang Shen, Bin Wu, Tao Liu, Yang Yang, Ming-Li Yin, Wei-Ping Zheng, Bo-Ya Zhang, Hong-Li Song
Here we explore the T-lymphocyte suppressive and immunomodulatory effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on acute rejection following reduced-size liver transplantation (RLT) in a rat model. The proliferation activity, cell cycle progression, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, expression of CD25 and CD71 in lymphocytes, and activity of NK cells were found to be significantly lowered, and the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was found to be increased relative to BMMSCs when Adv-HO-1/BMMSCs were co-cultured with Con A ex vivo; secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines was significantly higher...
December 26, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049240/characteristics-of-adenovirus-pneumonia-in-korean-military-personnel-2012-2016
#3
Hee Yoon, Byung Woo Jhun, Hojoong Kim, Hongseok Yoo, Sung Bum Park
Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe pneumonia in non-immunocompromised host, but limited data exist on the distinctive characteristics of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We evaluated distinctive clinico-laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of AdV pneumonia (n = 179), compared with non-AdV pneumonia (n = 188) in Korean military personnel between 2012 and 2016. AdV pneumonia patients had a higher rate of consolidation with ground-glass opacity (101/152) in lobar distribution (89/152) on computed tomography (CT) (P < 0...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045557/metabolic-syndrome-and-mammographic-density-in-premenopausal-chilean-women
#4
Angela Martínez-Arroyo, Hortensia Moreno-Macías, Ana Pereira Scalabrino, Maria Luisa Garmendia
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been previously associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Mammographic density (MD) is a marker of breast cancer risk. There is little evidence of an association between MetS and MD in premenopausal women. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 364 premenopausal Chilean women in which we measured anthropometric, blood pressure, and metabolic markers. MetS and its components were defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Plan III criteria...
January 3, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032753/thermodynamic-stability-of-bifeo3-0001-surfaces-from-ab-initio-theory
#5
Jian-Qing Dai, Jie-Wang Xu, Jian-Hui Zhu
The relative stability of multiferroic BiFeO3 (0001) surfaces, which is the (111) facet in the pseudocubic notation, with different stoichiometry is systematically studied by using ab-initio thermodynamic approach in order to obtain insights into the stable surface terminations. We predict that, under most chemical potential conditions, the thermodynamically favored terminations for the negative and positive surfaces are -Bi-O2 and -Fe-O3-Bi, respectively. The predicted difference in oxygen content between the negative and positive surfaces is consistent with experimental observations at the BiFeO3/metal interfaces [Nat...
December 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019095/interface-energy-alignment-of-atomic-layer-deposited-vox-on-pentacene-an-in-situ-photoelectron-spectroscopy-investigation
#6
Ran Zhao, Yuanhong Gao, Zheng Guo, Yantao Su, Xinwei Wang
Ultrathin atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) vanadium oxide (VOx) interlayer has recently been demonstrated for remarkably reducing the contact resistance in organic electronic devices (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2016, 26, 4456). Herein, we present an in situ photoelectron spectroscopy investigation (including X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies) of ALD VOx grown on pentacene to understand the role of the ALD VOx interlayer for the improved contact resistance. The in situ photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations allow us to monitor the ALD growth process of VOx and trace the evolutions of the work function, pentacene HOMO level, and VOx defect states during the growth...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018433/viral-agents-causing-acute-respiratory-infections-in-children-under-five-a-study-from-eastern-india
#7
Pravakar Mishra, Lipika Nayak, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amitabh Singh
Background. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are important cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing country. Methods. This observational study was conducted over two-year period in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Eastern India. Nasal and throat swabs were collected, transported to the laboratory at 2-8°C in viral transport media, and then processed for detection of viruses using mono/multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 300 children aged 2-60 months with ARIs were included...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017671/analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-drug-resistant-hepatitis-b-virus-in-patients-with-antiviral-therapy-failure-in-a-chinese-tertiary-referral-liver-centre-2010-2014
#8
Tian Meng, Xiaofeng Shi, Xuyang Gong, Haijun Deng, Yao Huang, Xuefeng Shan, Youlan Shan, Ailong Huang, Quanxin Long
OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of drug-resistant HBV in patients with therapy failure in a Chinese tertiary referral liver centre. METHODS: 1223 HBV-infected patients who underwent genotypic resistance testing between 2010-2014 were studied. RESULTS: 3TC genotypic resistance was the most common (46.5%), followed by LdT resistant (46.2%), ETV intermediate (37.9%), ADV resistant (11.4%), TDF intermediate (11.4%) and ETV resistant (1.7%)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011962/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-monotherapy-maintains-hbv-suppression-achieved-by-a-de-novo-combination-of-lamivudine-adefovir-a-pilot-study
#9
Giuseppe Ruggiero, Aldo Marrone, Ilaria Rainone, Adriana Boemio, Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Giuseppe Pasquale, Luca Rinaldi, Barbara Guerrera, Lorenzo Andreana, Rosa Zampino
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment aims at long-term suppression of HBV replication and improvement in clinical outcomes. We describe the data of a pilot, non-profit study in which patients with CHB were treated with de novo combination lamivudine-adefovir (LAM-ADV) for at least four years with a view to HBV suppression and resistance prevention, and shifted to tenofovir (TDF) when new antiviral agents were available. Fifty-one HBeAg negative patients were enrolled. Histology was available for 39 patients and data of liver stiffness (LS) for 24 patients at baseline...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011587/elevated-20-hete-impairs-coronary-collateral-growth-in-metabolic-syndrome-via-endothelial-dysfunction
#10
Gregory Joseph, Amanda Soler, Rebecca Hutcheson, Ian Hunter, Chastity Bradford, Brenda Hutcheson, Katherine H Gotlinger, Houli Jiang, John R Falck, Spencer Proctor, Michal Laniado Schwartzman, Petra Rocic
Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetS). microRNA-145 (miR-145-Adv) delivery to our rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR) completely restored and neutrophil depletion significantly improved CCG. We determined whether low endogenous levels of miR-145 in MetS allowed for elevated production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which in turn, resulted in excessive neutrophil accumulation and endothelial dysfunction leading to impaired CCG. Rats underwent 0-9 days of repetitive ischemia (RI)...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008251/coating-with-spermine-pullulan-polymer-enhances-adenoviral-transduction-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Li Wan, Xinglei Yao, Francesco Faiola, Bojun Liu, Tianyuan Zhang, Yasuhiko Tabata, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Shinsaku Nakagawa, Jian-Qing Gao, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with multilineage potential, which makes them attractive tools for regenerative medicine applications. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs is essential not only for basic research in developmental biology but also for therapeutic applications involving gene-modification in regenerative medicine. Adenovirus vectors (Advs) can efficiently and transiently introduce an exogenous gene into many cell types via their primary receptors, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors, but not into MSCs, which are deficient in coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors expression...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993101/detection-and-partial-genetic-characterisation-of-novel-avi-and-siadenoviruses-in-racing-and-fancy-pigeons-columba-livia-domestica
#12
Mónika Z Ballmann, Balázs Harrach
Up to now, only a single adenovirus (AdV) isolate seemingly specific for pigeons, hence named pigeon AdV-1 (PiAdV-1), has been characterised at DNA sequence level. In the present work, the prevalence and diversity of AdVs occurring in domestic pigeon were examined by a survey performed on randomly collected samples using a very efficient, consensus nested PCR targeting the viral DNA polymerase gene. The newly detected viruses were characterised by sequencing and phylogeny analysis. Amplification of additional genome fragments was attempted by the use of several other PCR methods aiming at the hexon gene...
December 2016: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964971/outbreak-of-g2p-4-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-in-a-retirement-community-brazil-2015-an-important-public-health-risk
#13
Adriana Luchs, Geraldine Madalosso, Audrey Cilli, Simone Guadagnucci Morillo, Sandra Regina Martins, Karen Aparecida Farias de Souza, Gislene Mitsue Namiyama, Cláudia Regina Gonçalves, Rita de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky
The present study described a group A rotavirus (RVA) outbreak in an age-care facility in Brazil, using epidemiologic and molecular diagnostic methods. A descriptive clinical, epidemiological and environmental investigation was conducted. Stool samples were collected and screened for RVA, Norovirus (NoV), Enteric Adenovirus 40/41 (AdV 40/41) and Astrovirus (AstV) using ELISA, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, electron microscopy and sequencing methods. Outbreak occurred during 26th-29th October, 2015; 28 individuals affected (22 residents; 6 staff)...
December 10, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943329/viral-pathogens-among-elderly-people-with-acute-respiratory-infections-in-shanghai-china-preliminary-results-from-a-laboratory-based-surveillance-2012-2015
#14
Chuchu Ye, Weiping Zhu, Jianxing Yu, Zhongjie Li, Yifei Fu, Yajia Lan, Shengjie Lai, Yuanping Wang, Lifeng Pan, Qiao Sun, Genming Zhao
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), with viral pathogens as the major contributors, are the most common illnesses worldwide, and increase the morbidity and mortality among the elderly population. The clinical and pathological features of elderly people with ARIs need to be identified for disease intervention. From January 1(st) , 2012 through December 31(st) , 2015, respiratory specimens from patients above 60 years old with ARIs were collected from the outpatient and inpatient settings of six sentinel hospitals in Pudong New Area...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928739/cost-effectiveness-comparison-between-the-response-guided-therapies-and-monotherapies-of-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-china
#15
Keng Lai, Chi Zhang, Weixia Ke, Yanhui Gao, Shudong Zhou, Li Liu, Yi Yang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) monotherapies are typically used as the primary treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, including lamivudine (LAM), telbivudine (TBV), adefovir (ADV), entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir (TDF). For high-resistance NAs (LAM, TBV, ADV), they can generate excellent clinical outcomes by using response-guided therapy; however, their pharmacoeconomic profiles remain unclear in China. We aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness between response-guided therapies and monotherapies of NAs for Chinese hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative CHB patients...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927871/severity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-with-viral-coinfection-in-hiv-uninfected-children
#16
Natalie I Mazur, Louis Bont, Adam L Cohen, Cheryl Cohen, Anne von Gottberg, Michelle J Groome, Orienka Hellferscee, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Omphile Tschegofatso Mekgoe, Fathima Naby, Jocelyn Moyes, Stefano Tempia, Florette K Treurnicht, Marietje Venter, Sibongile Walaza, Nicole Wolter, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Molecular diagnostics enable sensitive detection of respiratory viruses but their clinical significance remains unclear in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). We aimed to determine whether viral coinfections increased life-threatening disease in a large cohort. METHODS: Molecular testing was performed for respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children aged <5 years within 24 hours of hospital admission during sentinel surveillance for Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) hospitalisation conducted in South Africa during February 2009-December 2013...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903763/enzyme-activation-through-the-utilization-of-intrinsic-dianion-binding-energy
#17
REVIEW
T L Amyes, M M Malabanan, X Zhai, A C Reyes, J P Richard
We consider 'the proposition that the intrinsic binding energy that results from the noncovalent interaction of a specific substrate with the active site of the enzyme is considerably larger than is generally believed. An important part of this binding energy may be utilized to provide the driving force for catalysis, so that the observed binding energy represents only what is left over after this utilization' [Jencks,W.P. (1975) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas. Mol. Biol., 43: , 219-410]. The large ~12 kcal/mol intrinsic substrate phosphodianion binding energy for reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is divided into 4-6 kcal/mol binding energy that is expressed on the formation of the Michaelis complex in anchoring substrates to the respective enzyme, and 6-8 kcal/mol binding energy that is specifically expressed at the transition state in activating the respective enzymes for catalysis...
November 29, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896895/five-year-efficacy-and-safety-of-tenofovir-based-salvage-therapy-for-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-who-previously-failed-lam-adv-therapy
#18
Lucy Lim, Alexander Thompson, Scott Patterson, Jacob George, Simone Strasser, Alice Lee, William Sievert, Amanda Nicoll, Paul Desmond, Stuart Roberts, Kaye Marion, Scott Bowden, Stephen Locarnini, Peter Angus
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant HBV continues to be an important clinical problem. The TDF-109 study demonstrated that TDF±LAM is an effective salvage therapy through 96 weeks for LAM-resistant patients who previously failed ADV add-on or switch therapy. We evaluated the 5-year efficacy and safety outcomes in patients receiving long-term TDF±LAM in the TDF-109 study. METHODS: A total of 59 patients completed the first phase of the TDF-109 study and 54/59 were rolled over into a long-term prospective open-label study of TDF±LAM 300 mg daily...
November 29, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895788/effects-of-microrna-21-on-the-biological-functions-of-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-leukemia
#19
Cunzhen Shi, Xudong Zhang, Xin Li, Lei Zhang, Ling Li, Zhenchang Sun, Xiaorui Fu, Jingjing Wu, Yu Chang, Wencai Li, Qingjiang Chen, Mingzhi Zhang
Previous studies have demonstrated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncogene and is significantly upregulated in tumor tissue. However, its association with T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (T-ALL) remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of miR-21 on T-ALL cells by constructing Jurkat cells infected with recombinant adenovirus adv-miR-21 or adv-anti-miR-21. In addition, the target gene of miR-21 was identified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894993/new-adenoviruses-from-new-primate-hosts-growing-diversity-reveals-taxonomic-weak-points
#20
Eva Dadáková, Tomáš Chrudimský, Kristýna Brožová, David Modrý, Vladimír Celer, Kristýna Hrazdilová
The knowledge of the closest human relatives of human adenoviruses (AdVs) such as adenoviruses found in nonhuman primates is still limited, despite the growing importance of adenoviruses in vaccine development, gene and cancer therapy. We examined 153 stool samples of 17 non-human primate species and detected adenoviral DNA sequences of DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene in 54 samples (35%), originating from 12 out of 17 primate species. We further sequenced 15 hexon gene fragments and based on the phylogenetic analysis we propose two new provisional species SAdV-H and SAdV-I...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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