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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330744/c-fos-downregulation-positively-regulates-epha5-expression-in-a-congenital-hypothyroidism-rat-model
#1
Honghua Song, Yuqin Zheng, Fuying Cai, Yanyan Ma, Jingyue Yang, Youjia Wu
The EphA5 receptor is well established as an axon guidance molecule during neural system development and plays an important role in dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis. Our previous study has showed that EphA5 is decreased in the developing brain of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and the EphA5 promoter methylation modification participates in its decrease. c-Fos, a well-kown transcription factor, has been considered in association with brain development. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the EphA5 promoter region contained five putative c-fos binding sites...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330409/induction-of-ferroptosis-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-by-oxidative-stress-in-pc12-cells
#2
Chuanhong Wu, Wenwen Zhao, Jie Yu, Shaojing Li, Ligen Lin, Xiuping Chen
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) are typically associated with neuron loss in nervous system areas. Interventions with related death mechanisms may ameliorate NDD progression. Oxidative stress plays an important role in NDD cell death routines. However, tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP), a widely used oxidative stress stimulus, induces neural cell death through a mechanism that remains elusive. In our study, the ferroptosis marker events occurred after co-treatment with 100 μM t-BHP for 1 h, all of which were reversed in the presence of the ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) and the iron chelator deferoxamine, implying the occurrence of ferroptosis...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329781/dopamine-transporter-trafficking-is-regulated-by-neutral-sphingomyelinase-2-ceramide-kinase
#3
Jong Hoon Won, Seok Kyun Kim, In Chul Shin, Hae Chan Ha, Ji Min Jang, Moon Jung Back, Dae Kyong Kim
Dopamine (DA) reuptake is the primary mechanism to terminate dopaminergic transmission in the synaptic cleft. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has an important role in the regulation of DA reuptake. This study provides anatomical and physiological evidence that DAT recycling is regulated by ceramide kinase via the sphingomyelin pathway. First, the results show that DAT and neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) were successfully co-precipitated from striatal samples and were colocalized in the mouse striatum or PC12 cells...
January 9, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329609/garcinia-xanthochymus-extract-protects-pc12-cells-from-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-through-modulation-of-pi3k-akt-and-nrf2-ho-1-pathways
#4
Jing Xu, Sheng Gan, Jun Li, De-Bing Wand, Yu Chen, Xin Hu, Guang-Zhong Yang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of Garcinia xanthochymus, a perennial medicinal plant native to Yunnan, China, against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in rat pheochromacytoma PC12 cells. Preincubation of PC12 cells with fruit EtOAc fraction (fruit-EFr., 12.5-50 µmol·L-1) of G. xanthochymus for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure markedly improved cell viability and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1]), prevented lactate dehydrogenase release and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde production, attenuated the decrease of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328391/effects-of-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-on-oxygen%C3%A2-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation%C3%A2-induced-injury
#5
Hua Ji, Linhao Xu, Zheng Wang, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu
Cerebral ischemia causes severe brain injury and results in selective neuronal death through programmed cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis and autophagy. Minimizing neuronal injury has been considered a hot topic among clinicians. The present study elucidated the effect of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) on neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in PC12 cells that were subjected to oxygen‑glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). The survival, apoptotic and autophagy rates of PC12 cells were investigated...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325876/nogo-a-interacts-with-trka-to-alter-nerve-growth-factor-signaling-in-nogo-a-overexpressing-pc12-cells
#6
Robert G Farrer, Gwendolyn L Kartje
The Nogo-A protein, originally discovered as a potent myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite outgrowth, is also expressed by certain neurons, especially during development and after injury, but its role in neuronal function is not completely known. In this report, we overexpressed Nogo-A in PC12 cells to use as a model to identify potential neuronal signaling pathways affected by endogenously expressed Nogo-A. Unexpectedly, our results show that viability of Nogo-A-overexpressing cells was reduced progressively due to apoptotic cell death following NGF treatment, but only after 24 h...
January 8, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324385/ameliorative-effects-of-selenium-on-arsenic-induced-cytotoxicity-in-pc12%C3%A2-cells-via-modulating-autophagy-apoptosis
#7
Md Mostafizur Rahman, Rachael A Uson-Lopez, Md Tajuddin Sikder, Gongxun Tan, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Takeshi Saito, Masaaki Kurasaki
Arsenic is well known toxicant responsible for human diseases including cancers. On the other hand, selenium is an essential trace element with significant chemopreventive effects, anticancer potentials and antioxidant properties. Although previous studies have reported antagonism/synergism between arsenic and selenium in biological systems, the biomolecular mechanism/s is still inconclusive. Therefore, to elucidate the molecular phenomena in cellular level, we hypothesized that co-exposure of selenium with arsenic may have suppressive effects on arsenic-induced cytotoxicity...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320631/thermoresponsive-co-biodegradable-linear-dendritic-nanoparticles-for-sustained-release-of-nerve-growth-factor-to-promote-neurite-outgrowth
#8
Young Shin Kim, Muhammad Gulfam, Tao L Lowe
Thermo-responsive and biodegradable linear-dendritic nanoparticles containing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), poly(L-lactic acid) and poly(L-lysine) dendron were investigated for sustained release of nerve growth factor (NGF) in response to temperature change. The nanoparticles and their degradants were not cytotoxic to neuron-like PC12 cells for at least one month. The nanoparticles were preferentially taken up by PC12 cells 6 to 13 times more at temperature above (37 °C) than below (25 °C) the lower critical solution temperature of the nanoparticles...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316860/receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-rage-mediated-cytotoxicity-of-3-hydroxypyridinium-derivatives
#9
Yoto Murakami, Takayuki Fujino, Toshiki Hasegawa, Ryotaro Kurachi, Aya Miura, Takumi Daikoh, Teruyuki Usui, Fumitaka Hayase, Hirohito Watanabe
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed from glyceraldehyde (Gcer) and glycolaldehyde (Gcol) are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, via interactions with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE). In this study, we aimed to elucidate the RAGE-binding structure in Gcer and Gcol-derived AGEs and identify the minimal moiety recognized by RAGE. Among Gcer and Gcol-derived AGEs, GLAP (glyceraldehyde-derived pyridinium) and GA-pyridine elicited toxicity in PC12 neuronal cells. The toxic effects of GLAP and GA-pyridine were suppressed in the presence of anti-RAGE antibody or the soluble form of RAGE protein...
January 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315329/the-effect-of-the-rate-of-hydrostatic-pressure-depressurization-on-cells-in-culture
#10
Ellen Tworkoski, Matthew R Glucksberg, Mark Johnson
Changes in hydrostatic pressure, at levels as low as 10 mm Hg, have been reported in some studies to alter cell function in vitro; however, other studies have found no detectable changes using similar methodologies. We here investigate the hypothesis that the rate of depressurization, rather than elevated hydrostatic pressure itself, may be responsible for these reported changes. Hydrostatic pressure (100 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure) was applied to bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and PC12 neuronal cells using pressurized gas for periods ranging from 3 hours to 9 days, and then the system was either slowly (~30 minutes) or rapidly (~5 seconds) depressurized...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311595/shikonin-protects-pc12-cells-against-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-induced-cell-injury-through-antioxidant-and-antiapoptotic-activities
#11
Yuna Tong, Lan Bai, Rong Gong, Junlan Chuan, Xingmei Duan, Yuxuan Zhu
Excessive accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) is thought to be a major causative factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pretreating Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is a potential therapeutic approach to ameliorate the progression and development of AD. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the roots of the traditional Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, on Aβ1-42-treated neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Pretreating cells with shikonin strongly improved cell viability, decreased the malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential in Aβ1-42-induced PC12 cells...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309751/activation-of-npy-y2-receptors-ameliorates-disease-pathology-in-the-r6-2-mouse-and-pc12-cell-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#12
Oluwaseun Fatoba, Eugen Kloster, Christiane Reick, Carsten Saft, Ralf Gold, Jörg T Epplen, Larissa Arning, Gisa Ellrichmann
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic inherited polyglutamine-mediated neurodegenerative disorder for which effective therapies are currently unavailable. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated as a potential therapeutic target in several neurodegenerative diseases, including HD. However, its mechanisms of action in the context of HD pathology remain unknown. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of Y2 receptor (Y2R) activation with NPY or Y2R selective agonist NPY13-36 in the R6/2 mouse and PC12 cell models of HD...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305963/pten-silencing-enhances-neuronal-proliferation-and-differentiation-by-activating-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-pathway-in-vitro
#13
Zhiwen Song, Xiu Han, Liming Shen, Hongjun Zou, Bin Zhang, Jinbo Liu, Aihua Gong
The failure of neuronal proliferation and differentiation is a major obstacle for neural repair and regeneration after traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injury. PTEN acts as an intrinsic brake on the neuronal cells, but its roles and mechanism still remain to be clarified. Herein, for the first time we confirmed that PTEN had a dual effect on the neuronal cells in vitro. Firstly, we found that PTEN knockdown significantly promoted cell proliferation and differentiation. Then, PTEN knockdown activated PI3K/Akt and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in vitro...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305263/s-adenosylmethionine-reduces-the-inhibitory-effect-of-a%C3%AE-on-bdnf-expression-through-decreasing-methylation-level-of-bdnf-exon-%C3%A2-in-rats
#14
Dandan Cao, Jing Cui, Dandan Cao, Chenjia Guo, Guowen Min, Min Liu, Liang Li
The structure of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is complex, which is composed of eight non-coding exons and one coding exon, each of them has its own unique promoter. Multiple BDNF transcripts have distinct functional properties and epigenetic modulation of BDNF gene transcription is implicated in the neurological disorders. In the present study, rat models with amyloid-β (Aβ) intrahippocampal injection and PC12 cells were used to explore the role of DNA methylation in the promoters of BDNF exon Ⅳ and exon Ⅵ in BDNF suppression caused by Aβ...
January 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301234/the-effect-of-coatings-and-nerve-growth-factor-on-attachment-and-differentiation-of-pheochromocytoma-cells
#15
Anna Orlowska, Pallale Tharushi Perera, Mohammad Al Kobaisi, Andre Dias, Huu Khuong Duy Nguyen, Shahram Ghanaati, Vladimir Baulin, Russell J Crawford, Elena P Ivanova
Cellular attachment plays a vital role in the differentiation of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PC12 cells are noradrenergic clonal cells isolated from the adrenal medulla of Rattus norvegicus and studied extensively as they have the ability to differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells. The effect of several experimental parameters including (i) the concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF); (ii) substratum coatings, such as poly-L-lysine (PLL), fibronectin (Fn), and laminin (Lam); and (iii) double coatings composed of PLL/Lam and PLL/Fn on the differentiation process of PC12 cells were studied...
December 31, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301062/regulatory-roles-of-histone-deacetylases-1-and-2-in-pb-induced-neurotoxicity
#16
Yulan Wu, Yi Xu, Xiyao Huang, Danlei Ye, Miaomiao Han, Hui-Li Wang
Lead (Pb) prevails among the environmental hazards against human health. Although increasing evidence highlights the epigenetic roles underlying the Pb-induced neurotoxicity, the exact mechanisms concerning histone acetylation and its causative agents are still at its infancy. In the present study, the roles of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), as well as histone H3 Lys9 acetylation (Ac-H3K9), in Pb-induced neurotoxicity were investigated. Pb was administered to PC12 cells at 10 μM for 24 hours. And Sprague- Dawley rats were chronically exposed to Pb through drinking water containing 250 ppm Pb for 2 months...
January 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298990/gsk3%C3%AE-negatively-regulates-trax-a-scaffold-protein-implicated-in-mental-disorders-for-nhej-mediated-dna-repair-in-neurons
#17
Ting Chien, Yu-Ting Weng, Shu-Yung Chang, Hsing-Lin Lai, Feng-Lan Chiu, Hung-Chih Kuo, De-Maw Chuang, Yijuang Chern
Translin-associated protein X (TRAX) is a scaffold protein with various functions and has been associated with mental illnesses, including schizophrenia. We have previously demonstrated that TRAX interacts with a Gsα protein-coupled receptor, the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR), and mediates the function of this receptor in neuritogenesis. In addition, stimulation of the A2AR markedly ameliorates DNA damage evoked by elevated oxidative stress in neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we report that glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) are two novel interacting proteins of TRAX...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291419/neuroprotective-effect-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-co-transfected-with-nurr1-and-ngn2-in-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Qingqing Liu, Qi Qin, Hongxue Sun, Di Zhong, Ran An, Yushuang Tian, Hongping Chen, Jing Jin, Haining Wang, Guozhong Li
AIMS: The aim of the study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) with the overexpression of nuclear receptor-related factor 1 (Nurr1) and neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) in experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to elucidate the potential mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of OECs-Nurr1-Ngn2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro study, OECs-Nurr1-Ngn2 conditioned medium (CM) was added to MPP+-treated PC12 cells for 24h, and then the viability of PC12 cells, oxidative stress and apoptosis were detected...
December 29, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289698/tyrosyl-trna-synthetase-a-potential-kyotorphin-synthetase-in-mammals
#19
Tamotsu Tsukahara, Shuhei Yamagishi, Hiroyuki Neyama, Hiroshi Ueda
Kyotorphin (KTP; L-tyrosyl-L-arginine), an opioid-like analgesic discovered in the bovine brain, is potentially a neuromodulator because of its localization in synaptosomes, the existence of a specific KTP receptor, and the presence of its biosynthetic enzyme in the brain. KTP is formed in the brain from its constituent amino acids, L-tyrosine and L-arginine, by an enzyme termed KTP synthetase. However, the latter has never been identified. We aimed to test the hypothesis that tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is also KTP synthetase...
December 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288726/phenylethanolamine-n-methyltransferase-gene-expression-in-pc12-cells-exposed-to-intermittent-hypoxia
#20
Sandhya Khurana, Siyuan Peng, Erika McDonald, William Yates, Krishnan Venkataraman, T C Tai
Epidemiological studies show a strong correlation between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disorders. OSA patients experience intermittent hypoxia (IH), characterized by brief, but recurring episodes of cessation in breathing. These patients have higher levels of circulating catecholamines and an increased incidence of hypertension; however the mechanisms defining this association are not clearly established. Genetic linkage studies have associated the phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) gene to the development of hypertension...
December 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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