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Assèta Kagambèga, Taru Lienemann, Jonathan G Frye, Nicolas Barro, Kaisa Haukka
Background: Multidrug-resistant Salmonella is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from patients and poultry feces. Methods: Salmonella strains were isolated from poultry and patients using standard bacteriological methods described in previous studies. The strains were serotype according to Kaufmann-White scheme and tested for antibiotic susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents using the disk diffusion method...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Denise N Bronner, Franziska Faber, Erin E Olsan, Mariana X Byndloss, Nada A Sayed, Gege Xu, Woongjae Yoo, Dajeong Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Carlito B Lebrilla, Andreas J Bäumler
Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Typhi is an extraintestinal pathogen that evolved from Salmonella serovars causing gastrointestinal disease. Compared with non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, the genomes of typhoidal serovars contain various loss-of-function mutations. However, the contribution of these genetic differences to this shift in pathogen ecology remains unknown. We show that the ydiQRSTD operon, which is deleted in S. Typhi, enables S. Typhimurium to utilize microbiota-derived butyrate during gastrointestinal disease...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Andrés Vázquez-Torres
Related works in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe (Bronner et al., 2018) and in a recent issue of Cell Reports (Hiyoshi et al., 2018) demonstrate how loss-of-function mutations in butyrate utilization and lipopolysaccharide O-antigen processing contribute to evasion of innate host defenses and the convergent evolution of distinct typhoidal Salmonella lineages.
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Tamding Wangdi, Gabriel Lock, Cheng Saechao, Manuela Raffatellu, Brian A Cobb, Andreas J Bäumler
Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Typhi differs in its clinical presentation from gastroenteritis caused by S. Typhimurium and other non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. The different clinical presentations are attributed in part to the virulence-associated capsular polysaccharide (Vi antigen) of S. Typhi, which prevents phagocytes from triggering a respiratory burst by preventing antibody-mediated complement activation. Paradoxically, the Vi antigen is absent from S. Paratyphi A, which causes a disease that is indistinguishable from typhoid fever...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Nathan C Lo, Ribhav Gupta, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Denise O Garrett, Isaac I Bogoch, Stephen P Luby, Jason R Andrews
Background: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem globally. While new Vi conjugate vaccines hold promise for averting disease, the optimal programmatic delivery remains unclear. We aimed to identify the strategies and associated epidemiologic conditions under which Vi conjugate vaccines would be cost-effective. Methods: We developed a dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness model that simulated multiple vaccination strategies with a typhoid Vi conjugate vaccine from a societal perspective...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Madeeha Subhan, Waleed Sadiq
Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Typhoid has its own contribution to the disease burden, especially in Pakistan and other tropical countries. Herein, we present a case of enteric fever with a rare presentation. Our patient is a 20-year-old man who gradually developed high-grade fever lasting seven days associated with rigors and chills. No additional accompanying systemic signs helped to localize the infection. After extensive laboratory testing, his typhoid serology was positive along with leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia...
December 6, 2017: Curēus
Terence Odoch, Camilla Sekse, Trine M L'Abee-Lund, Helge Christoffer Høgberg Hansen, Clovice Kankya, Yngvild Wasteson
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are foodborne pathogens of global public health significance. The aim of this study was to subtype a collection of 85 NTS originating from poultry farms in Uganda, and to evaluate a subgroup of phenotypically resistant isolates for common antimicrobial resistance genes and associated integrons. All isolates were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Phenotypically resistant isolates ( n = 54) were screened by PCR for the most relevant AMR genes corresponding to their phenotypic resistance pattern, and all 54 isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of integron class 1 and 2 encoding genes...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Moisés Francisco, Sofia Santos Costa, Adriana Belas, Jorge Ramos, Isabel Couto, Constança Pomba, Miguel Viveiros
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is a common infection in Africa and in spite of scarce surveillance reports, its incidence is commonly considered high by the Angolan Health system. Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi has emerged, turning antimicrobial susceptibility testing essential to provide clinical guidance. This is the first report analyzing antimicrobial resistance patterns and population structure of the few S. enterica ser. Typhi isolated from patients with Typhoid fever in Luanda, Angola...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Halima Khatun, Shoeb Bin Islam, Nurun Nahar Naila, Syed Aminul Islam, Baitun Nahar, Md Nur Haque Alam, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterize the clinical and microbiological profile of culture-proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture-confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between January 2010 and December 2014...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Getachew Tadesse, Tesfaye S Tessema, Getenet Beyene, Abraham Aseffa
BACKGROUND: Wide-ranging evidence on the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance genetic determinants in African Salmonella strains is not available. The main objectives of this study were to assess the heterogeneity, estimate pooled proportions and describe the preponderance of FQ-resistance determinants in typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates of Africa. METHODS: Genetic and phenotypic data on 6103 Salmonella isolates were considered. Meta- and frequency analyses were performed depending on the number of studies by category, number of isolates and risks of bias...
2018: PloS One
Lucas Bocchini Rodrigues Alves, Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto, Diego Felipe Alves Batista, Fernanda de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcela da Silva Rubio, Andrei Itajahy Secundo de Souza, Adriana Maria de Almeida, Paul Andrew Barrow, Angelo Berchieri Junior
Salmonella Gallinarum is a host-restrict pathogen that causes fowl typhoid, a severe systemic disease that is one of the major concerns to the poultry industry worldwide. When infecting the bird, SG makes use of evasion mechanisms to survive and to replicate within macrophages. In this context, phoPQ genes encode a two-component regulatory system (PhoPQ) that regulates virulence genes responsible for adaptation of Salmonella spp. to antimicrobial factors such as low pH, antimicrobial peptides and deprivation of bivalent cations...
February 2, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Ankur Sidhu, Su Kah Goh, Eunice Lee, Christopher Christophi, Marcos Perini
The use of mesh in the management of abdominal wall hernias has significantly reduced the incidences of hernia recurrences. The placement of synthetic meshes to reinforce the abdominal wall is not without caveats. Synthetic meshes are associated with a risk of infection. Common causative microorganisms for mesh-related infection range from a diversity of gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic bacteria. However, non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. mesh-related infection remains poorly described in the literature...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Ying Zhang, Lin Xia, Liping Lin, Hao Tang, George Osei-Adjei, Shungao Xu, Yiquan Zhang, Xinxiang Huang
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causative agent of human typhoid fever. S. Typhi expresses a major virulence determinant called Vi polysaccharide capsular antigen, which is encoded by the viaB locus containing 10 consecutive genes including tviA and tviB. Expression of Vi antigen is regulated by the two-component regulatory system EnvZ/OmpR and the global RNA-binding factor Hfq. In this study, we show that OmpR coordinates with Hfq to regulate the transcription of Vi antigen genes under osmotic stress conditions...
February 7, 2018: Current Microbiology
D Eikmeier, C Medus, K Smith
Incubation period for non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections is generally reported as 6-72 h despite numerous reports of foodborne NTS outbreaks with median incubation periods >3 days. We summarised 16 years of Minnesota foodborne NTS outbreaks to better estimate the expected range of incubation periods for NTS infections. Of the 1517 NTS outbreak cases, 725 had enough data to calculate a precise incubation period. The median incubation period was 45 h; 77 (11%) cases had incubations ⩽12 h and 211 (29%) cases had incubations >72 h...
February 7, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Pedro Henrique N Panzenhagen, Narayan C Paul, Carlos A Conte, Renata G Costa, Dália P Rodrigues, Devendra H Shah
In sub-Saharan Africa, two genetically distinct lineages of multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovar Typhimurium sequence type 313 (ST313) are known to cause invasive disease among people. S. Typhimurium ST313 has evolved to become more human-adapted and is commonly isolated from systemic sites (eg., blood) from febrile patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Epidemiological studies indicate that S. Typhimurium is frequently isolated from systemic sites from human patients in Brazil, however, it is currently unknown if this pathogen has also evolved to become more invasive and human-adapted in this country...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Fabienne Huber, Benoît Ehrensperger, Christoph Hatz, François Chappuis, Silja Bühler, Gilles Eperon
Background: Patients increasingly benefit from immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory medications for a range of conditions allowing them a lifestyle similar to healthy individuals, including travel. However, the administration of live vaccines to immunodeficient patients bears the risk of replication of the attenuated vaccine microorganism. Therefore, live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppression. Data on live vaccinations on immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory medication are scarce...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Dinesh Kumar Patel, Sandeep Mittal, Nimisha Tiwari, Anil Kumar Maurya, Dhirendra Singh, Alok Kumar Pandey, Anirban Pal
Impairment of host immune response in malaria favours bacteraemia caused by typhoidal or non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica. Ofloxacin and Artesunate are the drugs that are clinically proven for treating typhoid and malaria respectively. The study evaluates the host responses upon treatment with antibiotic (Ofloxacin) and anti-malarial (Artesunate) in a standardized mice model harbouring co-infection. BALB/c mice (18-22 gm) were simultaneously co-infected with Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (Pyn) and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (STm) and then treated with Ofloxacin or/and Artesunate from day 4 to day 7...
February 1, 2018: Shock
Juber Herrera-Uribe, Sara Zaldívar-López, Carmen Aguilar, Cristina Luque, Rocío Bautista, Ana Carvajal, M Gonzalo Claros, Juan J Garrido
Salmonellosis is a gastrointestinal disease caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars such as Salmonella Typhimurium. This pathology is a zoonosis, and food animals with subclinical infection constitute a vast reservoir for disease. After intestinal colonization, Salmonella Typhimurium reaches mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), where infection is controlled avoiding systemic spread. Although the molecular basis of this infection has been extensively studied, little is known about how microRNA (miRNA) regulate the expression of proteins involved in the Salmonella-host interaction...
February 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Ebtesam Ghazlavi, Samira Rashidi Gamizji, Hajar Sharifi, Fereshteh Rashidi Gamizji, Atefeh Zahedi, Sahar Geravandi, Noorollah Tahery, Ahmad Reza Yari, Mahboobeh Momtazan
The present work examined data obtained during the analysis of Hearing Reduction (HR) of Abadan Petroleum Refinery (Abadan PR) workers of Iran with a history of disease and injuries. To this end, all workers in the refinery were chosen. In this research, the effects of history of disease and injury including trauma, electric shock, meningitis-typhoid disease and genetic illness as well as contact with lead, mercury, CO2 and alcohol consumption were evaluated (Lie, et al., 2016) [1]. After the completion of the questionnaires by workers, the coded data were fed into EXCELL...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Caroline Evans, Elizabeth Bateman, Rachael Steven, Mark Ponsford, Alice Cullinane, Claire Shenton, Gillian Duthie, Chris Conlon, Stephen Jolles, Aarnoud P Huissoon, Hilary J Longhurst, Tasneem Rahman, Chris Scott, Gregg Wallis, Stephen Harding, Antony R Parker, Berne L Ferry
Vaccine specific antibody responses are essential in the diagnosis of antibody deficiencies. Responses to Pneumovax II are used to assess the response to polysaccharide antigens but interpretation may be complicated. Typhim Vi®, a polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhoid fever, maybe an additional option for assessing humoral responses in patients suspected of having an immunodeficiency. Here we report a UK multicentre study describing the analytical and clinical performance of a Typhi Vi IgG ELISA calibrated to an affinity purified Typhi Vi IgG preparation...
January 29, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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