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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051234/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-strain-resistant-to-fourth-generation-cephalosporin-and-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics
#1
Danish Gul, Robert F Potter, Hurmat Riaz, Shifa Tariq Ashraf, Meghan A Wallace, Tehmina Munir, Amjad Ali, C A Burnham, Gautam Dantas, Saadia Andleeb
Typhoid is endemic in developing countries. We report here the first draft genome sequence of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi clinical isolate from Pakistan exhibiting resistance to cefepime (a fourth-generation cephalosporin) and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, two of the last-generation therapies against this pathogen. The genome is ~4.8 Mb, with two putative plasmids.
October 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047373/correction-to-a-large-and-persistent-outbreak-of-typhoid-fever-caused-by-consuming-contaminated-water-and-street-vended-beverages-kampala-uganda-january-june-2015
#2
Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Lilian Bulage, Fred Nsubuga, Gerald Pande, David Were Oguttu, Richardson Mafigiri, Christine Kihembo, Benon Kwesiga, Ben Masiira, Allen Eva Okullo, Henry Kajumbula, Joseph Kb Matovu, Issa Makumbi, Milton Wetaka, Sam Kasozi, Simon Kyazze, Melissa Dahlke, Peter Hughes, Juliet Nsimire Sendagala, Monica Musenero, Immaculate Nabukenya, Vincent R Hill, Eric Mintz, Janell Routh, Gerardo Gómez, Amelia Bicknese, Bao-Ping Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046870/salmonella-populations-inside-host-cells
#3
REVIEW
Sónia Castanheira, Francisco García-Del Portillo
Bacteria of the Salmonella genus cause diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening typhoid fever and are among the most successful intracellular pathogens known. After the invasion of the eukaryotic cell, Salmonella exhibits contrasting lifestyles with different replication rates and subcellular locations. Although Salmonella hyper-replicates in the cytosol of certain host cell types, most invading bacteria remain within vacuoles in which the pathogen proliferates at moderate rates or persists in a dormant-like state...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046309/stable-chromosomal-expression-of-shigella-flexneri-2a-and-3a-o-antigens-in-the-live-salmonella-oral-vaccine-vector-ty21a
#4
Madushini N Dharmasena, Manuel Osorio, Kazuyo Takeda, Scott Stibitz, Dennis J Kopecko
We have been exploring the use of the live, attenuated, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a vaccine strain as a versatile oral vaccine vector for the expression and delivery of multiple foreign antigens, including Shigella O-antigens. In this study, we separately cloned genes necessary for the biosynthesis of the S. flexneri serotype 2a and 3a O-antigens, which have been shown previously to provide broad cross-protection to multiple, disease-predominant S. flexneri serotypes. The cloned S. flexneri 2a rfb operon along with, bgt and gtrII, encoded on the SfII bacteriophage were sufficient in Ty21a to express the heterologous S...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034754/an-unusual-cause-of-granulomatous-ileitis-with-a-brief-history-of-the-pathology-of-typhoid
#5
Shamil Nuri Tiremu, Santosh A Revankar, Sanjay A Pai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033762/typhoid-fever-and-acute-appendicitis-a-rare-association-not-yet-fully-formed
#6
Daniel J Sartori, Katherine Sun, Mary Ann Hopkins, Mark F Sloane
Infections caused by foodborne enteric pathogens including typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella species can mimic symptoms of acute appendicitis. The association between such bacterial pathogens and pathology-proven acute appendicitis has been described, but this link is poorly understood. Here we describe a case of a young man with typhoid fever presenting with histology-proven acute appendicitis requiring urgent appendectomy, and provide a brief review of relevant literature to prompt more widespread recognition of this rare cause of a common surgical emergency...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031693/a-brief-review-on-the-immunological-scenario-and-recent-developmental-status-of-vaccines-against-enteric-fever
#7
REVIEW
Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Hemanta Koley, Suhrid Maiti, Ushasi Bhaumik, Priyadarshini Mukherjee, Shanta Dutta
Enteric fever has been one of the leading causes of severe illness and deaths worldwide. S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, B and C are important enteric fever-causing organisms globally. This infection causes about 21 million cases among which 222,000 typhoid related deaths occurred in 2015. These estimates do not reflect the ultimate and real status of the disease due to the lack of unified diagnostic and proper reporting system from typhoid endemic and other regions. Current control strategies have become increasingly ineffective due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance among the strains...
October 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031082/quantum-associative-memory-with-linear-and-non-linear-algorithms-for-the-diagnosis-of-some-tropical-diseases
#8
J-P Tchapet Njafa, S G Nana Engo
This paper presents the QAMDiagnos, a model of Quantum Associative Memory (QAM) that can be a helpful tool for medical staff without experience or laboratory facilities, for the diagnosis of four tropical diseases (malaria, typhoid fever, yellow fever and dengue) which have several similar signs and symptoms. The memory can distinguish a single infection from a polyinfection. Our model is a combination of the improved versions of the original linear quantum retrieving algorithm proposed by Ventura and the non-linear quantum search algorithm of Abrams and Lloyd...
September 21, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029149/no-clinical-benefit-of-empirical-antimicrobial-therapy-for-pediatric-diarrhea-in-a-high-usage-high-resistance-setting
#9
Vu Thuy Duong, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Pham Van Minh, James I Campbell, Hoang Le Phuc, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Le Thi Phuong Tu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Le Thi Quynh Nhi, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, Lu Lan Vi, Corinne N Thompson, Guy E Thwaites, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Stephen Baker
Background: Pediatric diarrheal disease presents a major public health burden in low-middle income countries. The clinical benefits of empirical antimicrobial treatment for diarrhea are unclear in settings that lack reliable diagnostics and have high antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Methods: We conducted a prospective multi-center cross-sectional study of pediatric patients hospitalized with diarrhea containing blood and/or mucus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Clinical parameters, including disease outcome and treatment, were measured...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026636/neck-abscess-due-to-salmonella-choleraesuis-case-study-and-literature-review
#10
Ryoji Sugimoto, Hirotaka Suzuki, Takahito Nei, Ayaka Tashiro, Yohei Washio, Kazunari Sonobe, Yuzo Nakamura, Nozomu Wakayama, Shunta Inai, Hidemasa Izumiya
Introduction. We herein describe a case with a neck abscess due to non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS). NTS habitually reside in our environment and colonize all animals including mammals. Colonizations of pigs, chickens, cows and sheep are important because food poisoning episodes in human are often associated with meat. Extra-intestinal infection due to NTS has numerous presentations and complications, with aortic aneurysms being common. Case presentation. A 26-year-old Japanese male complaining of left-sided neck swelling was referred to our hospital for a suspected deep neck abscess...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026632/salmonella-oranienburg-haemorrhagic-cystitis-in-an-immunocompetent-young-male
#11
Jiasian Teh, Mark Quinlan, Damien Bolton
Introduction. Non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) bacteriuria is extremely rare. Haemorrhagic cystitis is defined by urinary symptoms including haematuria, frequency, urgency and dysuria. Reports of haemorrhagic cystitis caused by NTS are exceptionally uncommon, especially in immunocompetent, young, male patients. Case presentation. A 27-year-old male with no past medical history presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 h history of visible haematuria having returned five days earlier from a five month trip across South America...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025776/unusual-case-of-prosthetic-joint-infection-caused-by-francisella-tularensis
#12
Harsh Rawal, Ami Patel, Michael Moran
Tularaemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis.Ulceroglandular, glandular, oculoglandular, pharyngeal, typhoidal and pneumonic types are the different types of the disease. Infection of prosthetic joints occurs at an exceedingly uncommon rate. We report a case of prosthetic joint infection involving the hip with F. tularensis, which to the best of our knowledge after a thorough literature review is the second of its kind.
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022005/systemic-and-terminal-ileum-mucosal-immunity-elicited-by-oral-immunization-with-the-ty21a-typhoid-vaccine-in-humans
#13
Jayaum S Booth, Seema A Patil, Leyla Ghazi, Robin Barnes, Claire M Fraser, Alessio Fasano, Bruce D Greenwald, Marcelo B Sztein
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic cellular immunity elicited by the Ty21a oral typhoid vaccine has been extensively characterized. However, very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity at the site of infection (terminal ileum [TI]). Here we investigated the host immunity elicited by Ty21a immunization on terminal ileum-lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and peripheral blood in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy. METHODS: We characterized LPMC-T memory (TM) subsets and assessed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi)-specific responses by multichromatic flow cytometry...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016327/molecular-and-clinical-epidemiology-of-salmonella-paratyphi-a-isolated-from-patients-with-bacteremia-in-nepal
#14
Jatan Bahadur Sherchan, Masatomo Morita, Takashi Matono, Hidemasa Izumiya, Makoto Ohnishi, Jeevan B Sherchand, Sarmila Tandukar, Ujjwal Laghu, Maki Nagamatsu, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari, Kayoko Hayakawa
Little is known about the epidemiology of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Nepal. We aimed to elucidate the molecular and clinical epidemiology of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Nepal. Isolates were collected from 23 cases of bacteremia due to S. Paratyphi A between December 2014 and October 2015. Thirteen patients (57%) were male, and the median age was 21 years. None of the patients had an underlying chronic disease. All S. Paratyphi A isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993610/evolution-of-host-adaptation-in-the-salmonella-typhoid-toxin
#15
Xiang Gao, Lingquan Deng, Gabrielle Stack, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Yuko Naito-Matsui, Ajit Varki, Jorge E Galán
The evolution of virulence traits is central for the emergence or re-emergence of microbial pathogens and for their adaptation to a specific host (1-5) . Typhoid toxin is an essential virulence factor of the human-adapted bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhi (6,7) , the cause of typhoid fever in humans (8-12) . Typhoid toxin has a unique A2B5 architecture with two covalently linked enzymatic 'A' subunits, PltA and CdtB, associated with a homopentameric 'B' subunit made up of PltB, which has binding specificity for the N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) sialoglycans (6,13) predominantly present in humans (14) ...
October 9, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988665/the-epidemiology-of-non-typhoidal-salmonella-gastroenteritis-and-campylobacter-gastroenteritis-in-pediatric-inpatients-in-northern-taiwan
#16
Chien-Fang Tseng, Nan-Chang Chiu, Ching-Ying Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Yen-Hsin Kung, Fu-Yuan Huang, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are the two most common bacterial pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis in children. This study aims to elucidate the epidemiology of Campylobacter and NTS gastroenteritis and develop a scoring system to differentiate them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 886 children ≤18 years of age, hospitalized due to acute gastroenteritis with stool culture-proven Campylobacter or NTS infection from July 2012 to December 2015...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982343/study-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-5-years-retrospective-egyptian-study
#17
Adel Abd Elhaleim Hagag, Ibrahim M Badraia, Mohamed S Elfarargy, Mohamed M Abd Elmageed, Ehab A Abo-Ali
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide that causes a spectrum of diseases including neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, acute and chronic hemolysis after exposure to an oxidative stress. AIM OF THE WORK: This five years retrospective study was carried out to study the demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 1000 patients with G6PD deficiency anemia registered in Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University Hospital...
October 3, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973415/social-and-economic-burden-associated-with-typhoid-fever-in-kathmandu-and-surrounding-areas-a-qualitative-study
#18
Linda M Kaljee, Alfred Pach, Denise Garrett, Deepak Bajracharya, Kshitu Karki, Imran Khan
Typhoid fever is a significant contributor to infectious disease mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in South Asia. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, commonly used treatments are less effective and risks increase for complications and hospitalizations. During an episode of typhoid fever, households experience multiple social and economic costs that are often undocumented. In the current study, qualitative interview data from Kathmandu and surrounding areas provide important insights into the challenges that affect those who contract typhoid fever and their caregivers, families, and communities, as well as insight into prevention and treatment options for health providers and outreach workers...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970824/identification-of-novel-serodiagnostic-signatures-of-typhoid-fever-using-a-salmonella-proteome-array
#19
Thomas C Darton, Stephen Baker, Arlo Randall, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Merryn Voysey, Michael J Carter, Claire Jones, Krista Trappl, Jozelyn Pablo, Chris Hung, Andy Teng, Adam Shandling, Tim Le, Cassidy Walker, Douglas Molina, Jason Andrews, Amit Arjyal, Buddha Basnyat, Andrew J Pollard, Christoph J Blohmke
Current diagnostic tests for typhoid fever, the disease caused by Salmonella Typhi, are poor. We aimed to identify serodiagnostic signatures of typhoid fever by assessing microarray signals to 4,445 S. Typhi antigens in sera from 41 participants challenged with oral S. Typhi. We found broad, heterogeneous antibody responses with increasing IgM/IgA signals at diagnosis. In down-selected 250-antigen arrays we validated responses in a second challenge cohort (n = 30), and selected diagnostic signatures using machine learning and multivariable modeling...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970225/environmental-survey-of-drinking-water-sources-in-kampala-uganda-during-a-typhoid-fever-outbreak
#20
J L Murphy, A M Kahler, I Nansubuga, E M Nanyunja, B Kaplan, N Jothikumar, J Routh, G A Gómez, E D Mintz, V R Hill
In 2015, a typhoid fever outbreak began in downtown Kampala, Uganda and spread into adjacent districts. In response, an environmental survey of drinking water source types was conducted in areas of the city with high case numbers. A total of 122 samples were collected from 12 source types and tested for E. coli, free chlorine, and conductivity. An additional 37 grab samples from seven source types and 16 paired large volume (20-L) samples from wells and springs were also collected and tested for the presence of Salmonella Typhi...
September 29, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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