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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527687/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-typhoid-conjugate-vaccines-in-five-endemic-low-and-middle-income-settings
#1
Marina Antillón, Joke Bilcke, A David Paltiel, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries. Programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited, but upcoming typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) could warrant wider use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of five TCV delivery strategies in three urban areas (Delhi and Kolkata, India and Nairobi, Kenya) and two rural settings (Lwak, Kenya and Dong Thap, Vietnam) with varying incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated routine infant vaccination with and without catch-up campaigns among older individuals...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526816/delineation-of-b-cell-epitopes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-hemolysin-e-potential-antibody-therapeutic-target
#2
Chai Fung Chin, Jing Yi Lai, Yee Siew Choong, Amy Amilda Anthony, Asma Ismail, Theam Soon Lim
Hemolysin E (HlyE) is an immunogenic novel pore-forming toxin involved in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Thus, mapping of B-cell epitopes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is critical to identify key immunogenic regions of HlyE. A random 20-mer peptide library was used for biopanning with enriched anti-HlyE polyclonal antibodies from typhoid patient sera. Bioinformatic tools were used to refine, analyze and map the enriched peptide sequences against the protein to identify the epitopes. The analysis identified both linear and conformational epitopes on the HlyE protein...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520997/resistant-pathogens-as-causes-of-traveller-s-diarrhea-globally-and-impact-s-on-treatment-failure-and-recommendations
#3
David R Tribble
Background: : Diarrhea is a frequent clinical syndrome affecting international travellers. Bacterial etiologic agents have a long history of emergent antimicrobial resistance against commonly used antibiotics. Current approaches applying first-line antimicrobial therapy are being challenged by increasingly resistant organisms. This review summarizes recent epidemiological and clinical evidence of antibiotic resistance among enteropathogens causing traveller's diarrhea and the subsequent impact on current treatment recommendations...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515625/overview-of-the-impact-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-utility-of-ty21a-vaccine-vivotif%C3%A2
#4
REVIEW
D Amicizia, L Arata, F Zangrillo, D Panatto, R Gasparini
Cases of diarrhoeal disease number from 1.7 to 5 billion per year worldwide. One of the main causes of diarrhoeal disease is typhoid fever, which is a potentially life-threatening multi-systemic illness. According to the most recent estimates, a total of 26.9 million typhoid fever episodes occurred in 2010. The geographical distribution of the disease differs widely; in developed countries, the incidence rate per 100,000 per year varies from < 0.1 to 0.3, and the disease mainly affects people who travel to endemic areas located in low- and middle-income countries...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504192/correlates-of-protection-for-enteric-vaccines
#5
Jan Holmgren, Umesh D Parashar, Stanley Plotkin, Jacques Louis, Su-Peing Ng, Eric Desauziers, Valentina Picot, Mitra Saadatian-Elahi
An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498925/a-case-report-of-anaphylaxis-to-typhoid-vaccine-live-oral-ty21a-vivotif
#6
Nathan L Haas, Mary R C Haas, Charmaine Gregory
Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a (Vivotif) is typically well tolerated, and adverse events are infrequent and mild. To the best of the authors' knowledge, only one prior anaphylactic reaction has previously been reported. We present a case of anaphylaxis related to Vivotif, in which a 66-year-old male with no medical comorbidities developed anaphylaxis following the third of a four-dose course (in the absence of concomitant vaccination administration), which consisted of tongue swelling, difficulty breathing, abdominal discomfort and rash...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495314/a-novel-approach-for-construction-of-an-inactivated-typhoid-vaccine-candidate-that-effectively-augments-both-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses
#7
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ghost was constructed as a vaccine candidate against typhoid fever. An asd(+) plasmid pJHL187 harboring a ghost cassette comprised of PhiX 174 E lysis gene stringently controlled under the convergent promotor components and was transformed into the asd gene-deleted mutant S. Typhi Ty21a strain (STG). Twenty female BALB/c mice randomly assigned into two groups were subcutaneously vaccinated at 5weeks of age to assess immunogenic characteristics of the constructed STG. The level of serum IgG in the immunized mice was significantly increased during the observational period (P<0...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484685/vi-capsular-polysaccharide-produced-by-recombinant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-paratyphi-a-confers-immunoprotection-against-infection-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#8
Kun Xiong, Chunyue Zhu, Zhijin Chen, Chunping Zheng, Yong Tan, Xiancai Rao, Yanguang Cong
Enteric fever is predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, and accounts for an annual global incidence of 26.9 millions. In recent years, the rate of S. Paratyphi A infection has progressively increased. Currently licensed vaccines for typhoid fever, live Ty21a vaccine, Vi subunit vaccine, and Vi-conjugate vaccine, confer inadequate cross immunoprotection against enteric fever caused by S. Paratyphi A. Therefore, development of bivalent vaccines against enteric fever is urgently required...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484494/antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-and-paratyphi-isolates-from-a-general-hospital-in-karawaci-tangerang-indonesia-a-five-year-review
#9
Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito, Cucunawangsih
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever known as enteric fever pose important global public health problem, with 21.6 million cases and approximately 250,000 deaths annually. It is a prevalent disease in Indonesia, but data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern is limited. This study aim was to provide data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi bloodstream isolates in a general hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, during the period of January 2011 to December 2015. Susceptibility against antimicrobials was detected according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483042/reproducible-diagnostic-metabolites-in-plasma-from-typhoid-fever-patients-in-asia-and-africa
#10
Elin Näsström, Christopher M Parry, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Rapeephan R Maude, Hanna K de Jong, Masako Fukushima, Olena Rzhepishevska, Florian Marks, Ursula Panzner, Justin Im, Hyonjin Jeon, Seeun Park, Zabeen Chaudhury, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Tan Trinh Van, Anders Johansson, Arjen M Dondorp, Guy E Thwaites, Abul Faiz, Henrik Antti, Stephen Baker
Salmonella Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid. Typhoid is diagnosed by blood culture, a method that lacks sensitivity, portability and speed. We have previously shown that specific metabolomic profiles can be detected in the blood of typhoid patients from Nepal (Näsström et al., 2014). Here, we performed mass spectrometry on plasma from Bangladeshi and Senegalese patients with culture confirmed typhoid fever, clinically suspected typhoid, and other febrile diseases including malaria. After applying supervised pattern recognition modelling, we could significantly distinguish metabolite profiles in plasma from the culture confirmed typhoid patients...
May 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481935/genotypic-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-typhimurium-and-salmonella-kentucky-strains-recovered-from-chicken-carcasses
#11
Rizwana Tasmin, Nur A Hasan, Christopher J Grim, Ar'Quette Grant, Seon Young Choi, M Samiul Alam, Rebecca Bell, Christopher Cavanaugh, Kannan V Balan, Uma S Babu, Salina Parveen
Salmonella Typhimurium is the leading cause of human non-typhoidal gastroenteritis in the US. S. Kentucky is one the most commonly recovered serovars from commercially processed poultry carcasses. This study compared the genotypic and phenotypic properties of two Salmonella enterica strains Typhimurium (ST221_31B) and Kentucky (SK222_32B) recovered from commercially processed chicken carcasses using whole genome sequencing, phenotype characterizations and an intracellular killing assay. Illumina MiSeq platform was used for sequencing of two Salmonella genomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480295/variation-in-tularemia-clinical-manifestations-arkansas-2009-2013
#12
Laura K Lester Rothfeldt, Richard F Jacobs, J Gary Wheeler, Susan Weinstein, Dirk T Haselow
BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis, although naturally occurring in Arkansas, is also a Tier 1 select agent and potential bioterrorism threat. As such, tularemia is nationally notifiable and mandatorily reported to the Arkansas Department of Health. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics among reported cases and outcomes to improve understanding of the epidemiology of tularemia in Arkansas. METHODS: Surveillance records on all tularemia cases investigated during 2009-2013 were reviewed...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479723/biosynthesis-characterization-and-biological-activities-of-iron-nanoparticles-using-sesamum-indicum-seeds-extract
#13
Farah Bano, Muhammad Baber, Amjad Ali, Ziaullah Shah, Syed Aun Muhammad
BACKGROUND: Iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) have got many biomedical and health applications because of biocompatible and nontoxic nature to humans. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the FeNPs using natural sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, simple and economical procedure was adopted for FeNPs synthesis. Sesame seeds were processed to obtain seed extract as a biological material for FeNPs production. FeNPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476613/emergence-of-multidrug-resistance-in-locally-acquired-human-infections-with-salmonella-typhimurium-in-australia-owing-to-a-new-clade-harbouring-blactx-m-9
#14
Sarah J Sparham, Jason C Kwong, Mary Valcanis, Marion Easton, Darren J Trott, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden
Antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is a critical problem globally, with the emergence of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) a particular concern. The aim of this study was to use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to characterise recently identified human and non-human isolates of 3GC-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium from Australia. The Illumina NextSeq sequencing platform was used to determine the genome sequences of 78 S. Typhimurium definitive type 44 isolated in Australia between 1992 and 2016, including 31 3GC-resistant isolates...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475605/the-impact-of-migration-and-antimicrobial-resistance-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-typhoid-fever-in-kathmandu-nepal-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#15
Neil J Saad, Cayley C Bowles, Bryan T Grenfell, Buddha Basnyat, Amit Arjyal, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Stephen Baker, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of the global burden of typhoid fever occurs in South Asia. Kathmandu, Nepal experienced a substantial increase in the number of typhoid fever cases (caused by Salmonella Typhi) between 2000 and 2003, which subsequently declined but to a higher endemic level than in 2000. This epidemic of S. Typhi coincided with an increase in organisms with reduced susceptibility against fluoroquinolones, the emergence of S. Typhi H58, and an increase in the migratory population in Kathmandu...
May 5, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468056/-surveillance-on-other-infectious-diarrheal-diseases-in-china-from-2014-to-2015
#16
P Zhang, J Zhang
Objective: To analyze the current situation on infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid (hereinafter referred to as Other Infectious Diarrheal Diseases) under the current monitoring program in China from 2014 to 2015, to provide evidence for developing strategies related to the control of these diseases. Methods: All the reported infectious diarrhea cases and information on public health emergencies relevant to infectious diarrhea were collected from the "Chinese Information System for Disease Control and Prevention" ...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464021/predictive-value-of-clinical-and-laboratory-features-for-the-main-febrile-diseases-in-children-living-in-tanzania-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Olga De Santis, Mary Kilowoko, Esther Kyungu, Willy Sangu, Pascal Cherpillod, Laurent Kaiser, Blaise Genton, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: To construct evidence-based guidelines for management of febrile illness, it is essential to identify clinical predictors for the main causes of fever, either to diagnose the disease when no laboratory test is available or to better target testing when a test is available. The objective was to investigate clinical predictors of several diseases in a cohort of febrile children attending outpatient clinics in Tanzania, whose diagnoses have been established after extensive clinical and laboratory workup...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453115/-waterborne-diseases-and-basic-sanitation-in-colombia
#18
Juan P Rodríguez Miranda, César A García-Ubaque, Juan C García-Ubaque
Objective: To analyze the relationship of sewerage coverage and wastewater treatment with waterborne disease behaviour. Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted using secondary sources (document review and information available in databases) about basic sanitation coverage, treatment of domestic sewage in the country and the prevalence of waterborne diseases during the period 2008-2014. Results: The country invested USD 1,100 million in the implementation of wastewater treatment systems from 2011 until the first half of 2013...
September 2016: Revista de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451535/simultaneous-molecular-detection-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-enteritidis-infantis-and-typhimurium
#19
Reza Ranjbar, Seyyed Mojtaba Mortazavi, Ali Mehrabi Tavana, Meysam Sarshar, Ali Najafi, Rahim Soruri Zanjani
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, as causative agent of typhoid fever, is one of the most important endemic pathogens. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, including Typhimurium, Infantis, and Enteritidis are amongst the most prevalent serotypes worldwide and in developing areas such as Iran. The aim of this study was to apply a uniplex PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella spp., and a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of the four most common Salmonella serovars in Iran...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445888/differential-effects-of-inflammatory-and-psychosocial-stress-on-mood-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-inflammation-in-remitted-depression
#20
Peter Niemegeers, Peter De Boer, Glenn J H Dumont, Filip Van Den Eede, Erik Fransen, Stephan J Claes, Manuel Morrens, Bernard G C Sabbe
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly recurrent. This may be due to increased stress sensitivity after remission. Both inflammatory and psychosocial stressors are implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD, but the additive or differential effect is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of inflammatory stress (i.e., typhoid vaccination), psychosocial stress (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]), or a combination of both in women (25-45 years old) with (partially) remitted recurrent MDD (n = 21) and healthy female controls (n = 18)...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
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