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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792979/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-toxicity-review-for-the-palliative-care-clinician
#1
Eric D Hansen, Xiao Wang, Amy A Case, Igor Puzanov, Tom Smith
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have opened an exciting chapter in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. For the palliative care clinician, however, ICI present several new challenges, including new ways to define treatment success, as well as treatment-related toxicities which differ in nature and timing from traditional chemotherapy. In this article, we review the mechanism of action of immune checkpoint inhibitors, as well as selected published data supporting the efficacy of ICI in patients with advanced cancer...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792845/current-frontline-endocrine-treatment-options-for-women-with-hormone-receptor-positive-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-her2-negative-advanced-stage-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Hikmat N Abdel-Razeq
Despite the recent advances in breast cancer early detection and awareness, a significant portion of patients present with an advanced-stage disease and more patients will progress to stage IV despite adequate treatment of their initial early-stage disease. Hormone receptor (HR)-positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 (HER2)-negative subtype is the commonest among all breast cancer subtypes. The management of the advanced-stage disease of this subtype has evolved significantly over the past few years...
May 19, 2018: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792799/in-vivo-evaluation-of-reduction-responsive-alendronate-hyaluronan-curcumin-polymer-drug-conjugates-for-targeted-therapy-of-bone-metastatic-breast-cancer
#3
Kaili Wang, Chunjing Guo, Xue Dong, Yueming Yu, Bingjie Wang, Wanhui Liu, Daquan Chen
Many cancers such as human breast cancer and lung cancer easily metastasize to bones, leading to the formation of secondary tumors in advanced stage. Based on the CD44-targeted effect of oHA and bone-targeted effect of ALN, we prepared a reduction-responsive, CD44 receptor-targeting and bone-targeting nano-micelle, called CUR-loaded ALN-oHA-S-S-CUR micelles. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity and bone-targeting ability of CUR-loaded ALN-oHA-S-S-CUR micelles. The in vivo experiment results showed that a larger number of micelles was gathered in the bone metastatic tumor tissue and reduced the bone destruction...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792730/nivolumab-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#4
Kortnye Maureen Smith, Jayesh Desai
Despite a variety of therapies for advanced metastatic colorectal cancer being available, the outcomes in this malignancy remain sub-optimal. Immunotherapy has been slow to impact the management of this patient group. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as nivolumab, have had disappointing results when used broadly. However, for the subset of patients with microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer the use of checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab appears to be transformative, and will provide a new therapeutic option for patient with advanced disease...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792535/does-the-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibitor-veliparib-merit-further-study-for-cancer-associated-weight-loss-observations-and-conclusions-from-60-prospectively-treated-patients
#5
Jason D Doles, Kelly A Hogan, Jennifer O'Connor, Andrea E Wahner Hendrickson, Olivia Huston, Aminah Jatoi
BACKGROUND: More than 80% of patients with advanced cancer develop weight loss. Because preclinical data suggest poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors can treat this weight loss, this study was undertaken to explore the PARP inhibitor veliparib for this indication. OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to analyze prospectively gathered data on weight in cancer patients on PARP inhibitors. DESIGN/SETTING: The current study relied on a previously published, prospectively conducted phase 1 single institution trial that combined veliparib and topotecan (NCT01012817) as antineoplastic therapy for advanced cancer patients...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792170/liddle-s-like-syndrome-associated-with-nephrotic-syndrome-secondary-to-membranous-nephropathy-the-first-case-report
#6
Eriko Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro Yoshikawa, Izaya Nakaya, Karen Kato, Yoshikazu Miyasato, Terumasa Nakagawa, Yutaka Kakizoe, Masashi Mukoyama, Jun Soma
BACKGROUND: Liddle's syndrome is a rare monogenic form of hypertension caused by truncating or missense mutations in the C termini of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β or γ subunits. Patients with this syndrome present with early onset of hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyporeninemia and hypoaldosteronism, and a potassium-sparing diuretics (triamterene or amiloride) can drastically improves the disease condition. Although elderly patients having these characteristics were considered to have Liddle's syndrome or Liddle's-like syndrome, no previous report has indicated that Liddle's-like syndrome could be caused by nephrotic syndrome of primary glomerular disease, which is characterized by urinary excretion of > 3 g of protein/day plus edema and hypoalbuminemia, or has explained how the activity function of ENaC could be affected in the setting of high proteinuria...
May 23, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792090/procedural-and-clinical-outcomes-of-endovascular-recanalization-therapy-in-patients-with-cancer-related-stroke
#7
Seunguk Jung, Cheolkyu Jung, Jae Hyoung Kim, Byung Se Choi, Yun Jung Bae, Leonard Sunwoo, Ho Geol Woo, Jun Young Chang, Beom Joon Kim, Moon-Ku Han, Hee-Joon Bae
Objective Embolism due to coagulopathy might be the main pathomechanism underlying cancer-related stroke (CRS). CRS patients with a large artery occlusion could be candidates for endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT), although its procedural and clinical outcomes are not well known. This study aimed to investigate the procedural and clinical outcomes of ERT in CRS patients and the characteristics associated with outcomes compared with those of conventional stroke patients. Methods A registry of consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent ERT between January 2011 and October 2015 was retrospectively reviewed...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791705/is-there-a-role-for-vats-sleeve-lobectomy-in-lung-cancer
#8
Natalie N Merchant, Robert McKenna, Osita Onugha
Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and continues to be the leading cause of death for both men and women, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 85% of all lung cancer cases. Once a lung mass is visualized on imaging, accurate staging is required for determination of treatment options and, when possible, surgical resection is recommended as it has been proven to have the best survival rates versus non-surgical treatment. If a patient has advanced or metastatic disease, therapeutic options include chemotherapy and radiation, while immunotherapy and specific agents that target tumor mutations are only recommended for appropriate candidates...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791660/potential-role-of-sorafenib-as-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-unresectable-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#9
Debora L S Danilovic, Gilberto Castro, Felipe S R Roitberg, Felipe A B Vanderlei, Fernanda A Bonani, Ricardo M C Freitas, George B Coura-Filho, Rosalinda Y Camargo, Marco A Kulcsar, Suemi Marui, Ana O Hoff
Total thyroidectomy, radioiodine (RAI) therapy, and TSH suppression are the mainstay treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). Treatments for metastatic disease include surgery, external-beam radiotherapy, RAI, and kinase inhibitors for progressive iodine-refractory disease. Unresectable locoregional disease remains a challenge, as standard therapy with RAI becomes unfeasible. We report a case of a young patient who presented with unresectable papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and treatment with sorafenib allowed total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791425/-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-of-a-transpyloric-early-gastric-c%C3%A3-ncer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Juan Antonio Chirinos Vega, César García Delgado, Alfonso Delgado Vergara
The endoscopic sumucosal disection (ESD) is an advanced endoscopic technique that achieves the curative resection of superficial neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, getting block exeresis with margins free of neoplasia avoiding surgery. However, tumors located in the esophagogastric junction, or pylorus, are technically more complex to resect by ESD. When a neoplasm settles in the pylorus, the anatomical characteristics of this region can affect the adequate assessment of the margins and the performance of the procedure...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791275/effects-of-web-based-instruction-and-patient-preferences-on-patient-reported-outcomes-and-learning-for-women-with-advanced-ovarian-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Sue V Petzel, Rachel Isaksson Vogel, Julie Cragg, Molly McClellan, Daniel Chan, Julie A Jacko, François Sainfort, Melissa A Geller
A randomized controlled trial was conducted of a web-based intervention to improve advanced care planning in women with ovarian cancer. A secondary analysis of 35 randomized women focused on changes in distress and knowledge about ovarian cancer through distress monitoring and information tailored to patients' cognitive coping style (monitoring, blunting). Pre-/postresults indicated the Intervention group demonstrated lower distress (p = 0.06); blunting was associated with lower depression (p = 0.04); knowledge in both groups was unchanged...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790966/tcrmodel-high-resolution-modeling-of-t-cell-receptors-from-sequence
#12
Ragul Gowthaman, Brian G Pierce
T cell receptors (TCRs), along with antibodies, are responsible for specific antigen recognition in the adaptive immune response, and millions of unique TCRs are estimated to be present in each individual. Understanding the structural basis of TCR targeting has implications in vaccine design, autoimmunity, as well as T cell therapies for cancer. Given advances in deep sequencing leading to immune repertoire-level TCR sequence data, fast and accurate modeling methods are needed to elucidate shared and unique 3D structural features of these molecules which lead to their antigen targeting and cross-reactivity...
May 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790694/advances-in-antibody-therapeutics-targeting-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Hongyang Lu, Zhiming Jiang
The proportion of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) among all lung cancers decreased from 17.26% in 1986 to 12.95% in 2002. Chemotherapy is the key mode of treatment. However, novel therapeutic strategies and drugs are imperative, as the prognosis remains poor. In recent years, antibody therapies have shown promising prospects against malignancy. This review focuses on the advances in antibody therapies in SCLC. Although the results of pembrolizumab, nivolumab, ipilimumab, and rovalpituzumab tesirine are inspiring, all of the clinical trials on these drugs are phase I/II and have been verified for further phase III clinical trials...
May 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790672/prognostic-significance-of-combined-pretreatment-lymphocyte-counts-and-body-mass-index-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-treated-with-radiation-therapy
#14
Yao-Yu Wu, Kai-Ping Chang, Chien-Yu Lin, Ping-Ching Pai, Hung-Ming Wang, Cheng-Lung Hsu, Chun-Ta Liao, Tzu-Chen Yen, Tuan-Jen Fang, Shiang-Fu Huang, Chung-Jan Kang, Ku-Hao Fang, Wan-Ni Lin, Yu-Chien Wang, Li-Jen Hsin, Ngan-Ming Tsang
We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of combined pretreatment lymphocyte counts (LCs) and body mass index (BMI) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiation therapy (RT). Nine hundred and twelve patients with HNC who were treated with RT were retrospectively reviewed. Survival was analyzed by stratifying the patients according to pretreatment LCs and BMI. Patients with low pretreatment LCs and BMI were characterized by a more advanced T stage, fewer nasopharyngeal subsites, less smoking and drinking, and fewer comorbidities...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790491/advancements-in-microfluidic-technologies-for-isolation-and-early-detection-of-circulating-cancer-related-biomarkers
#15
REVIEW
Ankit Rana, Yuqian Zhang, Leyla Esfandiari
Early stage detection of cancer is essential for the improved long-term survival of patients. Currently, costly, extensively complex and invasive procedures, such as surgical tissue biopsies, are used for cancer screening. Thus, over the past few decades, advancements in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip approaches have been made to develop minimally invasive and miniaturized platforms to identify and segregate circulating cancer biomarkers such as exosomes, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from body fluids...
May 23, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790421/facilitators-and-barriers-to-oncologists-conduct-of-goals-of-care-conversations
#16
Dena Schulman-Green, Jenny J Lin, Cardinale B Smith, Shelli Feder, Nina A Bickell
INTRODUCTION: Goals of care (GoC) conversations optimally begin early in the course of cancer care, yet most happen near the end of life. We sought to describe oncologist-reported facilitators of and barriers to GoC conversations with patients who have advanced cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted individual, semistructured qualitative interviews with oncologists from 4 academic, community, municipal, and rural hospitals in New York and Connecticut. Interview topics included approach to GoC conversations, facilitators, barriers, and organizational influences...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790310/anticancer-activity-of-chlorhexidine-and-cranberry-extract-an-in-vitro-study
#17
Mahesh R Khairnar, Umesh Wadgave, Harish Jadhav, Rahul Naik
Introduction: Oral cancer is considered to be a global pandemic. The study was conducted to assess the anti-cancer activities of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Cranberry against oral cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Anticancer activity of CHX and Cranberry extract (CE) was assessed against AW13516 (poorly to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of tongue) and KB (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma) using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC) Mumbai, India...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790216/decreased-expression-of-hsa_circ_0137287-predicts-aggressive-clinicopathologic-characteristics-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#18
Xiabin Lan, Jun Cao, Jiajie Xu, Chao Chen, Chuanming Zheng, Jiafeng Wang, Xuhang Zhu, Xin Zhu, Minghua Ge
BACKGROUND: Circular RNA (circRNA) is a new type of noncoding RNA that can serve as ideal biomarkers. Evidence has showed that circRNAs play an important role in carcinogenesis and cancer development. However, little is known about the diagnostic value of circRNAs in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) as well as their associations with clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with PTC. METHODS: The expression levels of hsa_circ_0137287 were detected in 120 PTC and 60 adjacent noncancerous thyroid tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790087/correlation-between-clinical-and-pathologic-staging-in-colon-cancer-implications-for-neoadjuvant-treatment
#19
Ahmed N Dehal, Amanda N Graff-Baker, Brooke Vuong, Daniel Nelson, Shu-Ching Chang, David Y Lee, Melanie Goldfarb, Anton J Bilchik
BACKGROUND: Recent randomized trials suggest improved outcomes in patients with locally advanced colon cancer (LACC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Optimal selection of patients for NAC depends on accurate clinical staging. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of correlation between clinical and pathologic staging in patients with colon cancer (CC). METHODS: Adult patients with non-metastatic CC who underwent surgery were identified from the National Cancer Data Base between 2006 and 2014...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789969/identification-of-risk-factors-for-toxicity-in-patients-with-hormone-receptor-positive-advanced-breast-cancer-treated-with-bevacizumab-plus-letrozole-a-calgb-40503-alliance-correlative-study
#20
Daneng Li, Linda M McCall, Olwen M Hahn, Clifford A Hudis, Harvey J Cohen, Hyman B Muss, Aminah Jatoi, Jacqueline M Lafky, Karla V Ballman, Eric P Winer, Debu Tripathy, Bryan Schneider, William Barry, Maura N Dickler, Arti Hurria
BACKGROUND: In hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer, a progression-free survival benefit was reported with addition of bevacizumab to first-line letrozole. However, increased toxicity was observed. We hypothesized that functional age measures could be used to identify patients at risk for toxicity while receiving letrozole plus bevacizumab for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. METHODS: CALGB 40503 was a phase III trial that enrolled patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer randomized to letrozole with or without bevacizumab...
May 22, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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