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Hepatic stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781336/advances-in-the-treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#1
Wenjun Wang, Ying Xu, Chang Jiang, Yanhang Gao
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is a costly and worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. Specific effective treatments for SAH have yet to be established. The aim of the present article is to review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, assessment, and treatment options in patients with SAH. To date, alcohol abstinence and enteral nutrition are the recommended first-line treatments. Although corticosteroids remain the preferred therapy for certain patients with a modified Maddrey discriminant function level greater than 54, they only improve short-term survival rates...
May 21, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778942/transcriptomic-and-methylomic-analysis-reveal-the-toxicological-effect-of-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin-on-human-embryonic-stem-cell
#2
Keng Po Lai, Jing Woei Li, Ting Fung Chan, Andy Chen, Cherie Yin Lau Lee, William Shu Biu Yeung, Chris Kong Chu Wong
Cumulating epidemiological studies demonstrated that environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during the early stages of fetal development is associated with the increase in disease susceptibility in later life. The fetal developmental plasticity is considered as a protective mechanism against an undesirable prenatal environment. Dioxin is one of the environmental contaminants and is considered a diabetogenic factor. Experimental animal and human epidemiological studies have revealed that dioxin exposure was associated with insulin resistance and altered beta cell function...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767845/final-results-from-a-defibrotide-treatment-ind-study-for-patients-with-hepatic-veno-occlusive-disease-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome
#3
Nancy A Kernan, Stephan Grupp, Angela R Smith, Sally Arai, Brandon Triplett, Joseph H Antin, Leslie Lehmann, Tsiporah Shore, Vincent T Ho, Nancy Bunin, Massimo Iacobelli, Wei Liang, Robin Hume, William Tappe, Robert Soiffer, Paul Richardson
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) conditioning and chemotherapy. Defibrotide is approved for treatment of hepatic VOD/SOS with pulmonary or renal dysfunction [i.e., multi-organ dysfunction (MOD)] after HSCT in the United States and severe VOD/SOS after HSCT in patients aged older than 1 month in the European Union. Defibrotide was available as an investigational drug by an expanded-access treatment programme (T-IND; NCT00628498)...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763649/differentiation-of-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-hepatocyte-cells-by-transfection-of-mir-106a-mir-574-3p-and-mir-451
#4
Maryam Khosravi, Negar Azarpira, Sara Shamdani, Suzzan Hojjat-Assari, Sina Naserian, Mohammad Hossein Karimi
Studying the profile of micro RNAs (miRs) elucidated the highest expressed miRs in hepatic differentiation. In this study, we investigated to clarify the role of three embryonic overexpressed miRs (miR-106a, miR-574-3p and miR-451) during hepatic differentiation of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs). We furthermore, aimed to explore whether overexpression of any of these miRs alone is sufficient to induce the differentiation of the UC-MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells. UC-MSCs were transfected either alone or together with miR-106a, miR-574-3p and miR-451 and their potential hepatic differentiation and alteration in gene expression profile, morphological changes and albumin secretion ability were investigated...
May 12, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749717/using-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-islet-transplantation
#5
EDITORIAL
Ahmed A Arzouni, Andreia Vargas-Seymour, Nance Nardi, Aileen J F King, Peter M Jones
Islet transplantation has the potential to cure Type 1 diabetes but current clinical transplantation protocols are inefficient because of the extensive loss of functional islets during the immediate post-transplantation period. Studies in rodent models have demonstrated that co-transplanting mesencyhmal stromal cells (MSCs) with islets improves graft functional survival and transplantation outcomes, and some of the beneficial effects of MSCs are attributable to bioactive molecules secreted by MSCs. Clinical islet transplantation is almost exclusively via the hepatic portal vein, which does not facilitate co-engraftment of islets and MSCs so attention is currently focused on using cell-free cocktails of MSC-derived products to treat islets prior to transplantation...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741464/immunohistochemical-characterisation-of-the-hepatic-stem-cell-niche-in-feline-hepatic-lipidosis-a-preliminary-morphological-study
#6
Chiara Valtolina, Joris H Robben, Robert P Favier, Jan Rothuizen, Guy Cm Grinwis, Baukje A Schotanus, Louis C Penning
Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the cellular and stromal components of the hepatic progenitor cell niche in feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). Methods Immunohistochemical staining for the progenitor/bile duct marker (K19), activated Kupffer cells (MAC387), myofibroblasts (alpha-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA]) and the extracellular matrix component laminin were used on seven liver biopsies of cats with FHL and three healthy cats. Double immunofluorescence stainings were performed to investigate co-localisation of different cell types in the hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) niche...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735435/-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-balance-liver-stem-cell-differentiation-in-cholestatic-cirrhosis
#7
Bo Yang, Qing Luo, Quan Kang, Jian Wang, Cheng Xiao, Zhi-Peng Li, Meng-Jia Gong, Yang Bi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 ) in mice with cholestatic cirrhosis and their role in regulating the balance of liver stem cell differentiation. METHODS: Balb/c mice were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL), and serum biochemical parameters were measured and hepatic histopathology was observed using HE staining to evaluate the modeling of cholestatic cirrhosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the changes of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the mice after modeling...
April 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731771/undifferentiated-adipose-tissue-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-hepatic-regeneration-ameliorates-histopathologic-damage-of-the-liver-and-upregulates-the-expression-of-liver-regeneration-and-liver-specific-genes-in-a-rat-model-of-partial-hepatectomy
#8
Konstantinos G Apostolou, Ioannis G Papanikolaou, Charalampos Katselis, Themistoklis Feretis, Dimitrios Kletsas, Manousos M Konstadoulakis, Maria Lymperi, Angelica A Saetta, Spiros Tsikalakis, George Agrogiannis, Efstratios Patsouris, George C Zografos, Apostolos E Papalois
Objective: Adipose tissue stem cells (ADSCs) present a promising therapeutic method to alleviate liver failure (LF). The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of undifferentiated ADSC transplantation on liver regeneration and on the expression of liver regeneration- and liver-specific genes, following 60% partial hepatectomy (PHx). Methods: Sixty female rats were subjected to PHx and were transplanted with 106 or 2 × 106 ADSCs, either into the portal vein (PV) or into the hepatic parenchyma...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728912/effect-of-cryopreservation-on-the-appearance-and-liver-function-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-in-cultures-of-cirrhotic-liver-of-biliary-atresia
#9
Taisuke Yamazaki, Shin Enosawa, Takayoshi Tokiwa
Previously, we reported that non-parenchymal cell (NPC) fractions from cirrhotic liver of biliary atresia (BA) may contain stem/progenitor cells, and clusters of hepatocyte-like cells appear via hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling in primary cultures of NPCs. BA is a rare and serious liver disease, and procurement of BA cells is difficult. Therefore, cryopreservation of BA liver cells is an unavoidable challenge. In this study, we examined the appearance and liver function of hepatocyte-like cells in cultures of BA liver-derived NPC fractions after cryopreservation for 1 or 6 mo using a chemically defined cryopreservation solution, STEM-CELLBANKER...
May 4, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727380/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#10
Bin Chen, Yong-Hong Wang, Jin-Qin Qian, Dong-Bo Wu, En-Qiang Chen, Hong Tang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a condition with high mortality. New strategies are urgently required. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) treatment in patients with ACLF associated with hepatitis B virus infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for the relevant publications. If appropriate, a meta-analysis was carried out for the following outcomes: survival rate, model for end-stage liver disease score, and liver function...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725393/mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-interleukin-18-inhibit-breast-cancer-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Xiaoyi Liu, Jianxia Hu, Yueyun Li, Weihong Cao, Yu Wang, Zhongliang Ma, Funian Li
Development of an improved breast cancer therapy has been an elusive goal of cancer gene therapy for a long period of time. Human mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord (hUMSCs) genetically modified with the interleukin (IL)-18 gene (hUMSCs/IL-18) were previously demonstrated to be able to suppress the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro . In the present study, the effect of hUMSCs/IL-18 on breast cancer in a mouse model was investigated. A total of 128 mice were divided into 2 studies (the early-effect study and the late-effect study), with 4 groups in each, including the PBS-, hUMSC-, hUMSC/vector- and hUMSC/IL-18-treated groups...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721169/differentiation-inducing-therapeutic-effect-of-notch-inhibition-in-reversing-malignant-transformation-of-liver-normal-stem-cells-via-met
#12
Hao Luo, Wei-Hui Liu, Hong-Yin Liang, Hong-Tao Yan, Ning Lin, Dong-Yu Li, Tao Wang, Li-Jun Tang
Background: Liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) are the key factors for cancer metastasis, recurrent, and drug resistance. LCSCs are originated from either hepatocytes dedifferentiation or differentiation arresting of liver normal stem cells (LNSCs). Differentiation-inducing therapy is a novel strategy in solid tumors. Furthermore, Notch signaling pathway has been proved to play important role in the process of hepatocytes differentiation. In previous study, a malignant transformation cellular model of LNSCs has been built up, and in this study we are trying to illustrate whether inhibition of Notch can reverse this malignant tendency and drive these malignant cells back to differentiate into mature hepatocytes...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720662/de-novo-formation-of-the-biliary-system-by-tgf%C3%AE-mediated-hepatocyte-transdifferentiation
#13
Johanna R Schaub, Kari A Huppert, Simone N T Kurial, Bernadette Y Hsu, Ashley E Cast, Bryan Donnelly, Rebekah A Karns, Feng Chen, Milad Rezvani, Hubert Y Luu, Aras N Mattis, Anne-Laure Rougemont, Philip Rosenthal, Stacey S Huppert, Holger Willenbring
Transdifferentiation is a complete and stable change in cell identity that serves as an alternative to stem-cell-mediated organ regeneration. In adult mammals, findings of transdifferentiation have been limited to the replenishment of cells lost from preexisting structures, in the presence of a fully developed scaffold and niche 1 . Here we show that transdifferentiation of hepatocytes in the mouse liver can build a structure that failed to form in development-the biliary system in a mouse model that mimics the hepatic phenotype of human Alagille syndrome (ALGS) 2 ...
May 2, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719629/improvement-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-hepatocyte-like-cells-generated-from-ipscs-with-oct4-sox2-klf4-parp1
#14
Yueh Chien, Chi-Shuan Huang, Hsin-Chi Lin, Kai-Hsi Lu, Ping-Hsing Tsai, Ying-Hsiu Lai, Kuan-Hsuan Chen, Shou-Dong Lee, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Chien-Ying Wang
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is usually increased with age. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a serious form of NAFLD, may lead to cirrhosis and end-stage liver diseases. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold promising potential in personalized medicine. Although obviation of c-Myc reduces tumorigenic risk, it also largely reduced the generation of iPSCs. Recently, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (Parp1) has been reported to enhance cell reprogramming. In this study, we demonstrated that forced expression of Oct4/Sox2/Klf4/Parp1 (OSKP) effectively promoted iPSC generation from senescent somatic cells from 18-month-old mouse...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718575/roles-of-the-genomic-sequence-surrounding-the-stem-loop-structure-in-the-junction-region-including-the-3-terminus-of-orf1-in-hepatitis-e-virus-replication
#15
Dianjun Cao, Yan-Yan Ni, Michelle Walker, Yao-Wei Huang, Xiang-Jin Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a member of the family Hepeviridae, causes both acute and chronic viral hepatitis. We have previously demonstrated that the stem-loop structure in the junction region (JR) of HEV genome plays a critical role in HEV replication. However, the function of the sequence bordering the JR, including the 3' terminus of ORF1, in HEV replication is unknown. In this study, a panel of HEV Renilla luciferase (Rluc) replicons containing various deletions at 5' or 3' termini of the JR were constructed to determine the effect of the deletions on HEV replication in Huh7 human liver cells...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717007/selective-packaging-in-murine-coronavirus-promotes-virulence-by-limiting-type-i-interferon-responses
#16
Jeremiah Athmer, Anthony R Fehr, Matthew E Grunewald, Wen Qu, D Lori Wheeler, Kevin W Graepel, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Aimee Sekine, Dana Saud Aldabeeb, Michael Gale, Mark R Denison, Stanley Perlman
Selective packaging is a mechanism used by multiple virus families to specifically incorporate genomic RNA (gRNA) into virions and exclude other types of RNA. Lineage A betacoronaviruses incorporate a 95-bp stem-loop structure, the packaging signal (PS), into the nsp15 locus of ORF1b that is both necessary and sufficient for the packaging of RNAs. However, unlike other viral PSs, where mutations generally resulted in viral replication defects, mutation of the coronavirus (CoV) PS results in large increases in subgenomic RNA packaging with minimal effects on gRNA packaging in vitro and on viral titers...
May 1, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715079/sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-veno-occlusive-disease-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-insights-and-therapeutic-advances
#17
REVIEW
Samah Nassereddine, Saud Alsubait, Imad Tabbara
Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a rare fatal clinical entity seen following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). It is more commonly reported to occur following allogeneic HSCT compared to autologous HSCT. Historically, it is known as hepatitis following HSCT. It is thought that endothelial damage to the hepatic venules leading to occlusion of the terminal hepatic venules and hepatic sinusoids is the trigger for the development of SOS. Several risk factors have been associated with this condition...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#18
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703082/fabrication-of-a-co-culture-micro-bioreactor-device-for-efficient-hepatic-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-hipscs
#19
Mousa Kehtari, Bahman Zeynali, Masoud Soleimani, Mahboubeh Kabiri, Ehsan Seyedjafari
Primary hepatocytes, as the gold standard cell type for in vitro models, lose their characteristic morphology and functions after few days. There is an urgent need to develop physiologically relevant models that recapitulate liver microenvironment to obtain mature hepatocyte from stem cells. We designed and fabricated a micro-bioreactor device mimicking the physiological shear stress and cell-cell interaction in liver sinusoid microenvironment. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the micro-bioreactor device with continuous perfusion of hepatic differentiation medium (100 μL/h)...
April 27, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691598/hepatocyte-transplantation-and-advancements-in-alternative-cell-sources-for-liver-based-regenerative-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Charlotte A Lee, Siddharth Sinha, Emer Fitzpatrick, Anil Dhawan
Human hepatocyte transplantation has been actively perused as an alternative to liver replacement for acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic defects. Current challenges in this field include a limited cell source, reduced cell viability following cryopreservation and poor engraftment of cells into the recipient liver with consequent limited life span. As a result, alternative stem cell sources such as pluripotent stem cells, fibroblasts, hepatic progenitor cells, amniotic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) can be used to generate induced hepatocyte like cells (HLC) with each technique exhibiting advantages and disadvantages...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
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