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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046058/oocytes-maternal-information-and-functions
#1
Manuela Monti
This book presents different aspects of oocytes maturation in several animal models as the interactions oocyte-environment, the specific functions of oocytes molecules and organelles regulated by epigenetic and translational mechanisms and the evolution of maternal factors...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046057/bile-duct-ligature-in-young-rats-a-revisited-animal-model-for-biliary-atresia
#2
Matias Garrido, Camila Escobar, Constanza Zamora, Carolina Rejas, Juan Varas, Mario Párraga, Sebastian San Martin, Sandra Montedónico
Biliary atresia leads to cirrhosis in the vast majority of patients and constitutes the first cause of paediatric liver transplantation. Animal models allow us to understand the molecular basis and natural history of diseases. The aim of this study is to describe a surgically created animal model of biliary atresia with emphasis in long-term liver function. Forty-two 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: bile duct ligature (BDL) and control. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, and 6th postoperative weeks...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045883/in-vitro-in-vivo-correlations-of-carbamazepine-nano-dispersions-for-application-in-formulation-development
#3
Zachary Warnken, Michael Puppolo, Justin Hughey, Iris Duarte, Susan Jansen-Varnum
During formulation development, efficiently integrating in vitro dissolution testing can significantly improve one's ability to estimate in vivo performance and aide in the selection of premier drug candidates. The concept of in vitro - in vivo relationship/correlation (IVIVR/IVIVC) has garnered significant attention from pharmaceutical scientists to predict expected bioavailability characteristics for drug substances and products. The current work illustrates a comparative evaluation of in vitro tests to access crystalline carbamazepine and various types of amorphous and crystalline dispersions of carbamazepine and Eudragit L100 produced by spray-drying, including a membrane-permeation dissolution methodology and non-sink dissolution...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045796/the-modification-of-the-ketogenic-diet-mitigates-its-stunting-effects-in-rodents
#4
Arkadiusz Damian Liśkiewicz, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Anna Sługocka, Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Jan Wiaderkiewicz, Halina Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
The high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (HFKD) is extensively studied within the fields of numerous diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Since most studies incorporate animal models, ensuring the quality of ketogenic rodent diets is important, both in the context of laboratory animal welfare as well as for the accuracy of the obtained results. In this study we implemented a modification to a commonly-used ketogenic rodent chow by replacing non-resorbable cellulose with wheat bran...
October 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045782/non-covalent-protein-arginine-deiminase-pad-inhibitors-are-efficacious-in-animal-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Elizabeth J Curiel Tejeda, Angelica M Bello, Ewa Wasilewski, Adam Koebel, Shannon Dunn, Lakshmi P Kotra
Peptidyl arginine deiminases have been shown to be hyperactive in neurodegenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis. An α-amino acid based core structure, derived from a hydantoin core, with unique heterocycles on the side chains, were synthesized as potential non-covalent inhibitors of PAD enzymes. Amongst the various heterocycles investigated, compound 23 carrying an imidazole moiety, exhibited the highest potency in this series with some selectivity for PAD2, and was further investigated in vivo. Pharmacokinetics in mice suggested the Cmax to be 12...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045739/assessment-of-ketamine-binding-of-the-serotonin-transporter-in-humans-with-positron-emission-tomography
#6
Marie Spies, Gregory M James, Neydher Berroterán-Infante, Harald Ibeschitz, Georg S Kranz, Jakob Unterholzner, Mathis Godbersen, Gregor Gryglewski, Marius Hienert, Johannes Jungwirth, Verena Pichler, Birgit Reiter, Leo Silberbauer, Dietmar Winkler, Markus Mitterhauser, Thomas Stimpfl, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Background: Comprehensive description of ketamine's molecular binding profile becomes increasingly pressing as use in real life patient cohorts widens. Animal studies attribute a significant role in the substance's antidepressant effects to the serotoninergic system. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a highly relevant target in this context because it is central to depressive pathophysiology and treatment. This is to our knowledge the first study investigating ketamine's SERT binding in-vivo in humans...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045731/the-chimpanzee-model-of-viral-hepatitis-advances-in-understanding-the-immune-response-and-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#7
Robert E Lanford, Christopher M Walker, Stanley M Lemon
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations...
October 17, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045685/micrornas-and-complex-diseases-from-experimental-results-to-computational-models
#8
Xing Chen, Di Xie, Qi Zhao, Zhu-Hong You
Plenty of microRNAs (miRNAs) were discovered at a rapid pace in plants, green algae, viruses and animals. As one of the most important components in the cell, miRNAs play a growing important role in various essential and important biological processes. For the recent few decades, amounts of experimental methods and computational models have been designed and implemented to identify novel miRNA-disease associations. In this review, the functions of miRNAs, miRNA-target interactions, miRNA-disease associations and some important publicly available miRNA-related databases were discussed in detail...
October 17, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045563/generation-of-transgenic-marmosets-using-a-tetracyclin-inducible-transgene-expression-system-as-a-neurodegenerative-disease-model
#9
Ikuo Tomioka, Naotake Nogami, Terumi Nakatani, Kensuke Owari, Naoko Fujita, Hideyuki Motohashi, Osamu Takayama, Kentaro Takae, Yoshitaka Nagai, Kazuhiko Seki
Controllable transgene expression systems are indispensable tools for the production of animal models of disease to investigate protein functions at defined periods. However, in non-human primates that share genetic, physiological, and morphological similarities with humans, genetic modification techniques have not been well established; therefore, the establishment of novel transgenic models with controllable transgene expression systems will be valuable tools to understand pathological mechanism of human disease...
October 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045453/crispr-cas-mediated-knock-in-via-non-homologous-end-joining-in-the-crustacean-daphnia-magna
#10
Hitoshi Kumagai, Takashi Nakanishi, Tomoaki Matsuura, Yasuhiko Kato, Hajime Watanabe
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas) is widely used for mediating the knock-in of foreign DNA into the genomes of various organisms. Here, we report a process of CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end joining by the direct injection of Cas9/gRNA ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) in the crustacean Daphnia magna, which is a model organism for studies on toxicology, ecology, and evolution. First, we confirmed the cleavage activity of Cas9 RNPs comprising purified Cas9 proteins and gRNAs in D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045302/neurosteroid-levels-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-a-history-of-cannabis-use-disorders
#11
Brittany L Mason, Erin Van Enkevort, Francesca Filbey, Christine E Marx, John Park, Alyson Nakamura, Prabha Sunderajan, E Sherwood Brown
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: In animal models, levels of the neurosteroid pregnenolone increase after tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration and pregnenolone appears to attenuate the brain effects of THC. Given these interactions between pregnenolone and THC, we evaluated baseline neurosteroid levels in participants with a history of a cannabis use disorders (CUDs). METHODS/PROCEDURES: Bipolar depressed participants were enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of add-on pregnenolone for depression and before receiving pregnenolone or placebo...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045226/science-to-practice-molecular-targeted-drug-delivery-in-combination-with-radiofrequency-ablation-of-liver-cancer-a-magic-bullet
#12
Lucas Christoph Adam, Nikitha Murali, Julius Chapiro, Jean-François Geschwind
In an effort to improve the technical success rates and clinical outcomes of radiofrequency (RF) ablation, Yan et al validated the use of a tumor-penetrating peptide and thermosensitive doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanoparticles in combination with RF ablation in a hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model. By achieving higher chemotherapeutic drug concentrations in target lesions, fewer toxic effects, and improved survival end points in an animal tumor model, the authors conclude that superior tumor treatment with RF ablation is possible when combined with molecular-targeted drug delivery systems...
November 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045057/proper-training-in-laparoscopic-hernia-repair-is-necessary-to-minimize-the-rising-recurrence-rate-in-japan
#13
Sumio Matsumoto, Tetsushi Hayakawa, Yoh Kawarada, Kazunori Uchida, Tohru Eguchi, Hidetoshi Wada, Nozomi Ueno, Hitoshi Idani, Kanyu Nakano, Yoshiyuki Oomomo
INTRODUCTION: The Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery reported that the recurrence rate for inguinal hernia repair in Japan was less than 1% in 2010. However, its 2012 survey found that the recurrence rate had increased to 4% for the transabdominal preperitoneal procedure and 5% for the totally extraperitoneal procedure. We held 14 hernia repair training courses from 2011 to 2016 with help from Covidien. This study aimed to determine the effect of this training on the recurrence rate...
October 17, 2017: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045045/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-preclinical-studies
#14
Sajit Augustine, Marc T Avey, Brittany Harrison, Tiffany Locke, Mona Ghannad, David Moher, Bernard Thébaud
Extreme prematurity is the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age. Currently, there is no treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the most common complication of extreme prematurity. Experimental studies in animal models of BPD suggest that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are lung protective. To date, no systematic review and meta-analysis has evaluated the preclinical evidence of this promising therapy. Our protocol was registered with Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies prior to searching MEDLINE (1946 to June 1, 2015), Embase (1947 to 2015 Week 22), Pubmed, Web of Science, and conference proceedings (1990 to present) for controlled comparative studies of neonatal animal models that received MSCs or cell free MSC-derived conditioned media (MSC-CM)...
October 17, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045015/the-small-molecule-mertk-inhibitor-unc2025-decreases-platelet-activation-and-prevents-thrombosis
#15
Brian R Branchford, Timothy J Stalker, Luke Law, Gilbert Acevedo, Susan Sather, Christine Brzezinski, Katina M Wilson, Katherine Minson, Alisa B Lee-Sherick, Pavel Davizon-Castillo, Christopher Ng, Weihe Zhang, Keith B Neeves, Steven R Lentz, Xiaodong Wang, Stephen V Frye, H Shelton Earp, Deborah DeRyckere, Lawrence F Brass, Douglas K Graham, Jorge A Di Paola
BACKGROUND: Gas6 signals through the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK) receptor family mediating platelet activation and thrombus formation via activation of the aggregate-stabilizing αIIb β3 integrin. OBJECTIVE: Here we describe anti-thrombotic effects mediated by UNC2025, a small molecule MERTK tyrosine kinase inhibitor. METHODS: MERTK phosphorylation and downstream signaling were assessed by immunoblot. Light transmission aggregometry, flow cytometry, and microfluidic analysis were used to evaluate the impact of MERTK inhibition on platelet activation and stability of aggregate formation in vitro...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044946/aquaporin-1-inhibition-reduces-metastatic-formation-in-a-mouse-model-of-melanoma
#16
Laura Simone, Concetta Domenica Gargano, Francesco Pisani, Antonio Cibelli, Maria Grazia Mola, Antonio Frigeri, Maria Svelto, Grazia Paola Nicchia
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a proangiogenic water channel protein promoting endothelial cell migration. We previously reported that AQP1 silencing by RNA interference reduces angiogenesis-dependent primary tumour growth in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that AQP1 inhibition also affects animal survival and lung nodule formation. Melanoma was induced by injecting B16F10 cells into the back of C57BL6J mice. Intratumoural injection of AQP1 siRNA and CTRL siRNA was performed 10 days after tumour cell implantation...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044928/a-rare-variant-rs933717-at-fbxo31-map1lc3b-in-chinese-is-associated-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Yuan-Yuan Qi, Xu-Jie Zhou, Swapan K Nath, Celi Sun, Yan-Na Wang, Ping Hou, Rong Mu, Chun Li, Jian-Ping Guo, Zhan-Guo Li, Geng Wang, Hu-Ji Xu, Yan-Jie Hao, Zhuo-Li Zhang, Wei-Hua Yue, Huo-Ru Zhang, Ming-Hui Zhao, Hong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence from genetic, cell biology and model animal studies have suggested a pivotal role of autophagy in mediating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the genetic basis has not yet been thoroughly examined. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify additional susceptibility variants in autophagy-related genes, and their functional significance. METHODS: First, we performed a gene family-based genetic association analysis in patients with SLE using ImmunoChip, and selected the top-associated polymorphisms for replication in additional cohorts...
October 17, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044927/knock-out-of-histamine-receptor-h3-alters-adaptation-to-sudden-darkness-and-monoamine-levels-in-the-zebrafish
#18
Henri A J Puttonen, Maria Sundvik, Svetlana Semenova, Yukako Shirai, Yu-Chia Chen, Pertti Panula
AIM: Histamine receptor H3 has substantial neuropharmacological potential. Currently, knock-out models of this receptor have been investigated only in mice. We characterized the expression of this receptor in the zebrafish and generated a zebrafish histamine receptor H3 knock-out line. Using this model, we studied the role of histamine receptor H3 in important behaviours. We also analyzed the effect of histamine receptor H3 knock-out on monoaminergic systems, which has not been thoroughly studied in any animal model...
October 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044822/first-structure-of-a-designed-minor-groove-binding-heterocyclic-cation-that-specifically-recognizes-mixed-dna-base-pair-sequences
#19
Narinder Kaur Harika, Markus W Germann, W David Wilson
The high-resolution NMR structure of the first heterocyclic, non-amide, organic cation that strongly and selectively recognizes mixed AT/GC bp sequences of DNA in a 1:1 complex is described. Compound designs of this type provide essential methods for control of functional, non-genomic DNA sequences and have broad cell uptake capability, based on studies from animals to humans. The high-resolution structural studies described in this report are essential for understanding the molecular basis for the sequence-specific binding as well as for new ideas for additional compound designs for sequence-specific recognition...
October 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044796/social-traits-social-networks-and-evolutionary-biology
#20
David N Fisher, Andrew G McAdam
The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships, and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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