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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679946/extensive-depolarization-and-lack-of-recovery-of-leech-retzius-neurons-caused-by-2-4-diaminobutyric-acid
#1
S Spasic, M Stanojevic, J Nesovic Ostojic, S Kovacevic, M Prostran, S Lopicic
In this paper we present, for the first time, a detailed account of electrophysiological effects of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DABA). 2,4-DABA is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid produced by Cyanobacteria with a possible link to neurodegenerative disorders in animals and humans. Intracellular recordings were performed on Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga using glass microelectrodes filled with 3 mol/L KCl. Our results show that 2,4-DABA is an excitatory amino acid, causing membrane depolarization in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 31, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679883/protective-effects-of-stigmasterol-against-ketamine-induced-psychotic-symptoms-possible-behavioral-biochemical-and-histopathological-changes-in-mice
#2
Monu Yadav, Milind Parle, Deepak Kumar Jindal, Sameer Dhingra
BACKGROUND: Stigmasterol, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen has been reported to possess many pharmacological activities. The aim of the present study was to screen the effect of stigmasterol against ketamine-induced mice model of psychosis. METHODS: The behavioural studies included an assessment of locomotor activity, stereotypic behaviours, immobility duration, step down latency and effects on catalepsy. Biochemical estimations involved the estimations of GABA, dopamine, GSH, MDA, TNF-α, total protein content and AChE activity...
January 11, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679855/rutin-and-rutin-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles-ameliorate-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-rats-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-inos-activation
#3
Anum Gul, Bimal Kunwar, Maryam Mazhar, Shaheen Faizi, Dania Ahmed, Muhammad Raza Shah, Shabana U Simjee
Numerous studies have suggested that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important mediators of inflammatory response in human and animal models of arthritis. Besides, oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxide (PO) are also major contributors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over expression of these inflammatory mediators leads to the extracellular matrix degradation, and excessive cartilage and bone resorption, ultimately leading to the irreversible damage to joints...
April 18, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679812/protective-role-of-nimbolide-against-chemotherapeutic-drug-hydroxyurea-induced-genetic-and-oxidative-damage-in-an-animal-model
#4
Md Fahim Ahmad, Mohd Owais Ansari, Sana Jameel, Ab Latif Wani, Nuzhat Parveen, Hifzur R Siddique, G G H A Shadab
Nimbolide is known to be an antioxidant found in neem plant. Hydroxyurea is a medication frequently used in sickle-cell disease, different cancers and HIV infection. The present study aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of HU and possible amelioration by nimbolide in Wistar rats. To test our hypothesis, we performed genotoxicity tests, biochemical assays, and histopathological studies. We observed that HU caused higher levels of genotoxicity in the treated animals. The observed genetic and oxidative damage might be due to the presence of reactive species as HU increased the level of the malondialdehyde-a biomarker of oxidative damage...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679779/biomimetic-3d-in-vitro-model-of-biofilm-triggered-osteomyelitis-for-investigating-hematopoiesis-during-bone-marrow-infections
#5
Annamarija Raic, Sophie Riedel, Elena Kemmling, Karen Bieback, Joerg Overhage, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck
In this work, we define the requirements for a human-based osteomyelitis model which overcomes the limitations of state of the art animal models. Osteomyelitis is a severe and difficult to treat infection of the bone that develops rapidly, making it difficult to study in humans. We have developed a 3D in vitro model of the bone marrow, comprising a macroporous material, human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Inclusion of biofilms grown on an implant into the model system allowed us to study the effects of postoperative osteomyelitis-inducing bacteria on the bone marrow...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679696/effect-of-neuromonitor-guided-titrated-care-on-brain-tissue-hypoxia-after-opioid-overdose-cardiac-arrest
#6
Jonathan Elmer, Katharyn L Flickinger, Maighdlin W Anderson, Allison Koller, Matthew Sundermann, Cameron Dezfulian, David O Okonkwo, Lori A Shutter, David Salcido, Clifton W Callaway, James J Menegazzi
INTRODUCTION: Brain tissue hypoxia may contribute to preventable secondary brain injury after cardiac arrest. We developed a porcine model of opioid overdose cardiac arrest and post-arrest care including invasive, multimodal neurological monitoring of regional brain physiology. We hypothesized brain tissue hypoxia is common with usual post-arrest care and can be prevented by modifying mean arterial pressure (MAP) and arterial oxygen concentration (PaO2 ). METHODS: We induced opioid overdose and cardiac arrest in sixteen swine, attempted resuscitation after 9 minutes of apnea, and randomized resuscitated animals to three alternating 6-hour blocks of standard or titrated care...
April 18, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679605/circulating-cell-free-dna-in-patients-with-alveolar-echinococcosis
#7
Alice Baraquin, Eric Hervouet, Carine Richou, Pierre Flori, Paul Peixoto, Amel Azizi, Eric Delabrousse, Oleg Blagosklonov, Gerald Umhang, Solange Bresson-Hadni, Benoit Valot, Frédéric Grenouillet
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a parasitic disease, due to Echinococcus multilocularis. Often compared to liver cancer, it develops by infiltration from its primary site to the surrounding tissue, and can then metastasize to other organs. Detection of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) is a useful analytical tool in oncology, for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy monitoring. This study sought to investigate the presence of ccfDNA in patients with AE, and its potential usefulness for the evaluation of treatment efficiency...
April 18, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679556/a-novel-smac-mimetic-apg-1387-exhibited-dual-antitumor-effect-on-hbv-positive-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-high-expression-of-ciap2-by-inducing-apoptosis-and-enhancing-innate-anti-tumor-immunity
#8
Wentao Pan, Qiuyun Luo, Xianglei Yan, Luping Yuan, Hanjie Yi, Lin Zhang, Baoxia Li, Yuxin Zhang, Jian Sun, Miao-Zhen Qiu, Da-Jun Yang
Check point inhibitor anti-PD1 antibody produced some efficacy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients previously treated with sorafenib. Unfortunately, HCC patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection did not respond as well as uninfected patients. Previously, SMAC mimetics-the antagonist for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) can rapidly reduce serum hepatitis B virus DNA in animal model. APG-1387 is a novel SMAC-mimetic, small molecule inhibitor targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs)...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679548/the-effect-of-myelotomy-following-low-thoracic-spinal-cord-compression-injury-in-rats
#9
Carolin Meyer, Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Robin Gensch, Robert Seitz, Gregor Stein, Marilena Manthou, Theodora Papamitsou, Makoto Nakamura, Bertil Bouillon, Mary Galea, Peter Batchelor, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Angelov
Myelotomy is a surgical procedure allowing removal of extravasated blood and necrotic tissue that is thought to attenuate secondary injury as well as promote recovery in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) models and humans. Here we examined in rat whether myelotomy at 48 h after low-thoracic compressive SCI provided any benefit over a 12 week period. Compared to animals receiving SCI alone, myelotomy worsened BBB scores (p < 0.05) and also did not improve plantar stepping, ladder climbing, urinary bladder voiding or sensory function (thermal latency) during the 12-week period...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679542/treatments-for-diabetes-mellitus-type-ii-new-perspectives-regarding-the-possible-role-of-calcium-and-camp-interaction
#10
REVIEW
Diego Soares Carvalho, Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Aurélio Ferreira Borges, Diego Vannucci Campos
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the top ten causes of death worldwide. It is considered to be one of the major global epidemics of the 21st century, with a significant impact on public health budgets. DM is a metabolic disorder with multiple etiologies. Its pathophysiology is marked by dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells which compromises the synthesis and secretion of insulin along with resistance to insulin action in peripheral tissues (muscle and adipose). Subjects presenting insulin resistance in DM type 2 often also exhibit increased insulin secretion and hyperinsulinemia...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679493/ppars-and-pain
#11
REVIEW
Bright N Okine, Jessica C Gaspar, David P Finn
Chronic pain is a common cause of disability worldwide and remains a global health and socioeconomic challenge. Current analgesics are either ineffective in a significant proportion of patients with chronic pain, or associated with significant adverse side effects. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), a family of nuclear hormone transcription factors, have emerged as important modulators of pain in preclinical studies and therefore a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pain...
April 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679483/prostaglandin-fp-receptor-antagonists-discovery-pharmacological-characterization-and-therapeutic-utility
#12
REVIEW
Najam A Sharif, Peter G Klimko
In contrast to the availability of potent and selective antagonists of several prostaglandin (PG) receptor types (including DP1 , DP2 , EP, and TP receptors), there has been a paucity of well-characterized, selective FP-receptor antagonists. The earliest ones included dimethyl amide and dimethyl amine derivatives of PGF2α , but these have failed to gain prominence. The fluorinated PGF2α analogs, AL-8810 and AL-3138, were subsequently discovered as competitive and non-competitive FP-receptor antagonists, respectively...
April 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679474/population-pharmacokinetics-of-gliclazide-in-normal-and-diabetic-rabbits
#13
Mastan Shaik, Shabana Shaik, Eswar Kumar Kilari
Gliclazide is a second-generation sulphonylurea drug widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, there is no single report to describe the population pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in animal models. This study was aimed to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of gliclazide in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. A total of 90 New Zealand white rabbits were administered with 3 doses (4.13, 8.27 and 16.53 mg/kg b.wt) of gliclazide by an oral route...
April 21, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679457/burst-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-peripherally-injured-chronic-neuropathic-rats-a-delayed-effect
#14
Koen P V Meuwissen, Jianwen Wendy Gu, Tianhe C Zhang, Elbert A J Joosten
OBJECTIVE: Two well-known spinal cord stimulation (SCS) paradigms, Conventional (Con) and Burst-SCS, are hypothesized to exert their anti-nociceptive effects through different stimulation-induced mechanisms. We studied the course of the behavioral anti-nociceptive effect during 60 minutes of SCS and 30 minutes post SCS, in a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Animals received a unilateral partial sciatic nerve ligation, after which they were implanted with quadripolar electrodes into the epidural space at vertebral level T13 (n=43 rats)...
April 20, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679380/a-non-myeloablative-chimeric-mouse-model-accurately-defines-microglia-and-macrophage-contribution-in-glioma
#15
Kenny Yu, A Saam Youshani, Fiona L Wilkinson, Claire O'Leary, Peter Cook, Liisi Laaniste, Aiyin Liao, Dominic Mosses, Christopher Waugh, Hannah Shorrock, Omar Pathmanaban, Andrew Macdonald, Ian Kamaly-Asl, Federico Roncaroli, Brian W Bigger
AIMS: Resident and peripherally-derived glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMM) play a key role in driving tumour progression, angiogenesis, invasion, and attenuating host immune responses. Differentiating these cells' origins is challenging and current pre-clinical models such as irradiation-based adoptive transfer, parabiosis and transgenic mice have limitations. We aimed to develop a novel non-myeloablative transplantation (NMT) mouse model that permits high levels of peripheral chimerism without blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage or brain infiltration prior to tumour implantation...
April 20, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679297/animal-models-of-diverticulosis-review-and-recommendations
#16
REVIEW
Bhavesh Patel, Xiaomei Guo, Jillian Noblet, Sean Chambers, Ghassan S Kassab
Diverticulosis is a structural alteration of the colon tissue characterized by the development of pouch-like structures called diverticula. It afflicts a significant portion of the population in Western countries, with a higher prevalence among the elderly. Diverticulosis is believed to be the result of a synergetic interaction between inherent tissue weakness, diet, colonic microstructure, motility, and genetic factors. A validated etiology has, however, not yet been established. Non-surgical treatment is currently lacking due to this poor understanding, and surgical colon resection is the only long-term solution following recurrent complications...
April 20, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679288/calcium-chloride-mimics-the-effects-of-acamprosate-on-cognitive-deficits-in-chronic-alcohol-exposed-mice
#17
Grishma Pradhan, Patrick R Melugin, Fei Wu, Hannah M Fang, Rachel Weber, Sven Kroener
RATIONALE: Acamprosate (calcium-bis N-acetylhomotaurinate) is the leading medication approved for the maintenance of abstinence, shown to reduce craving and relapse in animal models and human alcoholics. Acamprosate can improve executive functions that are impaired by chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. Recent work has suggested that acamprosate's effects on relapse prevention are due to its calcium component, which raises the question whether its pro-cognitive effects are similarly mediated by calcium...
April 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679284/garlic-allium-sativum-exhibits-a-cardioprotective-effect-in-experimental-chronic-renal-failure-rat-model-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-controlling-cardiac-na-k-atpase-activity-and-ca-2-levels
#18
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Alaa T Abdelhafez, Hazem A Aamer
Gentamicin (GNT)-induced nephrotoxicity culminates into renal failure with a possible cardiovascular impact. Garlic extract (GE) is a cardiovascular protectant with limited mechanistic data. Therefore, we assessed the disturbance in specific cardiac parameters and the potential protective effect of GE supplementation against them in a rat model of GNT-induced chronic renal failure (CRF). Adult male rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 6 each): normal controls (CON), garlic extract controls (GE; 250 mg kg-1 , orally), GNT-induced CRF (GNT; 100 mg kg-1 , i...
April 21, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679269/cytotoxicity-and-histopathological-analysis-of-titanium-nanoparticles-via-artemia-salina
#19
Supicha Kachenton, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul, Niwat Kangwanrangsan, Tawewan Tansatit
The consumption trend of nanoparticles by industry in this moment pays attention to titanium nanoparticles (TiNPs), due to their various applications: personal care products, household products, food industry, electronic devices, and healthcare products. Rising consumption of TiNPs without specific regulatory criteria for control safety releasing quantification leads to concern on the topic of environmental contamination and injurious effect. Therefore, this study investigates TiNP toxicities on aquatic animals representing hazardous effects to natural water resource, by determining 24-h LC50 of TiNPs with histopathology investigation...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679159/notch-1-sirna-and-methotrexate-towards-a-multifunctional-approach-in-rhematoid-arthritis-management-a-nanomedicine-approach
#20
Guang Zhao, Haifei Zhang
PURPOSE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease and Notch pathway plays a pivotal role in synoviocytes involved in progression of RA. METHODS: Herein, we have designed a self-assembled polymeric micelles based on polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) and polyethylenimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG) was prepared and loaded with methotrexate and Notch-1 siRNA for the effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: The MTX/siRNA-loaded polymeric micelles (siM-PM) showed appreciable cellular uptake in Raw264...
April 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
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