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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685043/hepatitis-e-virus-in-neurological-disorders-a-case-of-parsonage-turner-syndrome
#1
María Sánchez Azofra, Miriam Romero Portales, Lucia Tortajada Laureiro, Javier García-Samaniego, Pedro Mora Sanz
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging disease in developed countries with a broad clinical spectrum. In the absence of immunodeficiency or pregnancy, it is a mild and almost asymptomatic condition in most cases. However, extrahepatic manifestations, including neurological conditions, are common and may occasionally lead to permanent neurological sequelae. Herein, we report the case of an immunocompetent patient who was admitted to our hospital with paresthesia and weakness in both the upper extremities associated with anicteric-elevated transaminases...
April 24, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672871/sex-differences-in-the-contemporary-management-of-hiv-patients-admitted-for-acute-myocardial-infarction
#2
Gbolahan O Ogunbayo, Katrina Bidwell, Naoki Misumida, Le Dung Ha, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Claude S Elayi, Susan Smyth, Adrian W Messerli
BACKGROUND: Studies have reported sex differences in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the general population. This observational study is designed to evaluate whether sex differences exist in the contemporary management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients admitted for diagnosis of AMI. HYPOTHESIS: There is no difference in management of HIV patients with AMI. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified patients with a primary diagnosis of AMI and a secondary diagnosis of HIV...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672640/differential-impact-of-transplantation-on-peripheral-and-tissue-associated-viral-reservoirs-implications-for-hiv-gene-therapy
#3
Christopher W Peterson, Jianbin Wang, Claire Deleage, Sowmya Reddy, Jasbir Kaur, Patricia Polacino, Andreas Reik, Meei-Li Huang, Keith R Jerome, Shiu-Lok Hu, Michael C Holmes, Jacob D Estes, Hans-Peter Kiem
Autologous transplantation and engraftment of HIV-resistant cells in sufficient numbers should recapitulate the functional cure of the Berlin Patient, with applicability to a greater number of infected individuals and with a superior safety profile. A robust preclinical model of suppressed HIV infection is critical in order to test such gene therapy-based cure strategies, both alone and in combination with other cure strategies. Here, we present a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of latent infection using simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in pigtail macaques...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670780/syphilis-related-eye-disease-presenting-as-bilateral-papilledema-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-hemorrhage-and-anterior-uveitis-in-a-penicillin-allergic-patient
#4
Jamie Dietze, Shane Havens
Purpose . Treponema pallidum is known as the "great masquerader" for its many presentations and ocular findings in patients who are infected and develop secondary and tertiary stage of syphilis. Syphilitic ocular manifestations include uveitis, chorioretinitis, retinitis, vasculitis, vitritis, and panuveitis all with or without decreased visual acuity. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to expedite the progression of syphilis when patients are coinfected, thus compounding the potential ophthalmic presentations...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670357/dronabinol-oral-solution-in-the-management-of-anorexia-and-weight-loss-in-aids-and-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Melissa E Badowski, Paa Kwesi Yanful
The true incidence of anorexia secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer is not well classified owing to the fact that there is a lack of standardized definitions and recent clinical data in these settings. Dronabinol, or Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a synthetic molecule that closely mimics the action of Cannabis sativa L., a naturally occurring compound activated in the central nervous system by cannabinoid receptors. Dronabinol exerts its effects by directly acting on the vomiting and appetite control centers in the brain, which in turn increases appetite and prevents vomiting...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657917/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-hlh-secondary-to-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-the-setting-of-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-aids
#6
Samuel Asanad, Brendan Cerk, Veronica Ramirez
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and aggressive disease involving immune system over-activation leading to hemophagocytosis. HLH requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We present a case of a middle-aged male with AIDS and renal failure, who developed HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis. Etoposide chemotherapy as recommended by the HLH 2004 Guidelines was deferred and treatment focused instead on anti-fungal therapy...
June 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644723/a-french-observational-study-describing-the-use-of-human-polyvalent-immunoglobulins-in-hematological-malignancy-associated-secondary-immunodeficiency
#7
Omar Benbrahim, Jean-François Viallard, Sylvain Choquet, Bruno Royer, Frédéric Bauduer, Olivier Decaux, Jean-Charles Crave, Yann Fardini, Pierre Clerson, Vincent Levy
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of patients suffering from secondary immunodeficiencies (SID) associated with hematological malignancies (HM), who started immunoglobulins replacement therapy (IgRT), physicians' expectations regarding IgRT and IgRT modalities. METHODS: Non-interventional, prospective French cross-sectional study. RESULTS: The analysis included 231 patients (66±12 years old) suffering from multiple myeloma (MM) (N=64), chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) (N=84), aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (aNHL) (N=32), indolent NHL (N=39), acute leukemia (N=6), Hodgkin disease (N=6)...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620790/john-cunningham-virus-an-overview-on-biology-and-disease-of-the-etiological-agent-of-the-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#8
Valeria Pietropaolo, Carla Prezioso, Francesca Bagnato, Guido Antonelli
John Cunningham virus (JCV), the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is the first human polyomavirus described. After asymptomatic primary infection which occurs in childhood, the virus spreads by the hematogenous route from the primary site of infection to secondary sites including kidneys, lymphoid tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes, and brain to establish latent infection. During immunosuppression the virus undergoes molecular rearrangements that allow it to replicate in glial tissues causing PML...
April 5, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606506/nuclease-free-adeno-associated-virus-mediated-il2rg-gene-editing-in-x-scid-mice
#9
Takafumi Hiramoto, Li B Li, Sarah E Funk, Roli K Hirata, David W Russell
X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) has been successfully treated by hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transduction with retroviral vectors expressing the interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma gene (IL2RG), but several patients developed malignancies due to vector integration near cellular oncogenes. This adverse side effect could in principle be avoided by accurate IL2RG gene editing with a vector that does not contain a functional promoter or IL2RG gene. Here, we show that adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene editing vectors can insert a partial Il2rg cDNA at the endogenous Il2rg locus in X-SCID murine bone marrow cells and that these ex vivo-edited cells repopulate transplant recipients and produce CD4+ and CD8+ T cells...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604987/neuroaids-in-children
#10
Jo M Wilmshurst, Charles K Hammond, Kirsty Donald, Jacqueline Hoare, Karen Cohen, Brian Eley
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2.3 million children less than 15 years of age who were living in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2014, only 30% were receiving cART, suggesting that there is a large burden of neuroAIDS among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601601/prenylated-phloroglucinols-from-hypericum-scruglii-an-endemic-species-of-sardinia-italy-as-new-dual-hiv-1-inhibitors-effective-on-hiv-1-replication
#11
Cinzia Sanna, Monica Scognamiglio, Antonio Fiorentino, Angela Corona, Vittoria Graziani, Alessia Caredda, Pierluigi Cortis, Mariofilippo Montisci, Elisa Rita Ceresola, Filippo Canducci, Ferruccio Poli, Enzo Tramontano, Francesca Esposito
In a search for new potential multitarget anti-HIV compounds from natural products, we have identified in Hypericum scruglii, an endemic and exclusive species of Sardinia (Italy), a potent plant lead. The phytochemical study of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from its leaves led to the isolation of its most abundant secondary metabolites, belonging to different chemical classes. In particular, three phloroglucinols derivatives were identified, confirming their significance as chemotaxonomic markers of the Hypericum genus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596589/psychosocial-factors-associated-with-problem-drinking-among-substance-users-with-poorly-controlled-hiv-infection
#12
Jennifer C Elliott, Ahnalee M Brincks, Daniel J Feaster, Deborah S Hasin, Carlos Del Rio, Gregory M Lucas, Allan E Rodriguez, Ank E Nijhawan, Lisa R Metsch
Aims: We aimed to identify psychosocial factors related to problem drinking among patients with poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Short Summary: We aimed to identify psychosocial factors related to problem drinking among those with poorly controlled HIV infection. Increased levels of interpersonal conflict were associated with greater severity of alcohol problems. Poorer mental health, medical mistrust and less satisfaction with one's physician related to excessive drinking...
March 27, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583086/dual-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system-caused-by-cryptococcus-and-toxoplasma-in-a-patient-with-aids-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora
Dual infection of the central nervous system secondary to Cryptococcus and Toxoplasma is very uncommon, even in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the case of a 52-year-old patient who was admitted with multiple cranial nerve deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging showed supratentorial and infratentorial enhancing lesions. He was newly diagnosed with HIV infection with a CD4 count of 59 cells/uL and HIV viral load of 299,619 copies/mL. Diagnosis of Cryptococcus meningitis was made by Cryptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
March 27, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561455/major-depression-disorder-trajectories-and-hiv-disease-progression-results-from-a-6-year-outpatient-clinic-cohort
#14
Arthur H Owora
Contradictory evidence exists on the role of Major depression disorder (MDD) as a predictor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, particularly regarding the effect of MDD presence versus pattern of illness. The objective of this study was to examine whether MDD status and pattern of illness differentially predict HIV disease progression. Retrospective cohort data from a six-year follow-up of HIV patients at an outpatient clinic were analyzed. MDD trajectories were identified by latent class growth analysis and generalized linear mixed models were used to examine their relation to low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/μL) during follow-up...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561424/nonopportunistic-infection-leading-to-rapidly-progressive-dementia-in-a-patient-with-hiv-aids-a-case-report
#15
Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558896/challenges-and-successes-in-the-implementation-of-option-b-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-southern-swaziland
#16
David Etoori, Bernhard Kerschberger, Nelly Staderini, Mpumelelo Ndlangamandla, Bonisile Nhlabatsi, Kiran Jobanputra, Simangele Mthethwa-Hleza, Lucy Anne Parker, Sifiso Sibanda, Edwin Mabhena, Munyaradzi Pasipamire, Serge Mathurin Kabore, Barbara Rusch, Christine Jamet, Iza Ciglenecki, Roger Teck
BACKGROUND: Universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant/ breastfeeding women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), known as Prevention of mother-to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Option B+ (PMTCTB+), is being scaled up in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the transition to PMTCTB+, many countries face challenges with proper implementation of the HIV care cascade. We aimed to describe the feasibility of a PMTCTB+ approach in the public health sector in Swaziland...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556229/respiratory-manifestations-of-the-activated-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-delta-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Alison M Condliffe, Anita Chandra
The activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS), also known as p110δ-activating mutation causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI), is a combined immunodeficiency syndrome caused by gain-of-function mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) genes PIK3CD (encoding p110δ: APDS1 or PASLI-CD) and PIK3R1 (encoding p85α: APDS2 or PASLI-R1). While the disease is clinically heterogeneous, respiratory symptoms and complications are near universal and often severe...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535735/epstein-barr-virus-smooth-muscle-tumors-as-manifestation-of-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Magg, Tilmann Schober, Christoph Walz, Julia Ley-Zaporozhan, Fabio Facchetti, Christoph Klein, Fabian Hauck
Epstein-Barr virus positive (EBV+ ) smooth muscle tumors (SMTs) constitute a very rare oncological entity. They usually develop in the context of secondary immunodeficiency caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection or immunosuppressive treatment after solid organ transplantation. However, in a small fraction of predominantly pediatric patients, EBV+ SMTs may occur in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs), such as GATA2 and CARMIL2 deficiency. In secondary immunodeficiencies and when the underlying condition can not be cured, the treatment of EBV+ SMTs is based on surgery in combination with antiretroviral and reduced or altered immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535724/t-cell-subsets-in-the-germinal-center-lessons-from-the-macaque-model
#19
REVIEW
Monica Vaccari, Genoveffa Franchini
Germinal centers (GCs) are organized lymphoid tissue microstructures where B cells proliferate and differentiate into memory B cells and plasma cells. A few distinctive subsets of highly specialized T cells gain access to the GCs by expressing the B cell zone-homing C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) while losing the T cell zone-homing chemokine receptor CCR7. Help from T cells is critical to induce B cell proliferation and somatic hyper mutation and to limit GC reactions. CD4+ T follicular helper (TFH ) cells required for the formation of GCs and for the generation of long-lived, high-affinity B cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529681/severe-complication-during-remission-of-crohn-s-disease-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-due-to-acute-cytomegalovirus-infection
#20
Jan Miechowiecki, Waltraud Stainer, Gertraud Wallner, Herwig Tuppy, Walter Aichinger, Wolfgang Prammer, Andreas Kirchgatterer
INTRODUCTION: Immunosuppressive therapy is today's standard treatment of patients with moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The risk for opportunistic infections is increased due to this therapy and is a concern in the management of patient with IBD undergoing such a treatment. CASE REPORT: In this paper, we describe a case of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a 35-year-old male patient with Crohn's disease being in remission while receiving azathioprine therapy...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
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