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Secondary immunodeficiency

Joshua D Billings, Dvora L Joseph Davey, Kelika A Konda, Claire C Bristow, Jeremy Chow, Jeffrey D Klausner, Carlos F Cáceres
The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Lima, Peru.We analyzed characteristics of 378 MSM and transgender women recruited from 2 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Lima, Peru. Descriptive analyses compared: (A) HIV-uninfected, (B) previously undiagnosed HIV-infected, and (C) previously diagnosed HIV-infected participants. Multivariable logistic regression models identified: (1) correlates of previously undiagnosed HIV-infection among participants thought to be HIV-uninfected (B vs A); and (2) correlates of previously undiagnosed HIV-infection among HIV-infected participants (B vs C)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Arun Agarwal, Samiksha Sharma, Mala Airun
Selective immunoglobulin M deficiency(sIgMD) is a rare form of dysgammaglobulinaemia characterized by an isolated low level of serum immunoglobulin M (IgM). It was an incidence of less than 0.03% in the general population and 1% in hospitalized patients. sIgMD may occur as a primary or secondary condition. sIgMD is much more common than primary .Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is also a rare but potentially fatal disease of normal but overactive histiocytes and lymphocytes and can be primary or secondary, characterized by the overwhelming activation of normal T lymphocytes and macrophages, invariably leading to clinical and hematologic alterations...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Daniel Fuster, Arantza Sanvisens, Ferran Bolao, Paola Zuluaga, Inmaculada Rivas, Magi Farré, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
BACKGROUND: The health burden of cannabis use in patients with other substance dependencies is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cannabis use as secondary drug on mortality of patients with other major substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with opiate, cocaine, or alcohol dependence admitted to detoxification from 2001 to 2010 at a teaching hospital in Badalona, Spain. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, medical comorbidities, and urine drug screens were obtained at admission...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Jeremy Woodward, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Dinakantha Kumararatne
Chronic infection with Norovirus is emerging as a significant risk for patients with immunodeficiency - either primary or secondary to therapeutic immunosuppression. Patients with primary immunodeficiency present a range of pathological responses to Norovirus infection. Asymptomatic infections occur and differentiating viral carriage or prolonged viral shedding after self-limiting infection from infection causing protracted diarrhoea can be challenging due to relatively mild pathological changes that may mimic other causes of diarrhoea in such patients (for instance pathogenic bacteria or parasites or graft-versus-host disease)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Nicole De Wet
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is higher among females than males in Sub-Saharan Africa. Education is associated with better health outcomes. For this and other reasons, African countries have made a concerted effort to increase youth education rates. However, in South Africa males have lower secondary education rates than females, yet females have a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS. This study examines if a gender disparity exists in AIDS mortality rates among youth with secondary education in South Africa...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Chiara Diazzi, Giulia Brigante, Giulia Ferrannini, Anna Ansaloni, Lucia Zirilli, Maria Cristina De Santis, Stefano Zona, Giovanni Guaraldi, Vincenzo Rochira
Biochemical growth hormone deficiency is prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, but if this condition is clinically relevant remains challenging. The aim is to prospectively compare the growth hormone deficiency/insulin-like growth factor-1 status of 71 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with impaired growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone + Arginine with that of 65 hypopituitary patients affected by a true growth hormone deficiency secondary to pituitary disease...
October 11, 2016: Endocrine
Kathlene Tracy, Samantha P Wallace
OBJECTIVE: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Lesia K Dropulic, Howard M Lederman
Understanding the components of the immune system that contribute to host defense against infection is key to recognizing infections that are more likely to occur in an immunocompromised patient. In this review, we discuss the integrated system of physical barriers and of innate and adaptive immunity that contributes to host defense. Specific defects in the components of this system that predispose to particular infections are presented. This is followed by a review of primary immunodeficiency diseases and secondary immunodeficiencies, the latter of which develop because of a specific illness or condition or are treatment-related...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Wolfgang Frenzel, Stefan Wietek, Tor-Einar Svae, Anette Debes, Daniel Svorc
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability and safety of Octagam<sup>®</sup> 5% and 10% across all indications, ages, and treatment regimens, using data from four non-interventional post-authorization safety studies (PASS); this analysis was performed following changes in the preparation of raw material used to manufacture Octagam. METHODS: All four studies included in- and out-patients prescribed Octagam for treatment of their medical condition. Physicians used case report forms to document baseline demographics, Octagam treatment details, and data on the efficacy of Octagam, and recorded all adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and other safety data...
November 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Roberta Bruhn, Elizabeth Moreno, Ester C Sabino, Naura Aparecida F Ferreira, Anna Barbara F Carneiro-Proietti, Maria Esther D Lopes, Divaldo Sampaio, Paula Loureiro, Brian Custer, Thelma T Goncalez
BACKGROUND: There has been increased worldwide emphasis on the many benefits of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus awareness for both infection prevention and improved treatment outcomes. Previous studies indicate that donors may use blood donation to be tested; the objectives of this analysis were to assess, among donors with previously undisclosed risk behavior in the 12 months before donation, the frequency of those who have previously been tested for HIV and the demographic and behavioral factors associated with such testing...
September 9, 2016: Transfusion
Jinbiao Liu, Qianhao Xiao, Runhong Zhou, Yong Wang, Qiaoyang Xian, Tongcui Ma, Ke Zhuang, Li Zhou, Deyin Guo, Xu Wang, Wen-Zhe Ho, Jieliang Li
Altered T-cell homeostasis, such as expansion of CD8(+) T cells to the secondary lymphatic compartments, has been suggested as a mechanism of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-pathogenesis. However, the role of immune activation of CD8(+) T cells in the CD4/CD8 turnover and viral replication in these tissues is not completely understood. In this study, we compared the expression of immune activation markers (CD69 and HLA-DR) on CD8(+) T cells in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes (LNs) of SIV-infected/uninfected Chinese rhesus macaques...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Kesava A Ramakrishnan, Reuben J Pengelly, Yifang Gao, Mary Morgan, Sanjay V Patel, E Graham Davies, Sarah Ennis, Saul N Faust, Anthony P Williams
BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) deficiency has recently been reported to cause a folate-responsive syndrome displaying a phenotype that includes megaloblastic anemia and severe combined immunodeficiency. OBJECTIVE: To describe our investigative approach to the molecular diagnosis and evaluation of immune dysfunction in a family with MTHFD1 deficiency. METHODS: The methods used were exome sequencing and analysis of variants in genes involved in the folate metabolic pathway in a family with 2 affected siblings...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Esmaeil Mortaz, Payam Tabarsi, Davod Mansouri, Adnan Khosravi, Johan Garssen, Aliakbar Velayati, Ian M Adcock
The life span of patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency is increasing due to recent improvements in therapeutic strategies. While the incidence of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is 1:10,000 births, that of secondary immunodeficiencies are more common and are associated with posttransplantation immune dysfunction, with immunosuppressive medication for human immunodeficiency virus or with human T-cell lymphotropic virus infection. After infection, malignancy is the most prevalent cause of death in both children and adults with (PIDs)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Theresa Aves, Tamara Kredo, Vivian Welch, Sara Mursleen, Stephanie Ross, Babalwa Zani, Nkengafac Villyen Motaze, Leah Quinlan, Lawrence Mbuagbaw
OBJECTIVE: To describe and summarize equity reporting in HIV systematic reviews and explore the extent to which equity issues are addressed and reported in HIV reviews using the PROGRESS Plus framework. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Application of the PROGRESS Plus framework to a bibliometric analysis of HIV reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. RESULTS: The analysis included 103 reviews published as of March 2014, with a median of 5 studies per review (first quartile; Q1 = 2; third quartile; Q3 = 11)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Leticia Yañez, Pamela Lama, Carolina Rivacoba, Juanita Zamorano, Maria Angélica Marinovic
: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are congenital disorders secondary to an impaired immune response. Infections, autoimmune disorders, atopy, and lymphoproliferative syndromes are commonly associated with this disorder. OBJECTIVE: To present and discuss 3 infants diagnosed with PID. CLINICAL CASES: The cases are presented of three patients with PID diagnosed during their first admission to a Paediatric Intensive Critical Care Unit...
September 27, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Jennifer A Campbell, David S Sanders, Katherine A Francis, Matthew Kurien, Sai Lee, Hatim Taha, Arvind Ramadas, Diamond Joy, Andrew D Hopper
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency may be under recognised in gastroenterological practice. We aimed to identify the prevalence of pancreatic insufficiency in secondary care gastroenterology clinics and determine if co-morbidity or presenting symptoms could predict diagnosis. A secondary aim was to assess response to treatment. METHODS: A dual centre retrospective analysis was conducted in secondary care gastroenterology clinics. Patients tested for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency with faecal elastase-1 (FEL-1) between 2009 and 2013 were identified in two centres...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Bhumesh Kumar Katakam, Geeta Kiran, Udaya Kumar
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. AIMS: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Bin Wu, Kimberly Ingersoll, Catherine Rehder, Endi Wang
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an indolent mature B-cell neoplasm. During a prolonged disease course, a secondary B-cell neoplasm may arise in some patients, the most common example being the clonal evolution of CLL to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which is referred to as Richter transformation. Secondary de novo mature B-cell neoplasms arising in a patient with pre-existing CLL have been described; however, B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) developing in untreated CLL is rare, and its clonal relationship to the primary neoplasm has been an interesting issue...
September 22, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
J F Viallard, P Agape, V Barlogis, G Cozon, C Faure, F Fouyssac, C Gaud, M P Gourin, M Hamidou, C Hoarau, F Husseini, M Ojeda-Uribe, M Pavic, I Pellier, A Perlat, N Schleinitz, B Slama
BACKGROUND: Although Hizentra is indicated for immunoglobulin replacement therapy in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, phase III trials have focused on patients with primary immunodeficiencies. In this 9-month, real-life, prospective, non-interventional, longitudinal, multicenter study of patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies in France, treatment modalities (primary endpoint), efficacy, safety, tolerability, quality of life, and treatment satisfaction were evaluated using descriptive statistics...
September 29, 2016: BMC Immunology
Eva Hlavackova, Martin Liska, Hana Jicinska, Jiri Navratil, Jiri Litzman
The Fontan operation or total cavopulmonal connection (TCPC) is a palliative surgical correction of rare and complex inborn cardiac malformations that are characterized by univentricular circulation. Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) develops in 4-13% of patients after the Fontan procedure. Fontan-related PLE leads to secondary combined immunodeficiency marked by hypogammaglobulinemia and predominantly CD4+ lymphocytopenia. Here, we present 3 case reports of patients with secondary immunodeficiency after the Fontan operation...
September 30, 2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
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