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Darryl W Schneider
A puzzling interaction involving alertness and cognitive control is indicated by the finding of faster performance but larger congruency effects on alert trials (on which alerting cues are presented before the task stimuli) than on no-alert trials in selective attention tasks. In the present study, the author conducted four experiments to test hypotheses about the interaction. Manipulation of stimulus spacing revealed a difference in congruency effects between alert and no-alert trials for narrowly spaced stimuli but not for widely spaced stimuli, inconsistent with the hypothesis that increased alertness is associated with more diffuse attention...
February 21, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jennifer D Churchill, Monika Stoljarova, Jonathan L King, Bruce Budowle
The mitochondrial genome has a number of characteristics that provide useful information to forensic investigations. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies offer improvements to the quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial genome, specifically the interpretation of mixed mitochondrial samples. Two-person mixtures with nuclear DNA ratios of 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1 of individuals from different and similar phylogenetic backgrounds and three-person mixtures with nuclear DNA ratios of 1:1:1 and 5:1:1 were prepared using the Precision ID mtDNA Whole Genome Panel and Ion Chef, and sequenced on the Ion PGM or Ion S5 sequencer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA)...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Stephen C Jameson, David Masopust
Considerable advances have been made in recent years in understanding the generation and function of memory T cells. Memory T cells are typically parsed into discreet subsets based on phenotypic definitions that connote distinct roles in immunity. Here we consider new developments in the field and focus on how emerging differences between memory cells with respect to their trafficking, metabolism, epigenetic regulation, and longevity may fail to fit into small groups of "memory subsets." Rather, the properties of individual memory T cells fall on a continuum within each of these and other parameters...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
Hillary L Woodworth, Patricia A Perez-Bonilla, Bethany G Beekly, Trevor J Lewis, Gina M Leinninger
Neurotensin (Nts) promotes activation of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) via incompletely understood mechanisms. Nts can signal via the G protein-coupled Nts receptors 1 and 2 (NtsR1 and NtsR2), but the lack of methods to detect NtsR1- and NtsR2-expressing cells has limited mechanistic understanding of Nts action. To overcome this challenge, we generated dual recombinase mice that express FlpO-dependent Cre recombinase in NtsR1 or NtsR2 cells. This strategy permitted temporal control over recombination, such that we could identify NtsR1- or NtsR2-expressing cells and determine whether their distributions differed between the developing and adult brain...
January 2018: ENeuro
Naim Mahroum, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Kassem Sharif, Vincenza Gianfredi, Daniele Nucci, Roberto Rosselli, Francesco Brigo, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Abdulla Watad
BACKGROUND: Technological advancements, such as patient-centered smartphone applications, have enabled to support self-management of the disease. Further, the accessibility to health information through the Internet has grown tremendously. This article aimed to investigate how big data can be useful to assess the impact of a celebrity's rheumatic disease on the public opinion. METHODS: Variable tools and statistical/computational approaches have been used, including massive data mining of Google Trends, Wikipedia, Twitter, and big data analytics...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Raúl Arias-Carrasco, Yessenia Vásquez-Morán, Helder I Nakaya, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho
BACKGROUND: The function of many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) depend upon their secondary structures. Over the last decades, several methodologies have been developed to predict such structures or to use them to functionally annotate RNAs into RNA families. However, to fully perform this analysis, researchers should utilize multiple tools, which require the constant parsing and processing of several intermediate files. This makes the large-scale prediction and annotation of RNAs a daunting task even to researchers with good computational or bioinformatics skills...
February 17, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Christina L Marcaccio, Ryan P Dumas, Yanlan Huang, Wei Yang, Grace J Wang, Daniel N Holena
OBJECTIVE: The traditional approach to stable blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) endorsed by the Society for Vascular Surgery is early (<24 hours) thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Recently, some studies have shown improved mortality in stable BTAI patients repaired in a delayed manner (≥24 hours). However, the indications for use of delayed TEVAR for BTAI are not well characterized, and its overall impact on the patient's survival remains poorly understood. We sought to determine whether delayed TEVAR is associated with a decrease in mortality compared with early TEVAR in this population...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Julia L Wright, Jessie Y C Chen, Michael J Barnes
In a human-automation interaction study, automation assistance level (AL) was investigated for its effects on operator performance in a dynamic, multi-tasking environment. Participants supervised a convoy of manned and unmanned vehicles traversing a simulated environment in three AL conditions, while maintaining situation awareness and identifying targets. Operators' situation awareness, target detection performance, workload, and individual differences were evaluated. Results show increasing AL generally improved task performance and decreased perceived workload, however differential effects due to operator spatial ability and perceived attentional control were found...
February 16, 2018: Ergonomics
Elizabeth D Ballard, Julia S Yarrington, Cristan A Farmer, Marc S Lener, Bashkim Kadriu, Níall Lally, Deonte Williams, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Mark J Niciu, Lawrence Park, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: Due to the heterogeneity of depressive symptoms-which can include depressed mood, anhedonia, negative cognitive biases, and altered activity levels-researchers often use a combination of depression rating scales to assess symptoms. This study sought to identify unidimensional constructs measured across rating scales for depression and to evaluate these constructs across clinical trials of a rapid-acting antidepressant (ketamine). METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on baseline ratings from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Rating Scale (SHAPS)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Zhi Li, Hai-Song Shi, Ori Elis, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Ya Wang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Ann M Kring, Raymond C K Chan
The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) is a self-report instrument that assesses pleasure experience. Initial scale development and validation in the United States yielded a two-factor solution comprising anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. However, a four-factor model that further parsed anticipatory and consummatory pleasure experience into abstract and contextual components was a better model fit in China. In this study, we tested both models using confirmatory factor analysis in an American and a Chinese sample and examined the configural measurement invariance of both models across culture...
February 12, 2018: PsyCh Journal
Stephen D Zucker, Michael W Fried
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Andrew T Marshall, Briac Halbout, Angela T Liu, Sean B Ostlund
Cues signaling the availability of palatable food acquire the ability to potentiate food seeking and consumption. The current study employed a combination of behavioral, pharmacological, and analytical techniques to probe the role of Pavlovian incentive motivation in cue-potentiated feeding. We show that a cue paired with sucrose solution (CS+) can transfer its control over feeding to stimulate sucrose consumption at a new receptacle, and that this effect depends on activation of D1 dopamine receptors, which is known to modulate other forms of cue-motivated behavior but not taste palatability...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Gail Stanton, Jonathan Van Name, Kaiwen Su, William A Mills, Kenya Swilling, Alicia Kerr, Natalie A Huebschman, Jianmin Su, Michael A Fox
It has long been thought that the mammalian visual system is organized into parallel pathways, with incoming visual signals being parsed in the retina based on feature (e.g. color, contrast and motion) and then transmitted to the brain in unmixed, feature-specific channels. To faithfully convey feature-specific information from retina to cortex, thalamic relay cells must receive inputs from only a small number of functionally similar retinal ganglion cells. However, recent studies challenged this by revealing substantial levels of retinal convergence onto relay cells...
February 9, 2018: ELife
Sandra Villata, Whitney Tabor, Julie Franck
Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference). However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference), an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sharon Cameron, Nicky Chong-White, Kiri Mealings, Tim Beechey, Harvey Dillon, Taegan Young
BACKGROUND: Intensity peaks and valleys in the acoustic signal are salient cues to syllable structure, which is accepted to be a crucial early step in phonological processing. As such, the ability to detect low-rate (envelope) modulations in signal amplitude is essential to parse an incoming speech signal into smaller phonological units. PURPOSE: The Parsing Syllable Envelopes (ParSE) test was developed to quantify the ability of children to recognize syllable boundaries using an amplitude modulation detection paradigm...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Akm Sabbir, Antonio Jimeno-Yepes, Ramakanth Kavuluru
Biomedical word sense disambiguation (WSD) is an important intermediate task in many natural language processing applications such as named entity recognition, syntactic parsing, and relation extraction. In this paper, we employ knowledge-based approaches that also exploit recent advances in neural word/concept embeddings to improve over the state-of-the-art in biomedical WSD using the public MSH WSD dataset [1] as the test set. Our methods involve weak supervision - we do not use any hand-labeled examples for WSD to build our prediction models; however, we employ an existing concept mapping program, MetaMap, to obtain our concept vectors...
October 2017: Proceedings
Mark D Shen, Joseph Piven
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition that affects 1 in 68 children. Diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic behavioral impairments that emerge in the second year of life and thus is not typically made until 3 to 4 years of age. Recent studies of early brain and behavior development have provided important new insights into the nature of this condition. Autism-specific brain imaging features have been identified as early as 6 months of age, and age-specific brain and behavior changes have been demonstrated across the first 2 years of life, highlighting the developmental nature of ASD...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Anusha Yellamsetty, Gavin M Bidelman
Parsing simultaneous speech requires listeners use pitch-guided segregation which can be affected by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the auditory scene. The interaction of these two cues may occur at multiple levels within the cortex. The aims of the current study were to assess the correspondence between oscillatory brain rhythms and determine how listeners exploit pitch and SNR cues to successfully segregate concurrent speech. We recorded electrical brain activity while participants heard double-vowel stimuli whose fundamental frequencies (F0s) differed by zero or four semitones (STs) presented in either clean or noise-degraded (+5 dB SNR) conditions...
February 2, 2018: Hearing Research
Richard D LeDuc, Veit Schwämmle, Michael R Shortreed, Anthony J Cesnik, Stefan K Solntsev, Jared B Shaw, Maria J Martin, Juan A Vizcaíno, Emanuele Alpi, Paul Danis, Neil L Kelleher, Lloyd M Smith, Ying Ge, Jeffrey N Agar, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Joseph Loo, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Yury O Tsybin
The Consortium for Top-Down Proteomics (CTDP) proposes a standardized notation, ProForma, for writing the se-quence of fully characterized proteoforms. ProForma provides a means to communicate any proteoform by writing the amino acid sequence using standard one-letter notation and specifying modifications or unidentified mass shifts with-in brackets following certain amino acids. The notation is unambiguous, human readable, and can easily be parsed and written by bioinformatic tools. This system uses seven rules and supports a wide range of possible use cases, ensuring compatibility and reproducibility of proteoform annotations...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Marco D Huesch, Rekha Cherian, Sam Labib, Rickhesvar Mahraj
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the variability of language in free text reports of pulmonary embolus (PE) studies and to gauge the informativeness of free text to predict PE diagnosis using machine learning as proxy for human understanding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All 1,133 consecutive chest CTs with contrast studies performed under a PE protocol and ordered in the emergency department in 2016 were selected from our departmental electronic workflow system...
January 22, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
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