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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071588/genetic-evidence-that-nkx2-2-acts-primarily-downstream-of-neurog3-in-pancreatic-endocrine-lineage-development
#1
Angela J Churchill, Giselle Dominguez Gutiérrez, Ruth A Singer, David S Lorberbaum, Kevin A Fischer, Lori Sussel
Many pancreatic transcription factors that are essential for islet cell differentiation have been well characterized; however, because they are often expressed in several different cell populations, their functional hierarchy remains unclear. To parse out the spatiotemporal regulation of islet cell differentiation, we used a Neurog3-Cre allele to ablate Nkx2.2, one of the earliest and most broadly expressed islet transcription factors, specifically in the Neurog3(+) endocrine progenitor lineage (Nkx2.2(△endo))...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059614/western-diets-gut-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-diseases-are-they-linked
#2
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053059/parsing-the-life-shortening-effects-of-dietary-protein-effects-of-individual-amino-acids
#3
Sara Arganda, Sofia Bouchebti, Sepideh Bazazi, Sophie Le Hesran, Camille Puga, Gérard Latil, Stephen J Simpson, Audrey Dussutour
High-protein diets shorten lifespan in many organisms. Is it because protein digestion is energetically costly or because the final products (the amino acids) are harmful? To answer this question while circumventing the life-history trade-off between reproduction and longevity, we fed sterile ant workers on diets based on whole proteins or free amino acids. We found that (i) free amino acids shortened lifespan even more than proteins; (ii) the higher the amino acid-to-carbohydrate ratio, the shorter ants lived and the lower their lipid reserves; (iii) for the same amino acid-to-carbohydrate ratio, ants eating free amino acids had more lipid reserves than those eating whole proteins; and (iv) on whole protein diets, ants seem to regulate food intake by prioritizing sugar, while on free amino acid diets, they seem to prioritize amino acids...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051095/optical-high-content-nanoscopy-of-epigenetic-marks-decodes-phenotypic-divergence-in-stem-cells
#4
Joseph J Kim, Neal K Bennett, Mitchel S Devita, Sanjay Chahar, Satish Viswanath, Eunjee A Lee, Giyoung Jung, Paul P Shao, Erin P Childers, Shichong Liu, Anthony Kulesa, Benjamin A Garcia, Matthew L Becker, Nathaniel S Hwang, Anant Madabhushi, Michael P Verzi, Prabhas V Moghe
While distinct stem cell phenotypes follow global changes in chromatin marks, single-cell chromatin technologies are unable to resolve or predict stem cell fates. We propose the first such use of optical high content nanoscopy of histone epigenetic marks (epi-marks) in stem cells to classify emergent cell states. By combining nanoscopy with epi-mark textural image informatics, we developed a novel approach, termed EDICTS (Epi-mark Descriptor Imaging of Cell Transitional States), to discern chromatin organizational changes, demarcate lineage gradations across a range of stem cell types and robustly track lineage restriction kinetics...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048312/su-g-brb-02-an-open-source-software-analysis-library-for-linear-accelerator-quality-assurance
#5
J Kerns, D Yaldo
PURPOSE: Routine linac quality assurance (QA) tests have become complex enough to require automation of most test analyses. A new data analysis software library was built that allows physicists to automate routine linear accelerator quality assurance tests. The package is open source, code tested, and benchmarked. METHODS: Images and data were generated on a TrueBeam linac for the following routine QA tests: VMAT, starshot, CBCT, machine logs, Winston Lutz, and picket fence...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047377/mo-fg-202-02-automated-plan-quality-assurance-integrated-with-eclipse-using-varian-s-esapi-interface
#6
E Schreibmann, I Crocker, A Dhabaan, E Elder
PURPOSE: Treatment plan compliance to physician's intent is still assessed by hand in clinical practice by visually comparing prescription details against corresponding plan values. We report on a script that uses the Varian's programming interface to automate the scoring of treatment plan dose values to the physician's prescribed constraints. METHODS: The Eclipse Scripting Advance Programming Interface (ESAPI) is a FDA-approved scripting environment written in C# that allows programming access to a patient's record in Aria and Eclipse...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045303/-parsing-the-heterogeneity-of-psychopathy-and-aggression-differential-associations-across-dimensions-and-gender-correction-to-hecht-et-al-2016
#7
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Parsing the heterogeneity of psychopathy and aggression: Differential associations across dimensions and gender" by Lisa K. Hecht, Joanna M. Berg, Scott O. Lilienfeld and Robert D. Latzman (Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2016[Jan], Vol 7[1], 2-14). In the article, there was an error in Table 3 and in the fifth paragraph of the Results. The correct information has been provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-29370-001.) Psychopathy is a multidimensional construct that is broadly associated with both reactive (RA) and proactive (PA) aggression...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044012/modelling-auditory-attention
#8
REVIEW
Emine Merve Kaya, Mounya Elhilali
Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040010/the-role-of-stress-and-word-size-in-spanish-speech-segmentation
#9
Amy LaCross, Julie Liss, Beatriz Barragan, Ashley Adams, Visar Berisha, Megan McAuliffe, Robert Fromont
In English, the predominance of stressed syllables as word onsets aids lexical segmentation in degraded listening conditions. Yet it is unlikely that these findings would readily transfer to languages with differing rhythmic structure. In the current study, the authors seek to examine whether listeners exploit both common word size (syllable number) and stress cues to aid lexical segmentation in Spanish. Forty-seven Spanish-speaking listeners transcribed two-word Spanish phrases in noise. As predicted by the statistical probabilities of Spanish, error analysis revealed that listeners preferred two- and three-syllable words with penultimate stress in their attempts to parse the degraded speech signal...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034673/high-content-image-informatics-of-the-structural-nuclear-protein-numa-parses-trajectories-for-stem-progenitor-cell-lineages-and-oncogenic-transformation
#10
Sebastián L Vega, Er Liu, Varun Arvind, Jared Bushman, Hak-Joon Sung, Matthew L Becker, Sophie Lelièvre, Joachim Kohn, Pierre-Alexandre Vidi, Prabhas V Moghe
Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032434/adults-blink-more-deeply-a-comparative-study-of-the-attentional-blink-across-different-age-groups
#11
Natalie Russo, Wendy R Kates, Nicole Shea, Megan LeBlanc, Bradley Wyble
The attentional blink (AB) is thought to help the visual system parse and categorize rapidly changing information by segmenting it into temporal chunks, and is elicited using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. It is reflected in a decrease in accuracy at detecting the second of two targets presented within 200-500 ms of the first, and its development appears to be protracted on tasks that require set-shifting. Here, younger (M = 8.5 years) and older (M = 12.8 years) children and adults (M = 19.13 years) completed a simple AB task with no set-shift requirement in which participants detected two letters in a stream of numbers presented at a rate of 135 ms/item...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029343/smoking-in-movies-and-adolescent-smoking-initiation-a-longitudinal-study-among-argentinian-adolescents
#12
Raul Mejia, Adriana Pérez, Lorena Peña, Christy Kollath-Cattano, Paola Morello, Sandra Braun, James W Hardin, James F Thrasher, James D Sargent
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether exposure to movie smoking is associated with cigarette smoking among Argentinian adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A school-based longitudinal study involving 33 secondary schools in Argentina was performed. The sample included 2502 never smokers (average age at entry = 12.5 years), 1700 (67.9%) of whom completed follow-up surveys 17 months later. Exposure to the top 100 highest-grossing films for each year between 2009 and 2013 was assessed by content-coding films for tobacco and then by asking adolescents whether they had seen each of 50 titles, randomly selected from the larger pool, then parsing exposure into tertiles...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028456/seqenv-linking-sequences-to-environments-through-text-mining
#13
Lucas Sinclair, Umer Z Ijaz, Lars Juhl Jensen, Marco J L Coolen, Cecile Gubry-Rangin, Alica Chroňáková, Anastasis Oulas, Christina Pavloudi, Julia Schnetzer, Aaron Weimann, Ali Ijaz, Alexander Eiler, Christopher Quince, Evangelos Pafilis
Understanding the distribution of taxa and associated traits across different environments is one of the central questions in microbial ecology. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) studies are presently generating huge volumes of data to address this biogeographical topic. However, these studies are often focused on specific environment types or processes leading to the production of individual, unconnected datasets. The large amounts of legacy sequence data with associated metadata that exist can be harnessed to better place the genetic information found in these surveys into a wider environmental context...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026751/online-object-tracking-learning-and-parsing-with-and-or-graphs
#14
Tianfu Wu, Yang Lu, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents a method, called AOGTracker, for simultaneously tracking, learning and parsing (TLP) of unknown objects in video sequences with a hierarchical and compositional And-Or graph (AOG) representation. The TLP method is formulated in the Bayesian framework with a spatial and a temporal dynamic programming (DP) algorithms inferring object bounding boxes on-the-fly. During online learning, the AOG is discriminatively learned using latent SVM [1] to account for appearance (e.g., lighting and partial occlusion) and structural (e...
December 23, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025344/genebase-1-1-a-tool-to-summarize-data-from-ncbi-gene-datasets-and-its-application-to-an-update-of-human-gene-statistics
#15
Allison Piovesan, Maria Caracausi, Francesca Antonaros, Maria Chiara Pelleri, Lorenza Vitale
We release GeneBase 1.1, a local tool with a graphical interface useful for parsing, structuring and indexing data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene data bank. Compared to its predecessor GeneBase (1.0), GeneBase 1.1 now allows dynamic calculation and summarization in terms of median, mean, standard deviation and total for many quantitative parameters associated with genes, gene transcripts and gene features (exons, introns, coding sequences, untranslated regions). GeneBase 1...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018145/epigenetics-of-renal-development-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Sylvia A Hilliard, Samir S El-Dahr
An understanding of epigenetics is indispensable to our understanding of gene regulation under normal and pathological states. This knowledge will help with designing better therapeutic approaches in regenerative tissue medicine. Epigenetics allows us to parse out the mechanisms by which transcriptional regulators gain access to specific gene loci thereby imprinting epigenetic information affecting chromatin function. This epigenetic memory forms the basis of cell lineage specification in multicellular organisms...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999122/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-attention-networks-revealed-by-representational-similarity-analysis-of-eeg-and-fmri
#17
V Salmela, E Salo, J Salmi, K Alho
The fronto-parietal attention networks have been extensively studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but spatiotemporal dynamics of these networks are not well understood. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) with electroencephalography (EEG) and collected fMRI data from identical experiments where participants performed visual and auditory discrimination tasks separately or simultaneously and with or without distractors. To overcome the low temporal resolution of fMRI, we used a novel ERP-based application of multivariate representational similarity analysis (RSA) to parse time-averaged fMRI pattern activity into distinct spatial maps that each corresponded, in representational structure, to a short temporal ERP segment...
December 19, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994113/parsing-language-and-measures-around-child-maltreatment
#18
Kristine A Campbell, Tonya Myrup, Lina Svedin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993819/parsing-the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-approach-avoidance-conflict
#19
Eleanor Loh, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, David Berron, Peter Dayan, Emrah Duzel, Ray Dolan, Marc Guitart-Masip
The hippocampus plays a central role in the approach-avoidance conflict that is central to the genesis of anxiety. However, its exact functional contribution has yet to be identified. We designed a novel gambling task that generated approach-avoidance conflict while controlling for spatial processing. We fit subjects' behavior using a model that quantified the subjective values of choice options, and recorded neural signals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Distinct functional signals were observed in anterior hippocampus, with inferior hippocampus selectively recruited when subjects rejected a gamble, to a degree that covaried with individual differences in anxiety...
December 18, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983604/detecting-target-objects-by-natural-language-instructions-using-an-rgb-d-camera
#20
Jiatong Bao, Yunyi Jia, Yu Cheng, Hongru Tang, Ning Xi
Controlling robots by natural language (NL) is increasingly attracting attention for its versatility, convenience and no need of extensive training for users. Grounding is a crucial challenge of this problem to enable robots to understand NL instructions from humans. This paper mainly explores the object grounding problem and concretely studies how to detect target objects by the NL instructions using an RGB-D camera in robotic manipulation applications. In particular, a simple yet robust vision algorithm is applied to segment objects of interest...
December 13, 2016: Sensors
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