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Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M H Young, Sean C L Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G M Murphy, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling
Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Lucinda B Leung, Arturo Vargas-Bustamante, Ana E Martinez, Xiao Chen, Hector P Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a parallel analysis of disparities in diabetes care quality among Latino and Asian community health center (CHC) patients by English language preference. STUDY SETTING/DATA COLLECTION: Clinical outcomes (2011) and patient survey data (2012) for Type 2 diabetes adults from 14 CHCs (n = 1,053). STUDY DESIGN: We estimated separate regression models for Latino and Asian patients by English language preference for Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System, Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care, hemoglobin A1c, and self-reported hypoglycemic events...
October 21, 2016: Health Services Research
Sujoy Roy, Brandon C Curry, Behrouz Madahian, Ramin Homayouni
BACKGROUND: The amount of scientific information about MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is growing exponentially, making it difficult for researchers to interpret experimental results. In this study, we present an automated text mining approach using Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for prioritization, clustering and functional annotation of miRNAs. RESULTS: For approximately 900 human miRNAs indexed in miRBase, text documents were created by concatenating titles and abstracts of MEDLINE citations which refer to the miRNAs...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Eric C Honert, Karl E Zelik
INTRODUCTION: Inverse dynamics joint kinetics are often used to infer contributions from underlying groups of muscle-tendon units (MTUs). However, such interpretations are confounded by multiarticular (multi-joint) musculature, which can cause inverse dynamics to over- or under-estimate net MTU power. Misestimation of MTU power could lead to incorrect scientific conclusions, or to empirical estimates that misguide musculoskeletal simulations, assistive device designs, or clinical interventions...
2016: PloS One
Karina Quevedo, Rowena Ng, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Sandra Malone
Maltreatment is associated with chronic depression, high negative self-attributions, and lifetime psychopathology. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the formation of self-concept. Identifying neurobiomarkers of self-processing in depressed adolescents with and without maltreatment may parse the effects of trauma and depression on self-development and chronic psychopathology. Depressed adolescents (n = 86) maltreated due to omission (DO, n = 13) or commission (DCM, n = 28) or without maltreatment (DC, n = 45), and HCs (HC, n = 37) appraised positive and negative self-descriptors in the scanner...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Koen E Merkus, Menno W J Prins, Cornelis Storm
Tethered particle motion (TPM), the motion of a micro- or nanoparticle tethered to a substrate by a macromolecule, is a system that has proven to be extremely useful for its ability to reveal physical features of the tether, because the thermal motion of the bound particle reports sensitively on parameters like the length, the rigidity, or the folding state of its tether. In this article, we survey the applicability of TPM to probe the kinetics of single secondary bonds, bonds that form and break between the tethered particle and a substrate due, for instance, to receptor/ligand pairs on particle and substrate...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
N Bishara Marzook, Timothy P Newsome
The actin cytoskeleton is a crucial part of the eukaryotic cell. Viruses depend on host cells for their replication, and, as a result, many have developed ways of manipulating the actin network to promote their spread. This chapter reviews the various ways in which viruses utilize the actin cytoskeleton at discrete steps in their life cycle, from entry into the host cell, replication, and assembly of new progeny to virus release. Various actin inhibitors that function in different ways to affect proper actin dynamics can be used to parse the role of actin at these steps...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Rose S Bono, Andrew J Barnes, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: For American college students, alcohol and cigarette use are important health concerns, and employment concurrent with school attendance is on the rise. Given the lifelong importance of employment and substance use trajectories begun in college, parsing out the relationship between the two is meaningful. OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose is to determine whether employment during college is associated with substance use. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between employment (work hours, earnings) and substance use (drinking frequency, drinking quantity, smoking frequency) were estimated using partial proportional odds models in a sample of N = 1457 freshmen attending a large, public 4-year university in 2011, after accounting for demographics, personality, social environment, and parental influences...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Michael V Lombardo, Meng-Chuan Lai, Bonnie Auyeung, Rosemary J Holt, Carrie Allison, Paula Smith, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Amber N V Ruigrok, John Suckling, Edward T Bullmore, Christine Ecker, Michael C Craig, Declan G M Murphy, Francesca Happé, Simon Baron-Cohen
Individuals affected by autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are considerably heterogeneous. Novel approaches are needed to parse this heterogeneity to enhance precision in clinical and translational research. Applying a clustering approach taken from genomics and systems biology on two large independent cognitive datasets of adults with and without ASC (n = 694; n = 249), we find replicable evidence for 5 discrete ASC subgroups that are highly differentiated in item-level performance on an explicit mentalizing task tapping ability to read complex emotion and mental states from the eye region of the face (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET)...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Arpana Agrawal, Julia D Grant, Jon Randolph Haber, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of religious attendance during childhood (C-RA) and adulthood (A-RA) with alcohol involvement (ever drinking, timing of first alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]) in White and Black female twins. As genetic and environmental factors influence religious attendance and alcohol involvement, we examined the extent to which they contribute to their association. METHODS: Data on 3,234 White and 553 Black female twins (18-29 years) from the Missouri Adolescent Female twin Study...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Gary P Anderson
In recent years, thousands of publications on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its related biology have entered the world literature, reflecting the increasing scientific and medical interest in this devastating condition. This article is a selective review of several important emerging themes that offer the hope of creating new classes of COPD medicines. Whereas basic science is parsing molecular pathways in COPD, its comorbidities, and asthma COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) with unprecedented sophistication, clinical translation is disappointingly slow...
2016: F1000Research
Xenia Schmalz, Alexander Porshnev, Eva Marinus
Word reading partly depends on the activation of sublexical letter clusters. Previous research has studied which types of letters clusters have psychological saliency, but less is known about cognitive mechanisms of letter string parsing. Here, we take advantage of the high degree of context-dependency of the Russian orthography to examine whether CV clusters are treated as units in two stages of sublexical processing. In two experiments using a nonword reading task, we use two orthogonal manipulations: (1) insertion of a visual disruptor (#) to assess whether CV clusters are kept intact during the early visual parsing stage, and (2) presence of context-dependent GPCs (e...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Anna Dora Manca, Mirko Grimaldi
Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Rebecca B Price, Stephanie Lane, Kathleen Gates, Thomas E Kraynak, Michelle S Horner, Michael E Thase, Greg J Siegle
BACKGROUND: There is well-known heterogeneity in affective mechanisms in depression that may extend to positive affect. We used data-driven parsing of neural connectivity to reveal subgroups present across depressed and healthy individuals during positive processing, informing targets for mechanistic intervention. METHODS: Ninety-two individuals (68 depressed patients, 24 never-depressed control subjects) completed a sustained positive mood induction during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
July 5, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Salvatore Cardamone, Beth A Caine, Ewan Blanch, Maria G Lizio, Paul L A Popelier
Histidine is a key component of a number of enzymatic mechanisms, and undertakes a myriad of functionalities in biochemical systems. Its computational modelling can be problematic, as its capacity to take on a number of distinct formal charge states, and tautomers thereof, is difficult to capture by conventional techniques. We demonstrate a means for recovering the experimental Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of histidine to a high degree of accuracy. The resultant concordance between experiment and theory is of particular importance in characterising physically insightful quantities, such as band assignments...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Erinç Gökdeniz, Arzucan Özgür, Reşit Canbeyli
Identifying the relations among different regions of the brain is vital for a better understanding of how the brain functions. While a large number of studies have investigated the neuroanatomical and neurochemical connections among brain structures, their specific findings are found in publications scattered over a large number of years and different types of publications. Text mining techniques have provided the means to extract specific types of information from a large number of publications with the aim of presenting a larger, if not necessarily an exhaustive picture...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Sarah Hope Lincoln, Emily Norkett, Kelsey Graber, Sahil Tembulkar, Nicholas Morelli, Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich, Eugene D'Angelo
Suicide is the leading cause of premature death in individuals with psychotic disorders. Risk for onset of suicidal behaviors tends to begin in adolescence, remaining high into young adulthood. The present study aims to evaluate the interplay of early onset psychosis and suicide risk by examining suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders (PD) compared to typically developing peers (TD). Twenty five youths were recruited and were diagnostically evaluated for psychosis...
October 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Kaitlyn Hornik, Bethany Cutts, Andrew Greenlee
Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals' theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1) perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2) the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3) visions for positive change...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xuelin Zhao, Hong Yu, Lingfeng Kong, Qi Li
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is a dominant aquaculture species in many intertidal zones throughout the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and can tolerate a wide range of salinity. Studying the gene expression profiles of oyster gills had found differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in salinity tolerance. A systematic study of cellular response to salinity stress may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired salinity tolerance. Here, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was carried out using RNA-seq data from gill transcriptome in response to different salinity...
October 4, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
John E Drury, Shari R Baum, Hope Valeriote, Karsten Steinhauer
This study presents the first two ERP reading studies of comma-induced effects of covert (implicit) prosody on syntactic parsing decisions in English. The first experiment used a balanced 2 × 2 design in which the presence/absence of commas determined plausibility (e.g., John, said Mary, was the nicest boy at the party vs. John said Mary was the nicest boy at the party). The second reading experiment replicated a previous auditory study investigating the role of overt prosodic boundaries in closure ambiguities (Pauker et al...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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