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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821680/cortical-representations-of-speech-in-a-multi-talker-auditory-scene
#1
Krishna C Puvvada, Jonathan Z Simon
The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically-based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-objects based representation in auditory cortex. Here, using magneto-encephalo-graphy (MEG) recordings from human subjects, both men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of auditory cortex...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818276/the-role-of-incremental-parsing-in-syntactically-conditioned-word-learning
#2
Jeffrey Lidz, Aaron Steven White, Rebecca Baier
In a series of three experiments, we use children's noun learning as a probe into their syntactic knowledge as well as their ability to deploy this knowledge, investigating how the predictions children make about upcoming syntactic structure change as their knowledge changes. In the first two experiments, we show that children display a developmental change in their ability to use a noun's syntactic environment as a cue to its meaning. We argue that this pattern arises from children's reliance on their knowledge of verbs' subcategorization frame frequencies to guide parsing, coupled with an inability to revise incremental parsing decisions...
September 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817585/selecting-targets-for-the-diagnosis-of-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-an-integrative-approach-using-multi-omic-and-immunoinformatics-data
#3
Gardenia B F Carvalho, Daniela M Resende, Liliane M V Siqueira, Marcelo D Lopes, Débora O Lopes, Paulo Marcos Z Coelho, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Jeronimo C Ruiz, Cristina T Fonseca
In order to effectively control and monitor schistosomiasis, new diagnostic methods are essential. Taking advantage of computational approaches provided by immunoinformatics and considering the availability of Schistosoma mansoni predicted proteome information, candidate antigens of schistosomiasis were selected and used in immunodiagnosis tests based on Enzime-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The computational selection strategy was based on signal peptide prediction; low similarity to human proteins; B- and T-cell epitope prediction; location and expression in different parasite life stages within definitive host...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811257/auditory-conflict-and-congruence-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#4
Camilla N Clark, Jennifer M Nicholas, Jennifer L Agustus, Christopher J D Hardy, Lucy L Russell, Emilie V Brotherhood, Katrina M Dick, Charles R Marshall, Catherine J Mummery, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jason D Warren
Impaired analysis of signal conflict and congruence may contribute to diverse socio-emotional symptoms in frontotemporal dementias, however the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Here we addressed this issue in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n=19) and semantic dementia (SD; n=10) relative to healthy older individuals (n=20). We created auditory scenes in which semantic and emotional congruity of constituent sounds were independently probed; associated tasks controlled for auditory perceptual similarity, scene parsing and semantic competence...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811254/parsing-the-neural-signatures-of-reduced-error-detection-in-older-age
#5
Siobhán Harty, Peter R Murphy, Ian H Robertson, Redmond G O'Connell
Recent work has demonstrated that explicit error detection relies on a neural evidence accumulation process that can be traced in the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Here, we sought to establish the impact of natural aging on this process by recording EEG from young (18-35 years) and older adults (65-88 years) during the performance of a Go/No-Go paradigm in which participants were required to overtly signal their errors. Despite performing the task with equivalent accuracy, older adults reported substantially fewer errors, and the timing of their reports were both slower and more variable...
August 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808817/electrophysiological-modulation-in-an-effort-to-complete-illusory-figures-configuration-illusory-contour-and-closure-effects
#6
Tommaso Poscoliero, Massimo Girelli
Figure recognition process: From the coarse configuration standing from the background to the closure of a meaningful shape, was investigated by ERP technique. ERP components at different latencies from stimulus onset allowed to tap into the figure recognition process at discrete time-points when different cognitive operations take place. In this study, we present two experiments where the support-ratio (SR) of illusory figures was manipulated to vary continuously the recognition of geometrical figures. In the first experiment three shapes were used to vary the SR and the P1 component (80-130 ms) was modulated by the configuration-effect explained, in part for the first time, with the unbalanced physical stimulation between upper and lower visual field...
August 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804781/form-and-function-optional-complementizers-reduce-causal-inferences
#7
Hannah Rohde, Joseph Tyler, Katy Carlson
Many factors are known to influence the inference of the discourse coherence relationship between two sentences. Here, we examine the relationship between two conjoined embedded clauses in sentences like The professor noted that the student teacher did not look confident and (that) the students were poorly behaved. In two studies, we find that the presence of that before the second embedded clause in such sentences reduces the possibility of a forward causal relationship between the clauses, i.e., the inference that the student teacher's confidence was what affected student behavior...
2017: Glossa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800706/parsing-the-hypomanic-personality-explicating-the-nature-of-specific-dimensions-defining-mania-risk
#8
Kasey Stanton, Daniel B McArtor, David Watson
Considerable research has used the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) to assess traits conferring risk for hypomanic and manic episodes. Although the HPS has been shown to be defined by several distinct sets of content, most research has continued to rely exclusively on HPS total scores, due to (a) little research having examined its structure and (b) the discrepant structural results obtained in the few available studies. Therefore, we examined the structure and relations of the HPS in a large sample of community adults ( N = 737) receiving psychiatric treatment...
August 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799297/exploring-the-microbial-diversity-in-jordanian-hot-springs-by-comparative-metagenomic-analysis
#9
Emad I Hussein, Jacob H Jacob, Muhamad Ali K Shakhatreh, Mutaz A Abd Al-Razaq, Abdul-Salam F Juhmani, Christopher T Cornelison
A culture-independent approach was utilized in this study to reveal the microbial diversity in Jordanian hot springs represented by Ma'in and Afra hot springs. Water samples from Ma'in and Afra hot springs were collected in June 2015. The in situ temperature of water samples range was 38-59°C and the pH range was 7.4-8.4. The metagenome was extracted and analyzed using the next generation technology (bTEFAP(®) ). A total of 314,310 sequences were parsed and 288,452 were then clustered. The sequences were predominated by bacteria (>84%) and the relative abundance of archaea in each sample was <1%...
August 10, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798268/how-safe-and-effective-are-existing-treatments-for-wide-necked-bifurcation-aneurysms-literature-based-objective-performance-criteria-for-safety-and-effectiveness
#10
REVIEW
David Fiorella, Adam S Arthur, Richard Chiacchierini, Evelyne Emery, Andy Molyneux, Laurent Pierot
INTRODUCTION: Wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms (WNBAs) present unique technical challenges for both endovascular and surgical treatments which aim to achieve complete occlusion of the aneurysm without compromising the patency of the incorporated regional parent vessels. We present a meta-analysis of traditional therapies for WNBAs to provide critical benchmarks for safety and effectiveness. METHODS: Following a systematic search of the literature and the application of pre-specified appropriateness criteria, 43 (including 2794 aneurysms treated) and 65 (including 5366 patients treated) references with sufficient detail were identified to include in a meta-analysis of efficacy and safety, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796610/deep-learning-markov-random-field-for-semantic-segmentation
#11
Ziwei Liu, Xiaoxiao Li, Ping Luo, Chen Change Loy, Xiaoou Tang
Semantic segmentation tasks can be well modeled by Markov Random Field (MRF). This paper addresses semantic segmentation by incorporating high-order relations and mixture of label contexts into MRF. Unlike previous works that optimized MRFs using iterative algorithm, we solve MRF by proposing a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), namely Deep Parsing Network (DPN), which enables deterministic end-to-end computation in a single forward pass. Specifically, DPN extends a contemporary CNN to model unary terms and additional layers are devised to approximate the mean field (MF) algorithm for pairwise terms...
August 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793940/parsing-complex-noun-phrases-effects-of-hierarchical-structure-and-sentence-position-on-memory-load
#12
Sergio Mota, José Manuel Igoa
In this paper, we report two experiments in Spanish designed to find out what kind of processes underlie the online parsing of complex noun phrases (NPs). To that end, we used a 'click detection' paradigm coupled with an oral comprehension task with sentences made up of complex NPs comprising embedded prepositional phrases PPs or coordinate NPs. The critical NPs consisted of words or pseudowords, and were inserted either at subject position (Experiment 1) or at object position (Experiment 2) in the sentence...
August 10, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790900/maladaptive-decision-making-in-adults-with-a-history-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-in-a-preclinical-model-is-attributable-to-the-compromised-assignment-of-incentive-value-during-stimulus-reward-learning
#13
Lauren C Kruse, Abigail G Schindler, Rapheal G Williams, Sophia J Weber, Jeremy J Clark
According to recent WHO reports, alcohol remains the number one substance used and abused by adolescents, despite public health efforts to curb its use. Adolescence is a critical period of biological maturation where brain development, particularly the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, undergoes substantial remodeling. These circuits are implicated in complex decision making, incentive learning and reinforcement during substance use and abuse. An appealing theoretical approach has been to suggest that alcohol alters the normal development of these processes to promote deficits in reinforcement learning and decision making, which together make individuals vulnerable to developing substance use disorders in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772103/architecture-function-and-assembly-of-the-mouse-visual-system
#14
Tania A Seabrook, Timothy J Burbridge, Michael C Crair, Andrew D Huberman
Vision is the sense humans rely on most to navigate the world, make decisions, and perform complex tasks. Understanding how humans see thus represents one of the most fundamental and important goals of neuroscience. The use of the mouse as a model for parsing how vision works at a fundamental level started approximately a decade ago, ushered in by the mouse's convenient size, relatively low cost, and, above all, amenability to genetic perturbations. In the course of that effort, a large cadre of new and powerful tools for in vivo labeling, monitoring, and manipulation of neurons were applied to this species...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770278/an-unbiased-in-vivo-functional-genomics-screening-approach-in-mice-identifies-novel-tumor-cell-based-regulators-of-immune-rejection
#15
Casey W Shuptrine, Reham Ajina, Elana J Fertig, Sandra A Jablonski, H Kim Lyerly, Zachary C Hartman, Louis M Weiner
The clinical successes of immune checkpoint therapies for cancer make it important to identify mechanisms of resistance to anti-tumor immune responses. Numerous resistance mechanisms have been identified employing studies of single genes or pathways, thereby parsing the tumor microenvironment complexity into tractable pieces. However, this limits the potential for novel gene discovery to in vivo immune attack. To address this challenge, we developed an unbiased in vivo genome-wide RNAi screening platform that leverages host immune selection in strains of immune-competent and immunodeficient mice to select for tumor cell-based genes that regulate in vivo sensitivity to immune attack...
August 2, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763111/left-corner-parsing-with-distributed-associative-memory-produces-surprisal-and-locality-effects
#16
Nathan E Rasmussen, William Schuler
This article describes a left-corner parser implemented within a cognitively and neurologically motivated distributed model of memory. This parser's approach to syntactic ambiguity points toward a tidy account both of surprisal effects and of locality effects, such as the parsing breakdowns caused by center embedding. The model provides an algorithmic-level (Marr, 1982) account of these breakdowns: The structure of the parser's memory and the nature of incremental parsing produce a smooth degradation of processing accuracy for longer center embeddings, and a steeper degradation when they are nested, in line with recall observations by Miller and Isard (2003) and speed-accuracy trade-off observations by McElree et al...
August 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749346/attribute-and-or-grammar-for-joint-parsing-of-human-pose-parts-and-attributes
#17
Seyoung Park, Xiaohan Nie, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style...
July 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736736/feedback-driven-sensory-mapping-adaptation-for-robust-speech-activity-detection
#18
Ashwin Bellur, Mounya Elhilali
Parsing natural acoustic scenes using computational methodologies poses many challenges. Given the rich and complex nature of the acoustic environment, data mismatch between train and test conditions is a major hurdle in data-driven audio processing systems. In contrast, the brain exhibits a remarkable ability at segmenting acoustic scenes with relative ease. When tackling challenging listening conditions that are often faced in everyday life, the biological system relies on a number of principles that allow it to effortlessly parse its rich soundscape...
March 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735426/diet-versus-phylogeny-a-comparison-of-gut-microbiota-in-captive-colobine-monkey-species
#19
Vanessa L Hale, Chia L Tan, Kefeng Niu, Yeqin Yang, Rob Knight, Qikun Zhang, Duoying Cui, Katherine R Amato
Both diet and host phylogeny shape the gut microbial community, and separating out the effects of these variables can be challenging. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the impact of diet and phylogeny on the gut microbiota of nine colobine monkey species (N = 64 individuals). Colobines are leaf-eating monkeys that fare poorly in captivity-often exhibiting gastrointestinal (GI) problems. This study included eight Asian colobines (Rhinopithecus brelichi, Rhinopithecus roxellana, Rhinopithecus bieti, Pygathrix nemaeus, Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus francoisi, Trachypithecus auratus, and Trachypithecus vetulus) and one African colobine (Colobus guereza)...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721355/simultaneously-estimating-the-task-related-and-stimulus-evoked-components-of-hemodynamic-imaging-measurements
#20
Max Charles Herman, Mariana M B Cardoso, Bruss Lima, Yevgeniy B Sirotin, Aniruddha Das
Task-related hemodynamic responses contribute prominently to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings. They reflect behaviorally important brain states, such as arousal and attention, and can dominate stimulus-evoked responses, yet they remain poorly understood. To help characterize these responses, we present a method for parametrically estimating both stimulus-evoked and task-related components of hemodynamic responses from subjects engaged in temporally predictable tasks. The stimulus-evoked component is modeled by convolving a hemodynamic response function (HRF) kernel with spiking...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
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