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Simona Mancini
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2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Marjolein M J van Donkelaar, Martine Hoogman, Irene Pappa, Henning Tiemeier, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Janita Bralten
Reactive and proactive subtypes of aggression have been recognized to help parse etiological heterogeneity of this complex phenotype. With a heritability of about 50%, genetic factors play a role in the development of aggressive behavior. Imaging studies implicate brain structures related to social behavior in aggression etiology, most notably the amygdala and striatum. This study aimed to gain more insight into the pathways from genetic risk factors for aggression to aggression phenotypes. To this end, we conducted genome-wide gene-based cross-trait meta-analyses of aggression with the volumes of amygdala, nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus to identify genes influencing both aggression and aggression-related brain volumes...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Timothy R Campellone, Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson
INTRODUCTION: People with bipolar disorder often show more approach-related behavior and positive appraisals of others during social interactions. This may be due to an increased sensitivity to positive contexts or to tendencies toward positive affectivity. In this study, we investigated the influence of reward versus prosocial positive contexts on social decision-making in people at high (n = 21) and low (n = 111) risk for bipolar disorder. METHODS: Participants completed a computerized task consisting of two blocks...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Matthew Deaner, Allison Holzman, Hal S Alper
Metabolic engineering typically utilizes a suboptimal step-wise gene target optimization approach to parse a highly connected and regulated cellular metabolism. While the endonuclease-null CRISPR/Cas system has enabled gene expression perturbations without genetic modification, it has been mostly limited to small sets of gene targets in eukaryotes due to inefficient methods to assemble and express large sgRNA operons. In this work, we develop a TEF1p-tRNA expression system and demonstrate that the use of tRNAs as splicing elements flanking sgRNAs provides higher efficiency than both Pol III and ribozyme-based expression across a variety of single sgRNA and multiplexed contexts...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Sendy Caffarra, Clara D Martin
Intercultural communication has become more and more frequent in the recent globalized society. When native listeners try to understand non-native speakers, they have to deal with different types of grammatical errors, some being frequently encountered and others being less common. Event-Related Potential technique (ERP) The present Event-Related Potential (ERP) study investigated how native listeners process different types of morphosyntactic errors in foreign accented speech and whether they are sensitive to error typicality...
March 22, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
ZeYu Wang, YanXia Wu, ShuHui Bu, PengCheng Han, GuoYin Zhang
Explicit structural inference is one key point to improve the accuracy of scene parsing. Meanwhile, adversarial training method is able to reinforce spatial contiguity in output segmentations. To take both advantages of the structural learning and adversarial training simultaneously, we propose a novel deep learning network architecture called Structural Inference Embedded Adversarial Networks (SIEANs) for pixel-wise scene labeling. The generator of our SIEANs, a novel designed scene parsing network, makes full use of convolutional neural networks and long short-term memory networks to learn the global contextual information of objects in four different directions from RGB-(D) images, which is able to describe the (three-dimensional) spatial distributions of objects in a more comprehensive and accurate way...
2018: PloS One
Markus Bader, Michael Meng
Most current models of sentence comprehension assume that the human parsing mechanism (HPM) algorithmically computes detailed syntactic representations as basis for extracting sentence meaning. These models share the assumption that the representations computed by the HPM accurately reflect the linguistic input. This assumption has been challenged by Ferreira (2003), who showed that comprehenders sometimes misinterpret unambiguous sentences in which subject and object appear in noncanonical order, such as passives or object-clefts...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
M Sivade Dumousseau, D Alonso-López, M Ammari, G Bradley, N H Campbell, A Ceol, G Cesareni, C Combe, J De Las Rivas, N Del-Toro, J Heimbach, H Hermjakob, I Jurisica, M Koch, L Licata, R C Lovering, D J Lynn, B H M Meldal, G Micklem, S Panni, P Porras, S Ricard-Blum, B Roechert, L Salwinski, A Shrivastava, J Sullivan, N Thierry-Mieg, Y Yehudi, K Van Roey, S Orchard
BACKGROUND: Systems biologists study interaction data to understand the behaviour of whole cell systems, and their environment, at a molecular level. In order to effectively achieve this goal, it is critical that researchers have high quality interaction datasets available to them, in a standard data format, and also a suite of tools with which to analyse such data and form experimentally testable hypotheses from them. The PSI-MI XML standard interchange format was initially published in 2004, and expanded in 2007 to enable the download and interchange of molecular interaction data...
April 11, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Katharina Kircanski, Lauren K White, Wan-Ling Tseng, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Heather R Frank, Stefanie Sequeira, Susan Zhang, Rany Abend, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Importance: Comorbidity is ubiquitous in psychiatry, but it is unclear how to differentiate neural mechanisms of co-occurring symptoms. Pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms are prevalent and frequently co-occur. Threat orienting is pertinent to both phenotypes and is an ideal context in which to examine their unique and common neural mechanisms. Objectives: To decompose the unique and shared variances of pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms and to determine neural correlates of these differentiated phenotypes during threat orienting...
April 6, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Eleanor M Caves, Nicholas C Brandley, Sönke Johnsen
Acuity, the fineness with which sensory systems perceive and parse information, limits the information that organisms can extract from stimuli. Here, we focus on visual acuity (the ability to perceive static spatial detail) to discuss relationships between acuity and signal form and evolution. Research suggests that acuity varies by orders of magnitude across species, and that most animals have much lower acuity than humans. Thus, hypotheses regarding the function of spatial patterns must account for the acuity of relevant viewers...
March 30, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Matthew P Gillum
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a unique, largely liver-derived, endocrine member of the FGF-superfamily, is often thought of as a fasting factor owing to its induction in rodents during starvation. However, FGF21 is not increased by fasting for periods of <7 days in humans, but instead rises sharply after acute alcohol and sugar intake, and also after several days overfeeding, suggesting another role in states of positive energy balance. In the postingestive state, recent studies suggest that FGF21 may regulate energy intake and discourage consumption of alcohol and sugars, likely through effector circuits in the central nervous system...
March 28, 2018: Endocrinology
Maria Giavazzi, Sara Sambin, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Lorna Le Stanc, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Lévi, Charlotte Jacquemot
Experiencing a syntactic structure affects how we process subsequent instances of that structure. This phenomenon, called structural priming, is observed both in language production and in language comprehension. However, while abstract syntactic structures can be primed independent of lexical overlap in sentence production, evidence for structural priming in comprehension is more elusive. In addition, when structural priming in comprehension is found, it can often be accounted for in terms of participants' explicit expectations...
2018: PloS One
Jill Anne McDonald, Leonard Joseph Paulozzi
US Hispanics are a disadvantaged population that paradoxically has lower mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites. We conducted a descriptive analysis of age-adjusted mortality rates for 113 causes of death for US Hispanics (USH) and US non-Hispanic whites (USNHW) during 1999-2015. All-cause, age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 were: 581.1 USH and 788.8 USNHW. Lower Hispanic mortality from cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disease accounted for almost all the all-cause mortality gap. USH rates were higher than USNHW rates for cancers of the stomach, liver, and cervix; diabetes mellitus; liver disease; and homicide...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Bharati Prasad, Richa Saxena, Namni Goel, Sanjay R Patel
Recent evidence has highlighted the health inequalities in sleep behaviors and sleep disorders that adversely impact outcomes in select populations, including African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Race-related sleep health inequalities are ascribed to differences in multilevel and interlinked health determinants, such as sociodemographic factors, health behaviors and biology. African Americans and Hispanic Americans are admixed populations whose genetic inheritance combines two or more ancestral populations originating from different continents...
March 28, 2018: Chest
Petri Takkala, Steven A Prescott
Primary somatosensory neurons become hyperexcitable in many chronic pain conditions. Hyperexcitability can include a switch from transient to repetitive spiking during sustained somatic depolarization. This switch results from diverse pathological processes that impact ion channel expression or function. Because multiple pathological processes co-occur, isolating how much each contributes to switching the spiking pattern is difficult. Our approach to this challenge involves adding a virtual sodium conductance via dynamic clamp...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Claire Marchal, Takayo Sasaki, Daniel Vera, Korey Wilson, Jiao Sima, Juan Carlos Rivera-Mulia, Claudia Trevilla-García, Coralin Nogues, Ebtesam Nafie, David M Gilbert
This protocol is an extension to: Nat. Protoc. 6, 870-895 (2014); doi:10.1038/nprot.2011.328; published online 02 June 2011Cycling cells duplicate their DNA content during S phase, following a defined program called replication timing (RT). Early- and late-replicating regions differ in terms of mutation rates, transcriptional activity, chromatin marks and subnuclear position. Moreover, RT is regulated during development and is altered in diseases. Here, we describe E/L Repli-seq, an extension of our Repli-chip protocol...
May 2018: Nature Protocols
N Peter Reeves, Abraham Luis, Elizabeth C Chan, Victor G Sal Y Rosas, Martin L Tanaka
Slower trunk muscle responses are linked to back pain and injury. Unfortunately, clinical assessments of spine function do not objectively evaluate this important attribute, which reflects speed of trunk control. Speed of trunk control can be parsed into two components: (1) delay, the time it takes to initiate a movement, and (2) lag, the time it takes to execute a movement once initiated. The goal of this study is to demonstrate a new approach to assess delay and lag in trunk control using a simple tracking task...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Zi-Lin He, Tony W Tong, Yuchen Zhang, Wenlong He
To meet researchers' increasing interest in the fast growing innovation activities taking place in China, we match patents filed with China's State Intellectual Property Office to firms covered in China's Census. China has experienced a strong growth in patent filings over the past two decades, and has since 2011 become the world's top patent filing country. China's Census database covers about one million unique manufacturing firms from 1998-2009, representing the broad Chinese economy. We design data parsing and pre-processing routines to clean and stem firm and assignee names, create a matching algorithm that fits with our data and maintains a balance between matching accuracy and workload of manual check, and implement a systematic manual check process to filter out false positives generated from computerized matching...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Data
Adrienne Moore, Madeline Wozniak, Andrew Yousef, Cindy Carter Barnes, Debra Cha, Eric Courchesne, Karen Pierce
Background: The wide range of ability and disability in ASD creates a need for tools that parse the phenotypic heterogeneity into meaningful subtypes. Using eye tracking, our past studies revealed that when presented with social and geometric images, a subset of ASD toddlers preferred viewing geometric images, and these toddlers also had greater symptom severity than ASD toddlers with greater social attention. This study tests whether this "GeoPref test" effect would generalize across different social stimuli...
2018: Molecular Autism
Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that allows for modulating the activity of local neural populations and related neural networks. TMS is touted as a viable intervention to normalize brain activity and alleviate some psychiatric symptoms. However, TMS interventions are known to be only moderately reliable, and the efficacy of such therapies remains to be proven for psychiatric disorders other than depression. We review new opportunities to personalize TMS interventions using neuroimaging and computational modeling, aiming to optimize treatment to suit particular individuals and clinical subgroups...
March 20, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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