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Enrique Gonzalez-Díaz, Camino Fernández Fernández, Maria Jose Fernández Galguera, Alfonso Fernández Corona
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to describe perineum deformation during the final part of delivery and suggest a modification of the episiotomy cut to increase accuracy for obtaining a suitable angle (45°) for surgical wound suture. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 45 primiparous women. The perineum at rest was marked with five lines (0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°), and each line was marked with two dots (point A-B: to 2-3 cm from initial point in fourchette, respectively)...
October 21, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Xin Geng, Sandra Acosta, Oleg Lagutin, HyeaJin Gil, Guillermo Oliver
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is defined as the incomplete separation of the two cerebral hemispheres. The pathology of HPE is variable and based on the severity of the defect, HPE is divided into alobar, semilobar, and lobar. Using a novel hypomorphic Six3 allele, we demonstrate that variability in Six3 dosage results in different HPE phenotypes. Furthermore, we also show that while the semilobar phenotype results from severe downregulation of Shh expression in the rostral diencephalon ventral midline, the alobar phenotype is caused by downregulation of Foxg1 expression in the anterior neural ectoderm...
October 21, 2016: Development
Benjamin Albright, Roni Dhaher, Helen Wang, Roa Harb, Tih-Shih W Lee, Hitten Zaveri, Tore Eid
Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Hassan Peyvandi, Fahimeh Arsan, Athena Alipour-Faz, Maryam Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Mature cystic teratoma is one of the most common tumors of the ovaries; however, primary retroperitoneal lesions are rare entities in adults. CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of a 33 year-old woman noticing a mass in her epigastric and left upper abdominal region without any specific signs and symptoms. Radiological evaluation revealed a retroperitoneal mass with extension from the posterior aspect of the pancreas to the pelvic cavity, composed of calcifications and cystic elements...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Tomoyuki Hioki, Hiroyuki Takama, Sumiko Makita, Masashi Akiyama
Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by the absence of skin at birth, typically involving the midline of the scalp. This is the first case report to highlight the usefulness of precise ultrasonography for diagnosing mild ACC. A 1-month-old boy was referred to our hospital for assessment of a bald patch found at birth. He was born to nonconsanguineous parents in spontaneous vaginal delivery with a vacuum extractor because of fetal distress and anomaly of rotation at 40 weeks of gestation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Juan Luis Gómez-Amador, Luis Alberto Ortega-Porcayo, Isaac Jair Palacios-Ortíz, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Felipe Eduardo Nares-López, Alfredo Vega-Alarcón
Brainstem cavernous malformations are challenging due to the critical anatomy and potential surgical risks. Anterolateral, lateral, and dorsal surgical approaches provide limited ventral exposure of the brainstem. The authors present a case of a midline ventral pontine cavernous malformation resected through an endoscopic endonasal transclival approach based on minimal brainstem transection, negligible cranial nerve manipulation, and a straightforward trajectory. Technical and reconstruction technique advances in endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery provide a direct, safe, and effective corridor to the brainstem...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Nathan T Zwagerman, Georgios Zenonos, Stefan Lieber, Wei-Hsin Wang, Eric W Wang, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner
The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has significantly evolved since its initial uses in pituitary and sinonasal surgery. The literature is filled with reports and case series demonstrating efficacy and advantages for the entire ventral skull base. With competence in 'minimally invasive' parasellar approaches, larger and more complex approaches were developed to utilize the endonasal corridor to create maximally invasive endoscopic skull base procedures. The challenges of these more complex endoscopic procedures include a long learning curve and navigating in a narrow corridor; reconstruction of defects presented new challenges and early experience revealed a significantly higher risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
J Schwarz, W Reinpold, Reinhard Bittner
INTRODUCTION: The "MILOS concept" (mini/less open sublay repair) was developed to realize the benefits of minimally invasive surgery and avoid the disadvantages of traditional open techniques in repair of primary and secondary abdominal wall hernias. Utilizing the MILOS concept, the mesh can be placed in the retromuscular position without opening of the abdominal cavity or without the necessity to perform a large skin incision. The dissection of the retromuscular plane may be done by an open technique (MILOS) or endoscopically (EMILOS)...
October 20, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Emmanuel Jouglar, Antoine Wagner, Grégory Delpon, Loïc Campion, Philippe Meingan, Valérie Bernier, Charlotte Demoor-Goldschmidt, Marc-André Mahé, Thomas Lacornerie, Stéphane Supiot
OBJECTIVES: Late abdominal irradiation toxicity during childhood included renal damage, hepatic toxicity and secondary diabetes mellitus. We compared the potential of conformal radiotherapy (CRT), helical tomotherapy (HT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) to spare the abdominal organs at risk (pancreas, kidneys and liver- OAR) in children undergoing abdominal irradiation. METHODS: We selected children with abdominal tumors who received more than 10 Gy to the abdomen...
2016: PloS One
Isil Aras, Aylin Pasaoglu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of comprehensive fixed appliance treatments implemented in combination with Forsus or intermaxillary elastics in Class II subdivision subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight Class II subdivision patients were allocated to two groups using matched randomization: Forsus group (mean age, 14.19 ± 1.02 years) and elastics group (mean age, 13.75 ± 1.16 years). Patients received fixed appliance therapy in combination with either Forsus or intermaxillary elastics...
October 13, 2016: Angle Orthodontist
Matthew T Whitehead, Guy Helman, Andrea L Gropman
Xp21.2 duplication syndrome is a rare genetic disorder of undetermined prevalence and clinical relevance. As the use of chromosomal microarray has become first line for the work-up of childhood developmental delay, more gene deletions and duplications have been recognized. To the best of our knowledge, the imaging findings of Xp21.2 duplication syndrome have not been reported. We report a case of a 33 month-old male referred for developmental delay that was found to have an Xp21.2 duplication containing IL1RAPL1 and multiple midline brain malformations...
May 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Ayako Yamaguchi, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Todd Appleby
Central pattern generators (CPG) in the brainstem are considered to underlie vocalizations in many vertebrate species, but the detailed mechanisms underlying how motor rhythms are generated, coordinated, and initiated remain unclear. We addressed these issues using isolated brain preparations of Xenopus laevis from which fictive vocalizations can be elicited. Advertisement calls of male X. laevis that consist of fast and slow trills are generated by vocal CPGs contained in the brainstem. Brainstem central vocal pathways consist of a premotor nucleus (DTAM) and a laryngeal motor nucleus (n...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Benjamin Scharnweber, Frederic Adjami, Gabriele Schuster, Stefan Kopp, Jörg Natrup, Christina Erbe, Daniela Ohlendorf
OBJECTIVE: The number of studies investigating correlations between the temporomandibular system and body posture, postural control or plantar pressure distribution is continuously increasing. If a connection can be found, it is often of minor influence or for only a single parameter. However, small subject groups are critical. This study was conducted to define correlations between dental parameters, postural control and plantar pressure distribution in healthy males. METHODS: In this study, 87 male subjects with an average age of 25...
October 20, 2016: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Nicola Benedetto, Carlo Gambacciani, Nicola Montemurro, Riccardo Morganti, Paolo Perrini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcome of patients over 70 years old who have received surgical treatment for traumatic acute subdural haematoma (aSDH) in our Neurosurgical Department. We also disclose related surgical and medical costs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed by analyzing the medical records of patients older than 70 who had undergone surgery for evacuation of traumatic aSDH between June 2011 and December 2014. Through univariate and multivariate analyses, we correlated clinical and radiological pre-operatory features with outcome at one and six months after surgery...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Ariel Haimovici, Pablo Balenzuela, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These inter-areal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and sub-cortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome". Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (sub-critical) and disordered (super-critical) phases...
October 19, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Mia Edgar, Andria M Caruso, Esther Kim, Robert D Foss
Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated form of squamous cell carcinoma caused by a chromosomal rearrangement of the NUT gene on chromosome 15. These tumors have a predilection for midline and paramidline structures of the upper aerodigestive tract and mediastinum and can affect patients across a broad age range, including children. In the current example, a 53 year old male presented with a mass originating in the left nasal cavity. The clinical, radiographic, and morphologic features of NMC are discussed...
October 18, 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
Alexandra Louise Webb, Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Maria Stokes, Sarah Mottram
The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented...
October 18, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Tito M Marianetti, Armando Boccieri, Michele Pascali
: The importance of analysis of the nasal spine should not be underestimated in the correct planning of rhinoplasty. Deformations in position with respect to the midline and/or in size are often present, and their correction to ensure harmony between the spine and the other components of the nasal pyramid constitutes a key step in rhinoplasty that can lead to excellent results. METHODS: The study includes 160 patients who underwent surgical treatment of the anterior nasal spine with or without other techniques of nasal reshaping...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Mark A Frye, David J Hinton, Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Lee J Gunderson, Scott E Feeder, Doo-Sup Choi, John D Port
Although the precise drug mechanism of action of acamprosate remains unclear, its antidipsotropic effect is mediated in part through glutamatergic neurotransmission. We evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of acamprosate treatment in a cohort of 13 subjects with alcohol dependence (confirmed by a structured interview, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy glutamate levels in the midline anterior cingulate cortex (MACC). We compared levels of metabolites with a group of 16 healthy controls...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Eugene Kim, Byung-Gun Kim, Young-Jin Lim, Young-Tae Jeon, Jung-Won Hwang, Seo-Yun Lee, Hee-Pyoung Park
BACKGROUND: Positioning of a lightwand in the midline of the oral cavity can be challenging in patients with cervical immobilization. Direct laryngoscopy may permit the lightwand tip to more easily access the glottic opening. We tested our hypothesis that a laryngoscope-assisted lightwand technique allows more successful endotracheal intubation than does a conventional lightwand approach. METHODS: A total of 162 patients requiring cervical immobilization during intubation for cervical spine surgery were allocated randomly to 2 groups...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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