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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643737/changes-in-pharyngeal-constrictor-volumes-during-head-and-neck-radiation-therapy-implications-for-dose-delivery
#1
Akila Kumarasiri, Chang Liu, Mona Kamal, Correen Fraser, Stephen Brown, Indrin J Chetty, Jinkoo Kim, Farzan Siddiqui
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCMs) that occur during head and neck (H and N) radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 13 oropharyngeal cancer patients with daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT image, PCM was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PCM thickness was measured at the midline level of C3 vertebral body...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643357/nut-carcinoma-in-children-and-adults-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#2
Lauriane Lemelle, Gaëlle Pierron, Paul Fréneaux, Sophie Huybrechts, Alexandra Spiegel, Dominique Plantaz, Morbize Julieron, Sophie Dumoucel, Antoine Italiano, Fréderic Millot, Christophe Le Tourneau, Guy Leverger, Pascal Chastagner, Matthieu Carton, Daniel Orbach
BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) carcinoma (formerly NUT midline carcinoma) is an aggressive tumor defined by the presence of NUT rearrangement with a poor prognosis. This rare cancer is underdiagnosed and poorly treated. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical, radiologic, and biological features of NUT carcinoma. The secondary objective was to describe the various treatments and assess their efficacy. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study was based on review of the medical records of children and adults with NUT carcinoma with specific rearrangement or positive anti-NUT nuclear staining (>50%)...
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641875/prevention-of-incisional-hernia-with-prophylactic-onlay-and-sublay-mesh-reinforcement-versus-primary-suture-only-in-midline-laparotomies-prima-2-year-follow-up-of-a-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
An P Jairam, Lucas Timmermans, Hasan H Eker, Robert E G J M Pierik, David van Klaveren, Ewout W Steyerberg, Reinier Timman, Arie C van der Ham, Imro Dawson, Jan A Charbon, Christoph Schuhmacher, André Mihaljevic, Jakob R Izbicki, Panagiotis Fikatas, Philip Knebel, René H Fortelny, Gert-Jan Kleinrensink, Johan F Lange, Hans J Jeekel
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia is a frequent long-term complication after abdominal surgery, with a prevalence greater than 30% in high-risk groups. The aim of the PRIMA trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of mesh reinforcement in high-risk patients, to prevent incisional hernia. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial at 11 hospitals in Austria, Germany, and the Netherlands. We included patients aged 18 years or older who were undergoing elective midline laparotomy and had either an abdominal aortic aneurysm or a body-mass index (BMI) of 27 kg/m(2) or higher...
June 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640941/phox2b-reliably-distinguishes-neuroblastoma-among-small-round-blue-cell-tumors
#4
Yin P Hung, John P Lee, Andrew M Bellizzi, Jason L Hornick
AIMS: Neuroblastoma shows considerable histologic overlap with other small round blue cell tumors. PHOX2B, a transcription factor essential for autonomic nervous system development, has been reported as an immunohistochemical marker for neuroblastoma. The purpose of this study was to validate the specificity and diagnostic utility of PHOX2B for peripheral neuroblastic tumors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 240 cases (133 in whole-tissue sections; 107 in tissue microarrays), including 76 peripheral neuroblastic tumors [median age 2 years; including 4 adults] and 164 other tumors: 44 Wilms tumors; 20 Ewing sarcomas; 10 each CIC-rearranged round cell sarcomas, poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas, lymphoblastic lymphomas, alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, olfactory neuroblastomas, and melanomas; 5 each NUT midline carcinomas and desmoplastic small round cell tumors...
June 22, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638996/smooth-at-one-end-and-rough-at-the-other-influence-of-object-texture-on-grasping-behaviour
#5
Catharina Glowania, L C J van Dam, E Brenner, M A Plaisier
When picking up objects using a pinch grip, there are usually numerous places at which one could place the thumb and index finger. Yet, people seem to consistently place them at or close to the centre of mass (COM), presumably to minimize torque and therefore the required grip force. People also prefer to grasp objects by parallel surfaces and ones with higher friction coefficients (rough surfaces), to prevent the object from slipping when they lift it. Here, we examine the trade-off between friction and COM...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638718/substance-p-nk1-receptor-in-the-rat-corpus-callosum-during-postnatal-development
#6
Paolo Barbaresi, Emanuela Mensà, Guendalina Bastioli, Salvatore Amoroso
INTRODUCTION: The expression of substance P (SP) receptor (neurokinin 1, NK1) was studied in the rat corpus callosum (cc) from postnatal day 0 (the first 24 hr from birth, P0) to P30. METHODS: We used immunocytochemistry to study the presence of intracallosal NK1-immunopositive neurons (NK1IP-n) during cc development. RESULTS: NK1IP-n first appeared on P5. Their number increased significantly between P5 and P10, it remained almost constant between P10 and P15, then declined slightly until P30...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637976/coordinated-control-of-the-tongue-during-suckling-like-activity-and-respiration
#7
Tomio Inoue, Kiyomi Nakayama, Yoshiaki Ihara, Satoshi Tachikawa, Shiro Nakamura, Ayako Mochizuki, Koji Takahashi, Takehiko Iijima
The tongue can move freely and is important in oral motor functions. Tongue movement must be coordinated with movement of the hyoid, mandible, and pharyngeal wall, to which it is attached. Our previous study using isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations showed that application of N-methyl-D-aspartate induces rhythmic activity in the hypoglossal nerve that is coincident with rhythmic activity in the ipsilateral trigeminal motor nerve. Partial or complete midline transection of the preparation only abolishes activity in the trigeminal motor nerve; therefore, the neuronal network contributing to coordinated activity of the jaw/tongue muscles is located on both sides of the preparation and sends motor commands to contralateral trigeminal motoneurons...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637445/cerebellar-mutism-syndrome-in-children-with-brain-tumours-of-the-posterior-fossa
#8
Morten Wibroe, Johan Cappelen, Charlotte Castor, Niels Clausen, Pernilla Grillner, Thora Gudrunardottir, Ramneek Gupta, Bengt Gustavsson, Mats Heyman, Stefan Holm, Atte Karppinen, Camilla Klausen, Tuula Lönnqvist, René Mathiasen, Pelle Nilsson, Karsten Nysom, Karin Persson, Olof Rask, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Astrid Sehested, Harald Thomassen, Ingrid Tonning-Olsson, Barbara Zetterqvist, Marianne Juhler
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has been reported in up to 39% of the patients but the exact incidence is uncertain since milder cases may be unrecognized. Recovery is usually incomplete. Reported risk factors are tumour type, midline location and brainstem involvement, but the exact aetiology, surgical and other risk factors, the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined...
June 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636474/lumbar-artery-perforators-an-anatomical-study-based-on-computed-tomographic-angiography-imaging
#9
Casper Emile Sommeling, Britt Colebunders, Heleen E Pardon, Filip B Stillaert, Phillip N Blondeel, Koenraad Van Landuyt
BACKGROUND: The free lumbar artery perforator flap has recently been introduced as a potentially valuable option for autologous breast reconstruction in a subset of patients. Up to date, few anatomical studies, exploring the lumbar region as a donor site for perforator- based flaps, have been conducted. METHODS: An anatomical study of the position of the dominant lumbar artery perforator was performed, using the preoperative computed tomographic angiography images of 24 autologous breast reconstruction patients...
February 28, 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634690/long-term-retromuscular-and-intraperitoneal-mesh-size-changes-within-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-incisional-hernia-repair-including-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
P Rogmark, O Ekberg, A Montgomery
Purpose Ingrowth of fibroblasts in a polypropylene mesh may cause contraction and a later recurrence. We assessed mesh contraction in intraabdominal and retromuscular implantation after incisional hernia repair. METHODS: A cohort of patients within an RCT on laparoscopic (LHR) versus open hernia repair (OHR) had their mesh borders marked with metal clips. X-ray was performed on postoperative day 1 and after 1 year. Total length, width, and dislocation were measured. A tacker fixated large-pore polypropylene mesh was used in LHR, and a retromuscular small-pore heavy-weight mesh was sutured to the midline in OHR...
June 20, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634350/a-subset-of-cerebrovascular-pericytes-originates-from-mature-macrophages-in-the-very-early-phase-of-vascular-development-in-cns
#11
Seiji Yamamoto, Masashi Muramatsu, Erika Azuma, Masashi Ikutani, Yoshinori Nagai, Hiroshi Sagara, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Satomi Kita, Erin O'Donnell, Tsuyoshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Takano, Mitsuko Dohmoto, Michiya Sugimori, Isao Usui, Yasuhide Watanabe, Noboru Hatakeyama, Takahiro Iwamoto, Issei Komuro, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Kazuyuki Tobe, Shumpei Niida, Naoyuki Matsuda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masakiyo Sasahara
Pericytes are believed to originate from either mesenchymal or neural crest cells. It has recently been reported that pericytes play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating blood-brain barrier homeostasis and blood flow at the capillary level. However, the origin of CNS microvascular pericytes and the mechanism of their recruitment remain unknown. Here, we show a new source of cerebrovascular pericytes during neurogenesis. In the CNS of embryonic day 10.5 mouse embryos, CD31(+)F4/80(+) hematopoietic lineage cells were observed in the avascular region around the dorsal midline of the developing midbrain...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634210/the-glycosylation-pathway-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-slit-and-for-the-maintenance-of-the-slit-receptor-robo-on-axons
#12
Mary Ann Manavalan, Vatsala Ruvini Jayasinghe, Rickinder Grewal, Krishna Moorthi Bhat
Slit proteins act as repulsive axon guidance cues by activating receptors of the Roundabout (Robo) family. During early neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, Slit prevents the growth cones of longitudinal tract neurons from inappropriately crossing the midline, thus restricting these cells to trajectories parallel to the midline. Slit is expressed in midline glial cells, and Robo is present in longitudinal axon tracts and growth cones. We showed that the enzyme Mummy (Mmy) controlled Slit-Robo signaling through mechanisms that affected both the ligand and the receptor...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633075/elective-unilateral-nodal-irradiation-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-paradigm-shift
#13
A Al-Mamgani, M Verheij, M W M van den Brekel
There is a long-standing convention to irradiate the great majority of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) electively to both sides of the neck, to reduce the theoretically increased risk of contralateral regional failure (cRF). With the currently available diagnostic imaging techniques this treatment paradigm means, in our opinion, an overtreatment in considerable proportion of these patients. From all the published studies (n = 11, with 1116 patients treated in total), the incidence of cRF in patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated to one side of the neck is 2...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630847/hyperplasia-of-lamina-and-spinous-process-of-c5-vertebrae-and-associated-hemivertebra-at-c4-level
#14
Raja Rameez Farooqi, Mufti Mehmood, Hilal A Kotwal
INTRODUCTION: Congenital variants of the cervical spine may mimic traumatic lesions and may cause recurrent episodes of pain. The spectrum of cervical variants includes persistent apophyses of the transverse processes, persistent epiphyses, vertebral platyspondylia, vertebral hypoplasia, and dysplasia of the vertebral arch. Furthermore, abnormalities of the spinous process have been described including doubled spinous processes and hypertrophies. Unilateral hyperplasia of a spinous process is a rare finding that has only been described rarely as case reports...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630312/uncovering-brd4-hyperphosphorylation-associated-with-cellular-transformation-in-nut-midline-carcinoma
#15
Ranran Wang, Xing-Jun Cao, Katarzyna Kulej, Wei Liu, Tongcui Ma, Margo MacDonald, Cheng-Ming Chiang, Benjamin A Garcia, Jianxin You
The epigenetic reader BRD4 plays a vital role in transcriptional regulation, cellular growth control, and cell-cycle progression. Dysregulation of BRD4 function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of cancers. However, how BRD4 is regulated to maintain its normal function in healthy cells and how alteration of this process leads to cancer remain poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that BRD4 is hyperphosphorylated in NUT midline carcinoma and identified CDK9 as a potential kinase mediating BRD4 hyperphosphorylation...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628683/understanding-the-shape-of-forehead-lines
#16
Milad Moqadam, Konstantin Frank, Christina Handayan, Mustafa Hakami, Fahd Benslimane, Robert H Gotkin, Neil S Sadick, Sebastian Cotofana
<p>Background: Individualized neuromodulator injections of the forehead are increasingly important to maximize patient safety and satisfaction and to yield the best aesthetic outcome. To assess the location of maximal muscle contraction, it would beneficial to relate the shape and location of the forehead lines to the morphology of the underlying frontalis muscle.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: We investigated the shape of forehead lines and their relationship to the morphology of the underlying frontalis muscle using anatomic dissection in a sample of 31 human body donors, with a mean age at death of 77...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625532/emergency-department-do-not-resuscitate-order-in-patients-with-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#17
Ju-Sing Fan, Hsien-Hao Huang, Yen-Chia Chen, Chorng-Kuang How, David Hung-Tsang Yen
OBJECTIVES: To explore the determinant factors and prognostic significance of emergency department do-not-resuscitate (ED-DNR) orders for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). METHODS: Consecutive adult SICH patients treated in our ED from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016 were selected as the eligible cases from our hospital's stroke database. Patients' information was comprehensively reviewed from the database and medical and nursing charts...
June 10, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623681/soft-tissue-changes-measured-with-three-dimensional-software-provides-new-insights-for-surgical-predictions
#18
Yu-Jen Chang, Antônio C O Ruellas, Marilia S Yatabe, Philip M Westgate, Lucia H S Cevidanes, Sarandeep S Huja
PURPOSE: Although computer-aided craniofacial reconstructions allows for simulation of hard tissue changes, the prediction of the final soft tissue facial changes remains a challenge. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional (3D) soft tissue changes in patients undergoing 2-jaw orthognathic surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For the present retrospective cohort study, 40 consecutive patients (11 men and 29 women; mean age 23.5 ± 4.9 years) who had undergone 2-jaw orthognathic surgery were selected...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623522/h3-k27m-mutations-are-extremely-rare-in-posterior-fossa-group-a-ependymoma
#19
Scott Ryall, Miguel Guzman, Samer K Elbabaa, Betty Luu, Stephen C Mack, Michal Zapotocky, Michael D Taylor, Cynthia Hawkins, Vijay Ramaswamy
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the tail of histone H3 (K27M) are frequently found in pediatric midline high-grade glioma's but have rarely been reported in other malignancies. Recently, recurrent somatic nucleotide variants in histone H3 (H3 K27M) have been reported in group A posterior fossa ependymoma (EPN_PFA), an entity previously described to have no recurrent mutations. However, the true incidence of H3 K27M mutations in EPN_PFA is unknown. METHODS: In order to discern the frequency of K27M mutations in histone H3 in EPN_PFA, we analyzed 151 EPN_PFA previously profiled with genome-wide methylation arrays using a validated droplet digital PCR assay...
June 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622400/prevalence-of-malocclusion-and-distribution-of-occlusal-characteristics-in-13-to-18-year-old-adolescents-attending-selected-high-schools-in-the-municipality-of-san-juan-pr-2012-2013
#20
Karla Alvarado, Lydia López, Rosana Hanke, Francis Picón, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan
OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional study was conducted (2012-2013) to evaluate the prevalence of 1) malocclusion and 2) occlusal characteristics in 13- to 18-yearold adolescents in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR) from selected high schools in the municipality of San Juan. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 155 adolescents. The University of Puerto Rico's IRB approved the study and consent and assent were completed for or by each participant, as applicable. A calibrated dentist performed a single-visit dental evaluation at each school...
June 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
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