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T cell review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921585/allergooncology-opposite-outcomes-of-immune-tolerance-in-allergy-and-cancer
#1
E Jensen-Jarolim, H J Bax, R Bianchini, S Crescioli, T R Daniels-Wells, D Dombrowicz, E Fiebiger, H J Gould, S Irshad, J Janda, D H Josephs, F Levi-Schaffer, L O Mahony, G Pellizzari, M L Penichet, F Redegeld, F Roth-Walter, J Singer, E Untersmayr, L Vangelista, S N Karagiannis
While desired for the cure of allergy, regulatory immune cell subsets and non-classical Th2-biased inflammatory mediators in the tumour microenvironment can contribute to immune suppression and escape of tumours from immunological detection and clearance. A key aim in the cancer field is therefore to design interventions that can break immunological tolerance and halt cancer progression, whereas on the contrary allergen immunotherapy exactly aims to induce tolerance. In this position paper, we review insights on immune tolerance derived from allergy and from cancer inflammation, focusing on what is known about the roles of key immune cells and mediators...
September 16, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920813/mycobacteriosis-in-captive-psittacines-a-brief-review-and-case-series-in-common-companion-species-eclectus-roratus-amazona-oratrix-and-pionites-melanocephala
#2
Anna Elizabeth McRee, Christine T Higbie, Javier G Nevarez, Nathalie T Rademacher, Thomas N Tully
In 2015, three psittacines were presented within 30 days, each with differing clinical signs and patient histories. A 13-yr-old male eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was presented for weakness, depression, and acute anorexia. On presentation it was determined to have a heart murmur, severely elevated white blood cell count (93.9 10(3)/μl) with a left shift (2.8 10(3)/μl bands), and anemia (30%). Severe hepatomegaly was noted on radiographs, ultrasonography, and computed tomography. A cytological sample of the liver obtained through a fine needle aspirate revealed intracellular acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium avium...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920588/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-homeostasis-and-host-defence-of-epithelial-barrier-tissues
#3
REVIEW
Morten M Nielsen, Deborah A Witherden, Wendy L Havran
Epithelial surfaces line the body and provide a crucial interface between the body and the external environment. Tissue-resident epithelial γδ T cells represent a major T cell population in the epithelial tissues and are ideally positioned to carry out barrier surveillance and aid in tissue homeostasis and repair. In this Review, we focus on the intraepithelial γδ T cell compartment of the two largest epithelial tissues in the body - namely, the epidermis and the intestine - and provide a comprehensive overview of the crucial contributions of intraepithelial γδ T cells to tissue integrity and repair, host homeostasis and protection in the context of the symbiotic relationship with the microbiome and during pathogen clearance...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919780/the-role-and-significance-of-vegfr2-regulatory-t-cells-in-tumor-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Panrong Zhu, Chenxi Hu, Kaiyuan Hui, Xiaodong Jiang
Tumor development is closely related to angiogenesis, and VEGFR2 plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis. It is broadly expressed in the blood vessels, especially in the microvessels of tumor tissues. Furthermore, VEGFR2 is detected on the surface of the cell membrane in various immune cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs, which are one of the key negative regulatory factors in tumor immune microenvironments, show high-level expression of VEGFR2 which participates in the regulation of immunosuppressive function...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919309/the-heterogeneity-of-human-cajal-retzius-neurons
#5
REVIEW
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
The definition of a Cajal-Retzius neuron (CRN) is still controversial, in part possibly due to species differences. We review the developmental history of CRN in human neocortex and focus on two main CRN family members, transient (t) and persisting (p) CRN. They share the expression of Reelin andTbr1, complemented by p73, calretinin, CXCR4 and NOS, but differ in their moment of appearance, fate and morphology. The distinctive feature of tCRN is the axon plexus in the lower third of the marginal zone, which innervates the apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal cells and may serve as a migration substrate and waiting compartment for interneurons descending from the subpial granular layer (SGL) into the cortical plate...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919297/androgens-and-endometrium-new-insights-and-new-targets
#6
REVIEW
Ioannis Simitsidellis, Philippa T K Saunders, Douglas A Gibson
Androgens are synthesised in both the ovary and adrenals in women and play an important role in the regulation of female fertility, as well as in the aetiology of disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis and endometrial cancer. The endometrium is an androgen target tissue and the impact of AR-mediated effects has been studied using human endometrial tissue samples and rodent models. In this review we highlight recent evidence that endometrial androgen biosynthesis and intracrine action is important in preparation of a tissue microenvironment that can support implantation and establishment of pregnancy...
September 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918907/thioredoxin-promotes-survival-signaling-events-under-nitrosative-oxidative-stress-associated-with-cancer-development
#7
REVIEW
Hugo P Monteiro, Fernando T Ogata, Arnold Stern
Accumulating mutations may drive cells into the acquisition of abnormal phenotypes that are characteristic of cancer cells. Cancer cells feature profound alterations in proliferation programs that result in a new population of cells that overrides normal tissue construction and maintenance programs. To achieve this goal, cancer cells are endowed with up regulated survival signaling pathways. They also must counteract the cytotoxic effects of high levels of nitric oxide (NO) and of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are by products of cancer cell growth...
August 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917403/cataract-surgery-in-patients-with-late-onset-retinal-degeneration
#8
Vasileios T Papastavrou, Shyamanga Borooah, Jill M O'Brien, Neeta Ray-Chaudhuri, Baljean Dhillon, Rute V Vieira, Andrew C Browning
PURPOSE: To review the outcomes in a series of patients with long anterior lens zonular fibers associated with late-onset retinal degeneration who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery. SETTING: Newcastle Eye Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were patients with genetically confirmed late-onset retinal degeneration requiring cataract surgery...
August 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917254/stereotactic-radiotherapy-in-oligometastatic-cancer
#9
Thomas A C Kennedy, Mark T Corkum, Alexander V Louie
Oligometastatic cancer describes a disease state somewhere between localized and metastatic cancer. Proposed definitions of oligometastatic disease have typically used a cut-off of five or fewer sites of disease. Treatment of oligometastatic disease should have the goal of long-term local control, and in selected cases, disease remission. While several retrospective cohorts argue for surgical excision of limited metastases (metastasectomy) as the preferred treatment option for several clinical indications, limited randomized data exists for treating oligometastases...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916993/periostin-in-the-pathogenesis-of-skin-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Murota, Yang Lingli, Ichiro Katayama
Skin is an organ that is susceptible to damage by external injury, chronic inflammation, and autoimmunity. Tissue damage causes alterations in both the configuration and type of cells in lesional skin. This phenomenon, called tissue remodeling, is a universal biological response elicited by programmed cell death, inflammation, immune disorders, and tumorigenic, tumor proliferative, and cytoreductive activity. In this process, changes in the components of the extracellular matrix are required to provide an environment that facilitates tissue remodeling...
September 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916346/radiofrequency-ablation-of-t1a-renal-cell-carcinomas-within-renal-transplant-allografts-oncologic-outcomes-and-graft%C3%A2-viability
#11
Derek W Cool, John R Kachura
PURPOSE: To evaluate oncologic outcomes and graft viability after percutaneous RF ablation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) developing within renal transplant allografts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-institution, retrospective study reviewed all patients treated with RF ablation for RCC between February 2004 and May 2016. Ten patients were identified (age 49.6 y ± 12.6; 9 men, 1 woman) with 12 biopsy-confirmed RCC tumors within the allograft (all T1a, mean diameter 2...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916343/the-role-of-a-new-class-of-long-noncoding-rnas-transcribed-from-ultraconserved-regions-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Daniela Terracciano, Sara Terreri, Filomena de Nigris, Valerio Costa, George A Calin, Amelia Cimmino
Ultraconserved regions (UCRs) represent a relatively new class of non-coding genomic sequences highly conserved between human, rat and mouse genomes. These regions can reside within exons of protein-coding genes, despite the vast majority of them localizes within introns or intergenic regions. Several studies have undoubtedly demonstrated that most of these regions are actively transcribed in normal cells/tissues, where they contribute to regulate many cellular processes. Interestingly, these non-coding RNAs exhibit aberrant expression levels in human cancer cells and their expression profiles have been used as prognostic factors in human malignancies, as well as to unambiguously distinguish among distinct cancer types...
September 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915720/pseudoprogression-in-microsatellite-instability-high-colorectal-cancer-during-treatment-with-combination-t-cell-mediated-immunotherapy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Young Kwang Chae, Si Wang, Halla Nimeiri, Aparna Kalyan, Francis J Giles
Evading tumor-mediated immunosuppression through antibodies to immune checkpoints has shown clinical benefit in patients with select solid tumors. There is a heterogeneity of responses in patients receiving immunotherapy, including pseudoprogression in which the tumor burden increases initially before decreasing to reach disease control. The characteristics and basis of pseudoprogression, however, remains poorly understood. We hereby report a case of microsatellite instability (MSI)-high metastatic colorectal cancer treated with combination of OX40 agonist and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antagonist that demonstrated pseudoprogression reaching 163% increase from baseline tumor burden...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915410/aiegens-for-biological-process-monitoring-and-disease-theranostics
#14
REVIEW
Xinggui Gu, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915394/overcoming-the-warburg-effect-is-it-the-key-to-survival-in-sepsis
#15
REVIEW
David Bar-Or, Matthew Carrick, Allen Tanner, Mark J Lieser, Leonard T Rael, Edward Brody
Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality in the U.S. and Europe. Sepsis and septic shock are the results of severe metabolic abnormalities following infection. Aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg Effect) is as much a hallmark of sepsis as it is of cancer. Warburg observed that cancer cells generated energy through glycolysis (generation of ATP through degradation of glucose, usually associated with anaerobic conditions) rather than through oxidative phosphorylation (generation of ATP through the mitochondrial inner membrane via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, usually associated with aerobic conditions)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#16
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#17
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915085/pooled-analysis-safety-profile-of-nivolumab-and-ipilimumab-combination-therapy-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma
#18
Mario Sznol, Pier Francesco Ferrucci, David Hogg, Michael B Atkins, Pascal Wolter, Massimo Guidoboni, Celeste Lebbé, John M Kirkwood, Jacob Schachter, Gregory A Daniels, Jessica Hassel, Jonathan Cebon, Winald Gerritsen, Victoria Atkinson, Luc Thomas, John McCaffrey, Derek Power, Dana Walker, Rafia Bhore, Joel Jiang, F Stephen Hodi, Jedd D Wolchok
Purpose The addition of nivolumab (anti-programmed death-1 antibody) to ipilimumab (anti-cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte-associated 4 antibody) in patients with advanced melanoma improves antitumor response and progression-free survival but with a higher frequency of adverse events (AEs). This cross-melanoma study describes the safety profile of the approved nivolumab plus ipilimumab regimen. Methods This retrospective safety review on data from three trials (phase I, II, and III) included patients with advanced melanoma who received at least one dose of nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks × 4 and then nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity while following established guidelines for AE management...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914644/systemic-therapy-in-advanced-melanoma-integrating-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-into-clinical-practice
#19
Inês P Silva, Georgina V Long
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we review the results from relevant phase III trials and discuss treatment strategies for challenging subgroups of melanoma patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Targeted therapies induce rapid responses in the majority of BRAF-mutant patients, however, 50% of these responders will develop resistance within approximately 13 months. In contrast, inhibitors of checkpoints on T cells, particularly inhibitors of PD-1, induce responses in 40-55% of patients (monotherapy or whenever combined with anti-CTLA-4), and these responses tend to be durable...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914546/defibrotide-an-oligonucleotide-for-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome
#20
May T Aziz, Payal P Kakadiya, Samantha M Kush, Kylie Weigel, Denise K Lowe
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of defibrotide as well as its pharmacology, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics (PK), drug-drug interactions, dosing, cost considerations, and place in therapy. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was performed through August 2017 using the terms defibrotide, oligonucleotide, hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Other data sources were from references of identified studies, review articles, and conference abstracts plus manufacturer product labeling and website, the Food and Drug Administration website, and clinicaltrials...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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