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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782339/transcription-factors-foxo-in-the-regulation-of-homeostatic-hematopoiesis
#1
Vijay Menon, Saghi Ghaffari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work in the past decade has revealed key functions of the evolutionary conserved transcription factors Forkhead box O (FOXO) in the maintenance of homeostatic hematopoiesis. Here the diverse array of FOXO functions in normal and diseased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is reviewed and the main findings in the past decade are highlighted. Future work should reveal FOXO-regulated networks whose alterations contribute to hematological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified unanticipated FOXO functions in hematopoiesis including in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), erythroid cells, and immune cells...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782274/-dysfunctional-high-density-lipoproteins-role-in-atherogenesis-and-potential-targets-for-phospholipid-therapy
#2
T I Torchovskaya, V A Kudinov, T S Zakharova, S S Markin
In recent years the number of articles on damages of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) properties in patients with atherosclerosis has sharply increased. First, it concerns their ability to accept cholesterol (CH) from macrophages - the basis of antiatherogenic action of HDL. This ability was assessed ex vivo - by activity of cell cholesterol (CH) efflux to HDL or into patient's serum. In many works inverse relationship was shown between CH acceptor capacity of HDL and severity of atherosclerotic disease or frequency of its exacerbations during long-term observation, independent from HDL CH concentration...
March 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781185/helper-t-cell-responses-and-pulmonary-fungal-infections
#3
REVIEW
Andrew J McDermott, Bruce S Klein
The mucosal surface of the respiratory tract encounters microbes, such as fungal particles, with every inhaled breath. When pathogenic fungi breach the physical barrier and innate immune system within the lung to establish an infection, adaptive immunity is engaged often in the form of helper CD4 T-cell responses. Type 1 responses, characterized by IFNγ production from CD4 cells, promote clearance of Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Likewise, IL-17A production from Th17 cells promotes immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidiodes species infection by recruiting neutrophils...
May 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780691/understanding-d-ribose-and-mitochondrial-function
#4
Diane E Mahoney, John B Hiebert, Amanda Thimmesch, John T Pierce, James L Vacek, Richard L Clancy, Andrew J Sauer, Janet D Pierce
Mitochondria are important organelles referred to as cellular powerhouses for their unique properties of cellular energy production. With many pathologic conditions and aging, mitochondrial function declines, and there is a reduction in the production of adenosine triphosphate. The energy carrying molecule generated by cellular respiration and by pentose phosphate pathway, an alternative pathway of glucose metabolism. D-ribose is a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in the cells and particularly in the mitochondria is essential in energy production...
2018: Adv Biosci Clin Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780388/regulation-of-hematopoietic-cell-development-and-function-through-phosphoinositides
#5
REVIEW
Mila Elich, Karsten Sauer
One of the most paramount receptor-induced signal transduction mechanisms in hematopoietic cells is production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate (PIP3 ) by class I phosphoinositide 3 kinases (PI3K). Defective PIP3 signaling impairs almost every aspect of hematopoiesis, including T cell development and function. Limiting PIP3 signaling is particularly important, because excessive PIP3 function in lymphocytes can transform them and cause blood cancers. Here, we review the key functions of PIP3 and related phosphoinositides in hematopoietic cells, with a special focus on those mechanisms dampening PIP3 production, turnover, or function...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780254/are-ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-the-target-for-innovative-immunotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Liang Wang, Tianmin Xu, Manhua Cui
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal and differentiation, are believed to be responsible for tumor generation, progression, metastasis, and relapse. Ovarian cancer, the most malignant gynecological cancer, has consistent pathology behavior with CSC model, which suggests that therapies based on ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) can gain a more successful prognosis. Much evidence has proved that epigenetic mechanism played an important role in tumor formation and sustainment...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779484/genetics-and-epigenetics-pathogenesis-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-syndrome
#7
Jibran Sualeh Muhammad, Muhammad Ishaq, Khalid Ahmed
Behçet's syndrome (BS) is characterized numerous systemic manifestations, is known for its ability to affect both, arteries and the veins. However, the etiology of BS is only partially understood, and previous studies have demonstrated a role of genetic and epigenetic factors contributes to disease pathophysiology. Several studies have implicated the T cells and monocytes, especially when stimulated by seat shock proteins and streptococcal antigen. Furthermore, during disease exacerbations adenosine deaminase has an important role in lymphocyte proliferation, maturation, and differentiation, is activated in Behçet's syndrome...
May 20, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779363/prognostic-factors-affecting-surgical-outcomes-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-external-auditory-canal
#8
Gi-Sung Nam, In Seok Moon, Ji Hyung Kim, Sung Huhn Kim, Jae Young Choi, Eun Jin Son
Objectives: Carcinomas of the external auditory canal (EAC) are rare, and management remains challenging. Previous studies seeking prognostic factors for EAC cancers included cancers other than carcinomas. In this study, we analyzed the treatment outcomes of, prognostic factors for, and survival rates associated with specifically squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the EAC. Methods: A retrospective review of 26 consecutive patients diagnosed with SCCs of the EAC in a 10-year period was performed in terms of clinical presentation, stage, choice of surgical procedure, and adjunct therapy...
May 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779354/-combination-of-pd-1-inhibitor-and-chemotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-nasal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-5-cases-report-and-literature-review
#9
M Y Liu, Y F Li, J W Du, L H Dong, Y S Wang, X Gao, X D Wei, Y P Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777955/perspectives-and-limitations-for-nucleo-t-side-analogs-in-future-hbv-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Massimo Levrero, Miroslava Subic, Francois Villeret, Fabien Zoulim
The latest generation of nucleo(t)side analogs (NAs) provide robust virus suppression with high barrier to resistance. Long term NAs treatment is associated with a partial restoration in HBV-specific T-cell functions, regression of fibrosis, no disease progression and a reduction of HCC risk but rarely lead to cure and life-long treatments is often required. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776594/gearing-up-t-cell-immunotherapy-in-cervical-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Shilpa Raghuvanshi Chauhan, Mausumi Bharadwaj
The World Health Organization estimates more than 270,000 deaths annually by cervical cancer. Present vaccines are prophylactic in nature which cannot treat huge bulk of cervical cancer patients worldwide. Available therapies like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are not effective in high-grade lesion, and hence, there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. T cells play a significant role in cervical cancer pathogenesis as human papilloma virus uses multiple mechanisms that dodge host T-cell immune-surveillance aiding in persistence of infection and establishment of cancer...
April 22, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775689/biomarkers-for-checkpoint-inhibition-in-hematologic-malignancies
#12
REVIEW
Djordje Atanackovic, Tim Luetkens
In the past few years we have seen remarkable paradigm shifts in the treatment of many solid tumors due to the introduction of inhibitors targeting immune checkpoints such as PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4. Recent results indicate that checkpoint inhibition also represents a very promising approach for certain types of hematologic malignancies. Unfortunately, treatment with checkpoint inhibitors is also associated with substantial toxicities and high costs and only a subset of patients appears to derive clinical benefit from these treatments...
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775497/inflammatory-cytokines-and-peripheral-mediators-in-the-pathophysiology-of-pruritus-in-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#13
REVIEW
Daniel J Lewis, Simo Huang, Madeleine Duvic
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) includes a diverse group of neoplasms, including mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. One of the earliest and most common symptoms of CTCL is pruritus, which affects up to 88% of patients. The severity of pruritus can range from mild to very debilitating, producing tremendous discomfort and a significant decrease in quality of life. Patients with advanced disease, in particular, may experience a more chronic, intractable pruritus. However, the underlying mechanism of pruritus in CTCL remains unknown...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775441/-the-biological-function-and-significance-of-il-35-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#14
EDITORIAL
Mateusz Staciwa, Marlena Broncel
The imbalance of anti-inflammatory /pro- inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a novel member of the IL-12 family, consisting of an EBVinduced gene 3 (EBI3) subunit and a P35 subunit. IL-35 is an immunesuppressive cytokine mainly produced by regulatory T cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-35 may represent a target for antiatherosclerotic therapy based on its several anti-inflammatory features. This review provide a brief overview of IL-35 biology and the role of IL-35 in the atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease and cancers...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774034/targeting-vegf-vegfr-to-modulate-antitumor-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Ju Yang, Jing Yan, Baorui Liu
In addition to the crucial role in promoting the growth of tumor vessels, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is also immunosuppressive. VEGF can inhibit the function of T cells, increase the recruitment of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and hinder the differentiation and activation of dendritic cells (DCs). Recent studies have investigated the role of antiangiogenic agents in antitumor immunity, especially in recent 3 years. Therefore, it is necessary to update the role of targeting VEGF/VEGFR in antitumor immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773448/the-role-of-the-common-gamma-chain-family-cytokines-in-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-based-anti-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Heleen H Van Acker, Diana Campillo-Davo, Gils Roex, Maarten Versteven, Evelien L Smits, Viggo F Van Tendeloo
Cytokines of the common gamma-chain receptor family, comprising interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21, are vital with respect to organizing and sustaining healthy immune cell functions. Supporting the anti-cancer immune response, these cytokines inspire great interest for their use as vaccine adjuvants and cancer immunotherapies. It is against this background that gamma delta (γδ) T cells, as special-force soldiers and natural contributors of the tumor immunosurveillance, also received a lot of attention the last decade...
May 14, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773345/t-cells-and-their-immunometabolism-a-novel-way-to-understanding-sepsis-immunopathogenesis-and-future-therapeutics
#17
REVIEW
V Kumar
Sepsis has always been considered as a big challenge for pharmaceutical companies in terms of discovering and designing new therapeutics. The pathogenesis of sepsis involves aberrant activation of innate immune cells (i.e. macrophages, neutrophils etc.) at early stages. However, a stage of immunosuppression is also observed during sepsis even in the patients who have recovered from it. This stage of immunosuppression is observed due to the loss of conventional (i.e. CD4+ , CD8+ ) T cells, Th17 cells and an upregulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772686/inhibition-of-the-ccl5-ccr5-axis-against-the-progression-of-gastric-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Donatella Aldinucci, Naike Casagrande
Despite the progress made in molecular and clinical research, patients with advanced-stage gastric cancer (GC) have a bad prognosis and very low survival rates. Furthermore, it is challenging to find the complex molecular mechanisms that are involved in the development of GC, its progression, and its resistance to therapy. The interactions of chemokines, also known as chemotactic cytokines, with their receptors regulate immune and inflammatory responses. However, updated research demonstrates that cancer cells subvert the normal chemokine role, transforming them into fundamental constituents of the tumor microenvironment (TME) with tumor-promoting effects...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772538/targeting-fibroblast-activation-protein-in-cancer-prospects-and-caveats
#19
Petr Busek, Rosana Mateu, Michal Zubal, Lenka Kotackova, Aleksi Sedo
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP, seprase) is a serine protease with post-proline dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase enzymatic activity. FAP is upregulated in several tumor types, while its expression in healthy adult tissues is scarce. FAP molecule itself and FAP+ stromal cells play an important although probably context-dependent and tumor type-specific pathogenetic role in tumor progression. We provide an overview of FAP expression under both physiological and pathological conditions with focus on human malignancies...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772527/a-novel-role-for-cd26-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-as-a-therapeutic-target
#20
Kei Ohnuma, Ryo Hatano, Eriko Komiya, Haruna Otsuka, Takumi Itoh, Noriaki Iwao, Yutaro Kaneko, Taketo Yamada, Nam H Dang, Chikao Morimoto
CD26 is a 110 kDa surface glycoprotein with intrinsic dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity that is expressed on numerous cell types and has a multitude of biological functions. The role of CD26 in immune regulation has been extensively characterized, with recent findings elucidating its linkage with signaling pathways and structures involved in T-lymphocyte activation as well as antigen presenting cell-T-cell interaction. In this paper, we will review emerging data on CD26-mediated immune regulation suggesting that CD26 may be an appropriate therapeutic target for the treatment of selected immune disorders as well as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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