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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734869/p2x-receptors-up-regulate-the-cell-surface-expression-of-the-neuronal-glycine-transporter-glyt2
#1
Lucía Villarejo-López, Esperanza Jiménez, David Bartolomé-Martín, Francisco Zafra, Pablo Lapunzina, Carmen Aragón, Beatriz López-Corcuera
Glycinergic inhibitory neurons of the spinal dorsal horn exert critical control over the conduction of nociceptive signals to higher brain areas. The neuronal glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft and its activity modulates intra and extracellular glycine concentrations. In this report we show that the stimulation of P2X purinergic receptors with βγ-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate induces the up-regulation of GlyT2 transport activity by increasing total and plasma membrane expression and reducing transporter ubiquitination...
July 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734548/ubiquitin-like-modifications-in-the-dna-damage-response
#2
REVIEW
Zhifeng Wang, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xingzhi Xu
Genomic DNA is damaged at an extremely high frequency by both endogenous and environmental factors. An improper response to DNA damage can lead to genome instability, accelerate the aging process and ultimately cause various human diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) are complex and are regulated at many levels, including at the level of post-translational modification (PTM). Since the discovery of ubiquitin in 1975 and ubiquitylation as a form of PTM in the early 1980s, a number of ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) have been identified, including small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8), interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10), ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFRM1), URM1 ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (URM1), autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12), autophagy-related protein 8 (ATG8), fan ubiquitin-like protein 1 (FUB1) and histone mono-ubiquitylation 1 (HUB1)...
July 11, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734243/caveolin-1-related-autophagy-initiated-by-aldosterone-induced-oxidation-promotes-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-defenestration
#3
Xiaoying Luo, Dan Wang, Xuan Luo, Xintao Zhu, Guozhen Wang, Zuowei Ning, Yang Li, Xiaoxin Ma, Renqiang Yang, Siyi Jin, Yun Huang, Ying Meng, Xu Li
Aldosterone, with pro-oxidation and pro-autophagy capabilities, plays a key role in liver fibrosis. However, the mechanisms underlying aldosterone-promoted liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) defenestration remain unknown. Caveolin 1 (Cav1) displays close links with autophagy and fenestration. Hence, we aim to investigate the role of Cav1-related autophagy in LSECs defenestration. We found the increase of aldosterone/MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) level, oxidation, autophagy, and defenestration in LSECs in the human fibrotic liver, BDL or hyperaldosteronism models; while antagonizing aldosterone or inhibiting autophagy relieved LSECs defenestration in BDL-induced fibrosis or hyperaldosteronism models...
July 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733899/6-ohda-induces-oxidation-of-f-box-protein-fbw7%C3%AE-by-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-in-parkinson-s-model
#4
Xiufeng Wang, Heng Zhai, Fang Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder disease, and its pathological feature is the degenerative loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc). In this study, we investigated whether distinct stress conditions target F-box protein Fbw7β via converging mechanisms. Our results showed that the 6-hyroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which causes PD in animals' models, led to decreased stability of Fbw7β in DA neuronal SN4741 cells. Further experiments suggested that oxidized Fbw7β bound to heat-shock cognate protein 70 kDa, the key regulator for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), at a higher affinity...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733455/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nedd4-induces-endocytosis-and-lysosomal-sorting-of-connexin43-to-promote-loss-of-gap-junctions
#5
Max Z Totland, Christian H Bergsland, Tone A Fykerud, Lars M Knudsen, Nikoline L Rasmussen, Peter W Eide, Zeremariam Yohannes, Vigdis Sørensen, Andreas Brech, Ragnhild A Lothe, Edward Leithe
Intercellular communication via gap junctions has an important role in controlling cell growth and in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Connexin43 is the most abundantly expressed gap junction channel protein in humans and acts as a tumor suppressor in multiple tissue types. Connexin43 is often dysregulated at the post-translational level during cancer development, resulting in loss of gap junctions. However, the molecular basis underlying the aberrant regulation of connexin43 in cancer cells has remained elusive...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733427/biallelic-germline-mutations-in-rfwd3-may-induce-fanconi-anemia
#6
(no author information available yet)
The E3 ubiquitin ligase RFWD3 is mutated in a patient with Fanconi anemia lacking known Fanconi mutations.
July 21, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733031/mkk4-activates-non-canonical-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-by-promoting-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb2-p100-processing
#7
Jeong Seon Kim, Eun Ju Kim, Hee-Sun Kim, Jonathan M Kurie, Young-Ho Ahn
The NFκB family of transcription factors is crucial for innate or adaptive immunity, inflammation, and diseases including cancer. The two NFκB signaling pathways (canonical and non-canonical) differ from each other in extracellular signals, membrane receptors, signaling adaptors, and dimer subunits. The p52 (NFκB2) subunit, which participates in the non-canonical pathway, is generated by ubiquitin-mediated processing of the p100 precursor. Here, we found that NFκB2 processing and activation were mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (MKK4) and its substrate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732079/lmp1-mediated-glycolysis-induces-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-expansion-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#8
Ting-Ting Cai, Shu-Biao Ye, Yi-Na Liu, Jia He, Qiu-Yan Chen, Hai-Qiang Mai, Chuan-Xia Zhang, Jun Cui, Xiao-Shi Zhang, Pierre Busson, Yi-Xin Zeng, Jiang Li
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are expanded in tumor microenvironments, including that of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The link between MDSC expansion and EBV infection in NPC is unclear. Here, we show that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promotes MDSC expansion in the tumor microenvironment by promoting extra-mitochondrial glycolysis in malignant cells, which is a scenario for immune escape initially suggested by the frequent, concomitant detection of abundant LMP1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and CD33+ MDSCs in tumor sections...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731408/defining-the-biological-basis-of-radiomic-phenotypes-in-lung-cancer
#9
Patrick Grossmann, Olya Stringfield, Nehme El-Hachem, Marilyn M Bui, Emmanuel Rios Velazquez, Chintan Parmar, Ralph Th Leijenaar, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Philippe Lambin, Robert Gillies, Hugo Jwl Aerts
Medical imaging can visualize characteristics of human cancer noninvasively. Radiomics is an emerging field that translates these medical images into quantitative data to enable phenotypic profiling of tumors. While radiomics has been associated with several clinical endpoints, the complex relationships of radiomics, clinical factors, and tumor biology are largely unknown. To this end, we analyzed two independent cohorts of respectively 262 North American and 89 European patients with lung cancer, and consistently identified previously undescribed associations between radiomic imaging features, molecular pathways, and clinical factors...
July 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731194/smurf1-promotes-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#10
Youmao Tao, Caixia Sun, Tao Zhang, Yan Song
Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1 (SMURF1), a well-known E3 ubiquitin ligase, targets substrate proteins for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Accumulating studies have shown that SMURF1 acts as an oncogenic factor in human malignancies. However, the clinical significance of SMURF1 and its role in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. The expression of SMURF1 was detected in 68 cases of GC and corresponding tumor-adjacent specimens. Our results revealed that SMURF1 was prominently overexpressed in GC specimens compared to corresponding tumor-adjacent tissues...
July 17, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731191/carboxy-terminus-hsc70-interacting-protein-exerts-a-tumor-inhibition-function-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
Meng Xiao, Ming Yan, Jianjun Zhang, Qin Xu, Wantao Chen
Several independent studies have reported the roles of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, carboxy-terminus Hsc70 interacting protein (CHIP) in various types of cancers. However, the biological effects of CHIP vary in regards to different cancers, and the role of CHIP in head and neck cancers (HNCs) remains unknown. In the present study, CHIP overexpression plasmids and CHIP knockdown lentivirus were constructed to affect the expression levels of CHIP protein and biological behaviors in HNC cell lines bilaterally. The biological behaviors regulated by CHIP in HNCs were investigated both in vivo and in vitro with a series of assays and analyses...
July 17, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730836/effects-of-rapid-or-slow-body-weight-reduction-on-intramuscular-protein-degradation-pathways-during-equivalent-weight-loss-on-rats
#12
Y Nonaka, S Urashima, M Inai, S Nishimura, K Higashida, S Terada
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (p<0...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730349/manganese-mediated-decrease-in-levels-of-c-ret-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-in-vitro
#13
Mayuko Y Kumasaka, Ichiro Yajima, Nobutaka Ohgami, Hiromasa Ninomiya, Machiko Iida, Xiang Li, Reina Oshino, Hiroko Tanihata, Masafumi Yoshinaga, Masashi Kato
Previous studies showed that overexposure to manganese causes parkinsonism, a disorder of dopaminergic neurons. Previous studies also showed that activity of c-RET kinase controls dopamine production through regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, suggesting the involvement of c-RET in the development of parkinsonism. To our knowledge, however, there is no report showing a correlation between manganese-mediated parkinsonism and c-RET. In this study, we examined the effect of manganese on the expression and/or activation levels of c-RET and TH in human TH-expressing cells (TGW cells)...
July 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730334/mir-181a-2-downregulates-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-cul4a-transcript-and-promotes-cell-proliferation
#14
Venkateshwarlu Bandi, Sudhakar Baluchamy
MiR-181a-2 plays a major role in cell proliferation both positively and negatively depending on tissue type by targeting several regulators 3'UTR regions. We have predicted several targets for miR-181a-2 through computational approaches and characterized one its interesting target, CUL4A, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. CUL4A regulates diverse functions in the cells including DNA repair, DNA replication, cell cycle, genomic stability through polyubiquitination of target proteins. Deregulation of both miR-181a-2 and CUL4A are reported in many cancerous cells, but the functional link between them is unknown...
August 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728908/the-proteasome-maturation-protein-pomp-increases-proteasome-assembly-and-activity-in-psoriatic-lesional-skin
#15
Barbara A Zieba, Laurent Henry, Matthieu Lacroix, Mohamed Jemaà, Thierry Lavabre-Bertrand, Laurent Meunier, Olivier Coux, Pierre-Emmanuel Stoebner
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin proteasome pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and proteasome subunits are increased in lesional psoriatic skin. Recent works have highlighted that proteasome levels can be regulated through modulation of proteasome assembly notably by the proteasome maturation protein POMP. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether proteasome assembly and POMP expression are modified in psoriatic skin. METHODS: Proteasome assembly as well as expression of proteasome regulators were assessed in non-lesional and lesional psoriatic skin using native gel electrophoresis and western blots respectively...
April 30, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728048/accumulation-and-detoxification-dynamics-of-chromium-and-antioxidant-responses-in-juvenile-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#16
Cong Yuan, Meng Li, Yao Zheng, Ying Zhou, Feili Wu, Zaizhao Wang
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) compounds are hazardous via all exposure routes. To explore the dynamics of Cr accumulation and elimination and to reveal the mechanisms underlying detoxification and antioxidation in juvenile Gobiocypris rarus, one-month old G. rarus larvae were exposed to 0.1mgL(-1) Cr(6+) for four weeks for accumulation and subsequently placed to clean water for another week for depuration. The contents of Cr were measured weekly in the whole body of G. rarus juveniles. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), and contents of glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA), and transcripts of cat, Cu/Zn-sod, Mn-sod, gpx1, gstpi, gr, mt1, nrf2 and uba52 were determined...
July 11, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727686/fbxw7-regulates-disc1-stability-via-the-ubiquitin-proteosome-system
#17
K Yalla, C Elliott, J P Day, J Findlay, S Barratt, Z A Hughes, L Wilson, E Whiteley, M Popiolek, Y Li, J Dunlop, R Killick, D R Adams, N J Brandon, M D Houslay, B Hao, G S Baillie
Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a multi-functional scaffolding protein that has been associated with neuropsychiatric disease. The role of DISC1 is to assemble protein complexes that promote neural development and signaling, hence tight control of the concentration of cellular DISC1 in neurons is vital to brain function. Using structural and biochemical techniques, we show for we believe the first time that not only is DISC1 turnover elicited by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) but that it is orchestrated by the F-Box protein, FBXW7...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726275/cpkc%C3%AE-mediated-down-regulation-of-uchl1-alleviates-ischaemic-neuronal-injuries-by-decreasing-autophagy-via-erk-mtor-pathway
#18
Dan Zhang, Song Han, Shizun Wang, Yanlin Luo, Li Zhao, Junfa Li
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world, but its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Both conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)γ and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) are neuron-specific proteins. In the models of 1-hr middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/24-hr reperfusion in mice and 1-hr oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24-hr reoxygenation in cortical neurons, we found that cPKCγ gene knockout remarkably aggravated ischaemic injuries and simultaneously increased the levels of cleaved (Cl)-caspase-3 and LC3-I proteolysis product LC3-II, and the ratio of TUNEL-positive cells to total neurons...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725954/proteasome-stress-triggers-death-of-sh-sy5y-and-t98g-cells-via-different-cellular-mechanisms
#19
Ivana Pilchova, Katarina Klacanova, Katarina Dibdiakova, Simona Saksonova, Andrea Stefanikova, Eva Vidomanova, Lucia Lichardusova, Jozef Hatok, Peter Racay
Overload or dysfunction of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is implicated in mechanisms of neurodegeneration associated with neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between viability of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and glioblastoma T98G cells treated with bortezomib, inhibitor of 26S proteasome, and accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins with respect to direct cytotoxicity of aggregates of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins...
July 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725668/data-on-myod-reduction-by-autophagy-in-c2c12-cells
#20
Yeong-Min Yoo, Yung Chul Park
Autophagy is a highly regulated physiologic mechanism in which cells maintain homeostasis by degrading excessive or unnecessary proteins and damaged or aged organelles through the lysosomal machinery (Yorimitsu and Klionsky, 2005) [1]. MyoD is basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that regulate myoblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation. MyoD is expressed in adult skeletal muscle (Megeney et al., 1996) [2] and adult fibers (Brack et al., 2005) [3]. MyoD is mainly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (Floyd et al...
August 2017: Data in Brief
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