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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808978/the-role-of-negative-conductances-in-neuronal-subthreshold-properties-and-synaptic-integration
#1
REVIEW
Cesar C Ceballos, Antonio C Roque, Ricardo M Leão
Based on passive cable theory, an increase in membrane conductance produces a decrease in the membrane time constant and input resistance. Unlike the classical leak currents, voltage-dependent currents have a nonlinear behavior which can create regions of negative conductance, despite the increase in membrane conductance (permeability). This negative conductance opposes the effects of the passive membrane conductance on the membrane input resistance and time constant, increasing their values and thereby substantially affecting the amplitude and time course of postsynaptic potentials at the voltage range of the negative conductance...
August 14, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802269/removal-of-soluble-strontium-into-biogenic-carbonate-minerals-from-a-highly-saline-solution-using-halophilic-bacterium-bacillus-sp-tk2d
#2
Takumi Horiike, Yuma Dotsuta, Yuriko Nakano, Asumi Ochiai, Satoshi Utsunomiya, Toshihiko Ohnuki, Mitsuo Yamashita
Radioactive strontium ((90)Sr) leaked into saline environments, including the ocean, from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after a nuclear accident. Since the removal of (90)Sr using general adsorbents (e.g., zeolite) is not efficient at high salinity, a suitable alternative immobilization method is necessary. Therefore, we incorporated soluble Sr into biogenic carbonate minerals generated by urease-producing microorganisms from a saline solution. An isolate, Bacillus sp. strain TK2d, from marine sediment removed > 99% Sr after contact for four days in a saline solution (1...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748204/data-on-effects-of-rotenone-on-calcium-retention-capacity-respiration-and-activities-of-respiratory-chain-complexes-i-and-ii-in-isolated-rat-brain-mitochondria
#3
Evelina Rekuviene, Laima Ivanoviene, Vilmante Borutaite, Ramune Morkuniene
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Rotenone decreases ischemia-induced injury by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition in mature brains" (Rekuviene et al., 2017) [1]. Data in this article present the direct effects of rotenone on calcium retention capacity (CRC) in isolated normal cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, effects of rotenone intravenous infusion on leak and phosphorylating respiration rates of isolated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, on activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II in freezed-thawed/sonicated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria after brain ischemia...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741360/influence-of-chemical-mechanical-and-transport-processes-on-wellbore-leakage-from-geologic-co2-storage-reservoirs
#4
Susan A Carroll, Jaisree Iyer, Stuart D C Walsh
Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems...
July 25, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684623/calcium-and-excitation-contraction-coupling-in-the-heart
#5
REVIEW
David A Eisner, Jessica L Caldwell, Kornél Kistamás, Andrew W Trafford
Cardiac contractility is regulated by changes in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Normal function requires that [Ca(2+)]i be sufficiently high in systole and low in diastole. Much of the Ca needed for contraction comes from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and is released by the process of calcium-induced calcium release. The factors that regulate and fine-tune the initiation and termination of release are reviewed. The precise control of intracellular Ca cycling depends on the relationships between the various channels and pumps that are involved...
July 7, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661668/effect-of-corrosion-inhibitors-on-in-situ-leak-repair-by-precipitation-of-calcium-carbonate-in-potable-water-pipelines
#6
Fei Wang, Christina L Devine, Marc A Edwards
Corrosion inhibitors can affect calcium carbonate precipitation and associated in situ and in-service water distribution pipeline leak repair via clogging. Clogging of 150 μm diameter leak holes represented by glass capillary tubes, in recirculating solutions that are supersaturated with calcite (Ωcalcite = 13), demonstrated that Zn, orthophosphate, tripolyphosphate, and hexametaphosphate corrosion/scaling inhibitors hinder clogging but natural organic matter (NOM) has relatively little impact. Critical concentrations of phosphates that could inhibit leak repair over the short-term in one water tested were: tripolyphophate (0...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650461/a-light-and-calcium-gated-transcription-factor-for-imaging-and-manipulating-activated-neurons
#7
Wenjing Wang, Craig P Wildes, Tanyaporn Pattarabanjird, Mateo I Sanchez, Gordon F Glober, Gillian A Matthews, Kay M Tye, Alice Y Ting
Activity remodels neurons, altering their molecular, structural, and electrical characteristics. To enable the selective characterization and manipulation of these neurons, we present FLARE, an engineered transcription factor that drives expression of fluorescent proteins, opsins, and other genetically encoded tools only in the subset of neurons that experienced activity during a user-defined time window. FLARE senses the coincidence of elevated cytosolic calcium and externally applied blue light, which together produce translocation of a membrane-anchored transcription factor to the nucleus to drive expression of any transgene...
June 26, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631094/post-translational-remodeling-of-ryanodine-receptor-induces-calcium-leak-leading-to-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathologies-and-cognitive-deficits
#8
Alain Lacampagne, Xiaoping Liu, Steven Reiken, Renaud Bussiere, Albano C Meli, Inger Lauritzen, Andrew F Teich, Ran Zalk, Nathalie Saint, Ottavio Arancio, Charlotte Bauer, Fabrice Duprat, Clark A Briggs, Shreaya Chakroborty, Grace E Stutzmann, Michael L Shelanski, Frederic Checler, Mounia Chami, Andrew R Marks
The mechanisms underlying ryanodine receptor (RyR) dysfunction associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) are still not well understood. Here, we show that neuronal RyR2 channels undergo post-translational remodeling (PKA phosphorylation, oxidation, and nitrosylation) in brains of AD patients, and in two murine models of AD (3 × Tg-AD, APP (+/-) /PS1 (+/-)). RyR2 is depleted of calstabin2 (KFBP12.6) in the channel complex, resulting in endoplasmic reticular (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) leak. RyR-mediated ER Ca(2+) leak activates Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways, contributing to AD pathogenesis...
June 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535962/predictors-of-paravalvular-regurgitation-after-implantation-of-the-fully-repositionable-and-retrievable-lotus-transcatheter-aortic-valve-from-the-reprise-ii-trial-extended-cohort
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Daniel J Blackman, Ian T Meredith, Nicolas Dumonteil, Didier Tchétché, David Hildick-Smith, Mark S Spence, Darren L Walters, Jan Harnek, Stephen G Worthley, Gilles Rioufol, Thierry Lefèvre, Vicki M Houle, Dominic J Allocco, Keith D Dawkins
Paravalvular leak (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with worse long-term outcomes. The Lotus Valve incorporates an innovative Adaptive Seal designed to minimize PVL. This analysis evaluated the incidence and predictors of PVL after implantation of the Lotus transcatheter aortic valve. The REPRISE II (REpositionable Percutaneous Replacement of Stenotic Aortic Valve through Implantation of Lotus Valve System - Evaluation of Safety and Performance) Study With Extended Cohort enrolled 250 high-surgical risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis...
July 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499500/ca-2-release-channels-join-the-resolution-revolution
#10
REVIEW
Ran Zalk, Andrew R Marks
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are calcium release channels expressed in the sarcoendoplasmic reticula of many cell types including cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. In recent years Ca(2+) leak through RyRs has been implicated as a major contributor to the development of diseases including heart failure, muscle myopathies, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes, making it an important therapeutic target. Recent mammalian RyR1 cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of multiple functional states have clarified longstanding questions including the architecture of the transmembrane (TM) pore and cytoplasmic domains, the location and architecture of the channel gate, ligand-binding sites, and the gating mechanism...
July 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497395/cardio-protective-effects-of-qishen-granule-on-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-handling-in-heart-failure-rats
#11
Ling-Hui Lu, Chun Li, Qi-Yan Wang, Qian Zhang, Yi Zhang, Hui Meng, Yong Wang, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of Qishen Granule (, QSG) on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) handling in heart failure (HF) model of rats and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: HF rat models were induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation surgery and high-fat diet feeding. Rats were randomly divided into sham (n=10), model (n=10), QSG (n=12, 2.2 g/kg daily) and metoprolol groups (n=12, 10.5 mg/kg daily). The therapeutic effects of QSG were evaluated by echocardiography and blood lipid testing...
May 11, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369430/aortic-root-calcium-burden-and-post-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-paravalvular-leak-can-t-live-without-it-can-t-live-with-it
#12
Zhen Qian, Patrizio Lancellotti, Mani A Vannan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361997/zinc-treatment-is-efficient-against-escherichia-coli-%C3%AE-haemolysin-induced-intestinal-leakage-in-mice
#13
Stephanie Wiegand, Silke S Zakrzewski, Miriam Eichner, Emanuel Schulz, Dorothee Günzel, Robert Pieper, Rita Rosenthal, Christian Barmeyer, André Bleich, Ulrich Dobrindt, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Roland Bücker
Zinc homoeostasis exerts protective effects in inflammatory intestinal diseases and zinc supplementation has been successfully used for treating infectious diarrhoea. This study aimed at a characterisation of zinc effects on focal leak induction by α-haemolysin (HlyA)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) as protective mechanism for colitis. We conducted in vivo experiments by oral challenge of gnotobiotic mice colonised with HlyA-expressing E. coli-536. Mice were either fed a defined normal or high zinc diet to analyse effects of zinc as a therapeutic regimen...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360100/trans-fatty-acids-promote-proinflammatory-signaling-and-cell-death-by-stimulating-the-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-ask1-p38-pathway
#14
Yusuke Hirata, Miki Takahashi, Yuki Kudoh, Kuniyuki Kano, Hiroki Kawana, Kumiko Makide, Yasuharu Shinoda, Yasushi Yabuki, Kohji Fukunaga, Junken Aoki, Takuya Noguchi, Atsushi Matsuzawa
Food-borne trans-fatty acids (TFAs) are mainly produced as byproducts during food manufacture. Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that TFA consumption is a major risk factor for various disorders, including atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanisms in this disease etiology are largely unknown. Here we have shown that TFAs potentiate activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) induced by extracellular ATP, a damage-associated molecular pattern leaked from injured cells. Major food-associated TFAs such as elaidic acid (EA), linoelaidic acid, and trans-vaccenic acid, but not their corresponding cis isomers, dramatically enhanced extracellular ATP-induced apoptosis, accompanied by elevated activation of the ASK1-p38 pathway in a macrophage-like cell line, RAW264...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317877/transcription-factor-nf-kappa-b-represses-ant1-transcription-and-leads-to-mitochondrial-dysfunctions
#15
Chen Zhang, Hui Jiang, Pin Wang, Heng Liu, Xiulian Sun
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles involved in cell survival and death, and dysfunctions of mitochondria are related to neurodegenerative diseases. As the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial inner membrane, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) plays a critical role in mitochondrial function, including the exchange of adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) in mitochondria, basal proton leak and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here, we show that ANT1 transcription is regulated by transcription factor NF-kappa B (NF-κB)...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274007/facial-dysmorphism-an-unreported-teratogenicity-with-levetiracetam
#16
Jyotsana Gupta, Sandhya Jain, Shalini Rajaram, Neerja Goel, Bindiya Gupta
Levetiracetam (LEV) is a relatively newer anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy and is approved by United States Food and Drugs Administration (USFDA). The drug binds to a synaptic vesicle glycoprotein and inhibits presynaptic calcium channels, thus reducing neurotransmitter release. Commonly reported side effects include drowsiness, weakness, unsteady gait, mood changes and loss of appetite. Like most other antiepileptics, it is a Category C drug in pregnancy. We report the first case of facial dysmorphism in the neonate of a mother taking LEV antenatally...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260211/respiratory-muscle-contractile-inactivity-induced-by-mechanical-ventilation-in-piglets-leads-to-leaky-ryanodine-receptors-and-diaphragm-weakness
#17
Stefan Matecki, Boris Jung, Nathalie Saint, Valerie Scheuermann, Samir Jaber, Alain Lacampagne
Respiratory muscle contractile inactivity during mechanical ventilation (MV) induces diaphragm muscle weakness, a condition referred to as ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD). Although VIDD pathophysiological mechanisms are still not fully understood, it has been recently suggested that remodeling of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release channel/ryanodine receptors (RyR1) in the diaphragm is a proximal mechanism of VIDD. Here, we used piglets, a large animal model of VIDD that is more relevant to human pathophysiology, to determine whether RyR1 alterations are observed in the presence of diaphragm weakness...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249687/activation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-leak-by-2-apb-depends-on-the-luminal-calcium-concentration
#18
Daniel Leon-Aparicio, Jesus Chavez-Reyes, Agustin Guerrero-Hernandez
It has been shown that 2-APB is a nonspecific modulator of ion channel activity, while most of the channels are inhibited by this compound, there are few examples of channels that are activated by 2-APB. Additionally, it has been shown that, 2-APB leads to a reduction in the luminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) level ([Ca(2+)]ER) and we have carried out simultaneous recordings of both [Ca(2+)]i and the [Ca(2+)]ER in HeLa cell suspensions to assess the mechanism involved in this effect. This approach allowed us to determine that 2-APB induces a reduction in the [Ca(2+)]ER by activating an ER-resident Ca(2+) permeable channel more than by inhibiting the activity of SERCA pumps...
July 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218251/stim1-phosphorylation-at-y361-recruits-orai1-to-stim1-puncta-and-induces-ca-2-entry
#19
Pascal Yazbeck, Mohammad Tauseef, Kevin Kruse, Md-Ruhul Amin, Rayees Sheikh, Stefan Feske, Yulia Komarova, Dolly Mehta
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) mediates the increase in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) in endothelial cells (ECs) that regulates several EC functions including tissue-fluid homeostasis. Stromal-interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), upon sensing the depletion of (Ca(2+)) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store, organizes as puncta that trigger store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) via plasmalemmal Ca(2+)-selective Orai1 channels. While the STIM1 and Orai1 binding interfaces have been mapped, signaling mechanisms activating STIM1 recruitment of Orai1 and STIM1-Orai1 interaction remains enigmatic...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181690/calcium-mediated-cellular-triggered-activity-in-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Dobromir Dobrev, Xander H T Wehrens
Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered cardiac arrhythmia, the basic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain incompletely understood. During the past decade or so, it has become clear that alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) handling may play a role in the pathogenesis of AF. Studies in small and large animal models, as well as atrial samples from patients with different forms of AF, have implicated ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) dysfunction and enhanced spontaneous Ca(2+) release events from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) as a potential cause of proarrhythmic cellular ectopic (triggered) activity in AF...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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