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Atrial electrical remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925871/biomarkers-associated-with-atrial-fibrosis-and-remodeling
#1
Polychronis Dilaveris, Christos-Konstantinos Antoniou, Panagiota Manolakou, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Konstantinos Gatzoulis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disturbance encountered in clinical practice. Although often considered as solely arrhythmic in nature, current evidence has established that atrial myopathy constitutes both the substrate and the outcome of atrial fibrillation, thus initiating a vicious, self-perpetuating cycle. This myopathy is triggered by stress-induced (including pressure/volume overload, inflammation, oxidative stress) responses of atrial tissue, which in the long term become maladaptive, and combines elements of both structural, especially fibrosis, and electrical remodeling, with contemporary approaches yielding potentially useful biomarkers of these processes...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904308/aging-modulates-the-substrate-and-triggers-remodeling-in-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Yung-Kuo Lin, Yi-Ann Chen, Ting-I Lee, Yao-Chang Chen, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
Aging plays a critical role in the genesis of atrial fibrillation (AF) and also increases the risks of cardiac dysfunction and stroke in AF patients. AF is caused by increased AF triggering from abnormalities of the thoracic vein and/or modulated substrate (atrial) with enhancement of AF maintenance. Clinical and laboratory evidence indicates that aging is significant in the creation of atrial electrical and structural remodeling that leads to increased susceptibility to AF occurrence. Aging is commonly associated with cardiovascular comorbidities, oxidative stress, calcium dysregulation, atrial myopathy with apoptosis, and fibrosis, which all contribute to the genesis of AF...
September 14, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903938/atrial-fibrillation-in-acute-obstructive-sleep-apnea-autonomic-nervous-mechanism-and-modulation
#3
Lilei Yu, Xuefei Li, Bing Huang, Xiaoya Zhou, Menglong Wang, Liping Zhou, Guannan Meng, Yuhong Wang, Zhenya Wang, Jielin Deng, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not completely understood. This study investigated the roles of the intrinsic and extrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system in OSA-induced AF and provided noninvasive autonomic nervous modulation for the suppression of OSA-induced AF by using low-level transcutaneous electrical stimulation (LL-TS) of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve at the tragus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen dogs received tracheostomy under general anesthesia and were randomly divided into 3 groups: the OSA group (OSA was simulated via clamping of the endotracheal tube at end expiration for 1...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888481/spatial-distribution-of-conduction-disorders-during-sinus-rhythm
#4
Eva A H Lanters, Ameeta Yaksh, Christophe P Teuwen, Lisette J M E van der Does, Charles Kik, Paul Knops, Denise M S van Marion, Bianca J J M Brundel, Ad J J C Bogers, Maurits A Allessie, Natasja M S de Groot
BACKGROUND: Length of lines of conduction block (CB) during sinus rhythm (SR) at Bachmann's bundle (BB) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unknown whether extensiveness of CB at BB represents CB elsewhere in the atria. We aim to investigate during SR 1) the spatial distribution and extensiveness of CB 2) whether there is a predilection site for CB and 3) the association between CB and incidence of post-operative AF. METHODS: During SR, epicardial mapping of the right atrium (RA), BB and left atrium was performed in 209 patients with coronary artery disease...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886992/study-on-the-effect-of-irbesartan-on-atrial-fibrillation-recurrence-in-kumamoto-atrial-fibrillation-suppression-trial-silk-study
#5
Hiroshige Yamabe, Koichi Kaikita, Toshiyuki Matsumura, Atsushi Iwasa, Junjiro Koyama, Takashi Uemura, Yasuhiro Morikami, Ryusuke Tsunoda, Kenji Morihisa, Kazuteru Fujimoto, Ichiro Kajiwara, Kunihiko Matsui, Kenichi Tsujita, Hisao Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies suggest that angiotensin II-receptor blockers can influence atrial remodeling and may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). Therefore, we hypothesized that irbesartan may prevent the recurrence of AF following either catheter ablation or electrical cardioversion of AF. METHODS: Study on the Effect of Irbesartan on Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence in Kumamoto (SILK study) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, and open-label comparative evaluation of the effects of irbesartan and amlodipine on AF recurrence in hypertensive patients with AF who are scheduled to undergo catheter ablation or electrical cardioversion of AF...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860555/chloride-channels-are-involved-in-the-development-of-atrial-fibrillation-a-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-study
#6
Yi-Yao Jiang, Hai-Tao Hou, Qin Yang, Xiao-Cheng Liu, Guo-Wei He
Electrical and structural remodeling processes are contributors to the self-perpetuating nature of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, their correlation has not been clarified. In this study, human atrial tissues from the patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease in either sinus rhythm or persistent AF were analyzed using a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach. An up-regulation in chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) 1, 4, 5 and a rise in type IV collagen were revealed. Combined with the results from immunohistochemistry and electron microscope analysis, the distribution of type IV collagen and effects of fibrosis on myocyte membrane indicated the possible interaction between CLIC and type IV collagen, confirmed by protein structure prediction and co-immunoprecipitation...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856145/ablation-of-long-standing-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#7
REVIEW
Behram P Mody, Anoshia Raza, Jason Jacobson, Sei Iwai, Daniel Frenkel, Rhadames Rojas, Wilbert S Aronow
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered arrhythmia in the clinical setting affecting nearly 6 million people in United States and the numbers are only expected to rise as the population continues to age. Broadly it is classified into paroxysmal, persistent and longstanding persistent AF. Electrical, structural and autonomic remodeling are some of the diverse pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the persistence of AF. Our review article emphasizes particularly on long standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPAF) aspect of the disease which poses a great challenge for electrophysiologists...
August 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842436/ca-2-calmodulin-kinase-ii-dependent-regulation-of-atrial-myocyte-late-na-current-ca-2-cycling-and-excitability-a-mathematical-modeling-study
#8
Birce Onal, Daniel Gratz, Thomas J Hund
Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects more than 3 million people per year in the U.S., and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Both electrical and structural remodeling contribute to AF, but the molecular pathways underlying AF pathogenesis are not well understood. Recently, a role for Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in regulation of persistent "late" sodium current (INa,L) has been identified. While INa,L inhibition is emerging as a potential antiarrhythmic strategy in AF patients, little is known about the mechanism linking INa,L to atrial arrhythmogenesis...
August 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839241/leukocyte-trp-channel-gene-expressions-in%C3%A2-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Irfan V Düzen, Fethi Yavuz, Ertan Vuruskan, Erhan Saracoglu, Fatih Poyraz, Hüseyin Göksülük, Basar Candemir, Seniz Demiryürek
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The upregulation of TRP channels is believed to mediate the progression of electrical remodelling and the arrhythmogenesis of the diseased heart. However, there is limited data about the contribution of the TRP channels to development of AF. The aim of this study was to investigate leukocyte TRP channels gene expressions in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients. The study included 47 NVAF patients and 47 sex and age matched controls...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752958/increased-ca-buffering-underpins-remodelling-of-ca-2-handling-in-old-sheep-atrial-myocytes
#10
J D Clarke, J L Caldwell, C M Pearman, D A Eisner, A W Trafford, K M Dibb
Many cardiovascular diseases, including those affecting the atria, are associated with advancing age. Arrhythmias, including those in the atria, can arise due to electrical remodelling or alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis. In the atria, age-associated changes in the action potential have been documented. However, little is known about remodelling of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in the healthy aged heart. Using single atrial myocytes from young and aged Welsh Mountain sheep, we show the free Ca(2+) transient amplitude and rate of decay of systolic Ca(2+) decrease with age while sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca content increases...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752208/micrornas-in-atrial-fibrillation-from-expression-signatures-to-functional-implications
#11
REVIEW
Nicoline W E van den Berg, Makiri Kawasaki, Wouter R Berger, Jolien Neefs, Eva Meulendijks, Anke J Tijsen, Joris R de Groot
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with pronounced morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence, expected to further increase for the forthcoming years, and associated frequent hospitalizations turn AF into a major health problem. Structural and electrical atrial remodelling underlie the substrate for AF, but the exact mechanisms driving this remodelling remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNA), short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, may be involved in the pathophysiology of AF...
July 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751678/morpho-functional-characterization-of-the-systemic-venous-pole-of-the-reptile-heart
#12
Bjarke Jensen, Signe Vesterskov, Bastiaan J Boukens, Jan M Nielsen, Antoon F M Moorman, Vincent M Christoffels, Tobias Wang
Mammals evolved from reptile-like ancestors, and while the mammalian heart is driven by a distinct sinus node, a sinus node is not apparent in reptiles. We characterized the myocardial systemic venous pole, the sinus venosus, in reptiles to identify the dominant pacemaker and to assess whether the sinus venosus remodels and adopts an atrium-like phenotype as observed in mammals. Anolis lizards had an extensive sinus venosus of myocardium expressing Tbx18. A small sub-population of cells encircling the sinuatrial junction expressed Isl1, Bmp2, Tbx3, and Hcn4, homologues of genes marking the mammalian sinus node...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721830/redox-state-in-atrial-fibrillation-pathogenesis-and-relevant-therapeutic-approaches
#13
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Athina Goliopoulou, Evangelos Oikonomou, Sotiris Tsalamandris, Georgios-Angelos Papamikroulis, George Lazaros, Eleftherios Tsiamis, George Latsios, Stella Brili, Spyridon Papaioannou, Vasiliki Gennimata, Dimitris Tousoulis
Myocardial redox state is a critical determinant of myocardial biology, regulating cardiomyocytes' apoptosis, hypertrophy, ion channels function and cardiac contractility and relaxation. Data from animal models have shown that altered myocardial nitroso-redox balance and NADPH oxidases activity are pivotally involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Similarly experimental animal data have demonstrated that increased reactive oxygen / nitrogen species formation in the atrial tissue is associated with altered electrophysiological properties of atrial myocytes and electrical remodeling...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680407/cardiac-ion-channel-regulation-in-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-relevance-to-long-qt-syndrome-and-atrial-fibrillation
#14
REVIEW
Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Mohamed Boutjdir
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysregulation leading to metabolic syndrome is an epidemic that poses a significant public health problem. More than one-third of the world population is overweight or obese leading to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Obesity predisposes to atrial fibrillation, ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmias; conditions that are underlain by dysfunction in electrical activity of the heart. To date, current therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy of obesity are limited, suggesting that there is considerable room for development of therapeutic interventions with novel mechanisms of action that will help normalize rhythm in obese patients...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666940/atrial-reverse-electrical-and-structural-remodeling-by-pacing-good-news-for-pacemaker-patients
#15
EDITORIAL
Carsten W Israel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664417/epicardial-adipose-tissue-at-the-heart-of-the-obesity-complications
#16
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
In recent years, the anatomic and functional contiguity of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) to myocardium and coronary arteries has gained increasing interest for its potential pathogenetic role in obesity-related cardiac diseases. Besides its known and attributed biochemical cardioprotective properties, it is becoming evident that, in metabolic disease states, EAT-secreted bioactive molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and cardiac arrhythmias. EAT-derived inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxidative species may, indeed, play a part in the development of a local proatherogenic milieu by paracrine and vasocrine mechanisms of interaction...
June 29, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662005/camkii-activation-promotes-cardiac-electrical-remodeling-and-increases-the-susceptibility-to-arrhythmia-induction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-with-hyperlipidemia-conditions
#17
Peng Zhong, Dajun Quan, Yan Huang, He Huang
BACKGROUND: Obesity/hyperlipidemia is closely related to both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. CaMKII, a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, has been involved in cardiac arrhythmias of different etiology. However, its role in obesity/hyperlipidemia-related cardiac arrhythmia is unexplored. The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of CaMKII in the process. METHODS: Adult male APOE-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), administrated with KN93 (10mg/kg/2d), a specific inhibitor of CaMKII...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596994/recurrent-post-ablation-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-shares-substrates-with-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-an-11-center-study
#18
Junaid A B Zaman, Tina Baykaner, Paul Clopton, Vijay Swarup, Robert C Kowal, James P Daubert, John D Day, John Hummel, Amir A Schricker, David E Krummen, Moussa Mansour, Gery F Tomassoni, Kevin R Wheelan, Mohan Vishwanathan, Shirley Park, Paul J Wang, Sanjiv M Narayan, John M Miller
INTRODUCTION: The role of atrial fibrillation (AF) substrates is unclear in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) that recurs after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). We hypothesized that patients with recurrent post-ablation (redo) PAF despite PVI have electrical substrates marked by rotors and focal sources, and structural substrates that resemble persistent AF more than patients with (de novo) PAF at first ablation. METHODS: In 175 patients at 11 centers, we compared AF substrates in both atria using 64 pole-basket catheters and phase mapping, and indices of anatomical remodeling between patients with de novo or redo PAF and first ablation for persistent AF...
April 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546098/altered-long-non-coding-rna-expression-profile-in-rabbit-atria-with-atrial-fibrillation-tcons_00075467-modulates-atrial-electrical-remodeling-by-sponging-mir-328-to-regulate-cacna1c
#19
Zhan Li, Ximin Wang, Weizong Wang, Juanjuan Du, Jinqiu Wei, Yong Zhang, Jiangrong Wang, Yinglong Hou
Electrical remodeling has been reported to play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been increasingly recognized as contributors to the pathology of heart diseases. However, the roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs in electrical remodeling during AF remain unknown. In this study, the lncRNA expression profiles of right atria were investigated in AF and non-AF rabbit models by using RNA sequencing technique and validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546006/atrial-myofibroblast-activation-and-connective-tissue-formation-in-a-porcine-model-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-reduced-left-ventricular-function
#20
Patrick Lugenbiel, Fabian Wenz, Katharina Govorov, Pascal Syren, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with fibrosis that slows electrical conduction and causes perpetuation of the arrhythmia. The molecular characterization of AF pathophysiology may provide novel therapeutic options. This study was designed to elucidate profibrotic signaling and myofibroblast activation in a porcine model of atrial tachypacing-induced AF and reduced left ventricular function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten domestic pigs were randomized to sinus rhythm (SR) or AF groups...
July 15, 2017: Life Sciences
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