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Atrial electrical remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320744/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-are-associated-with-improved-outcome-but-do-not-prevent-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#1
Gorav Batra, Lars Lindhagen, Pontus Andell, David Erlinge, Stefan James, Jonas Spaak, Jonas Oldgren
BACKGROUND: Treatment with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors might restrain the structural/electrical remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Limited evidence exists regarding the potential benefits of RAS inhibition post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with AF. This study sought to assess the association between RAS inhibition and all-cause mortality and new-onset AF in patients with/without congestive heart failure (CHF) post-AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients hospitalized for AMI between 2006 and 2012 were identified in Swedish registries...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275069/atrial-arrhythmias-and-electroanatomical-remodeling-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#2
Amrish Deshmukh, Gene Kim, Martin Burke, Emeka Anyanwu, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Nir Uriel, Roderick Tung, Cevher Ozcan
BACKGROUND: The incidence, predictors, and impact of atrial arrhythmias along with left atrial structural changes in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) remain undetermined. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients who underwent LVAD implantation from 2008 to 2015 at the University of Chicago Medical Center were included. Electronic medical records, electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, and cardiac electrical device interrogations were reviewed. The association of arrhythmias and clinical covariates with survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268377/combined-reconstruction-of-atrial-morphology-and-paracardial-fat-depositions-to-study-remodeling-in-atrial-fibrillation
#3
N Popovic, P Haemers, R Willems, P Claus
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent sustained cardiac arrhythmia. AF is shown to be a progressive disease, which is strongly associated with important structural (morphological and histological), electrical and mechanical remodeling of the left atrium (LA). Adipose tissue accumulation has been shown to be a risk factor in AF. We set out to explore the connection between adipose tissue coverage of the LA surface, for both the complete LA and specific regions and the progression of AF. In this study we propose a methodology to study the regional coverage of the left-atrial wall with adipose tissue based on magnetic resonance data...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239561/regulation-of-cardiac-cacnb2-by-microrna-499-potential-role-in-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Tian-You Ling, Xiao-Li Wang, Qiang Chai, Tong Lu, John M Stulak, Lyle D Joyce, Richard C Daly, Kevin L Greason, Li-Qun Wu, Win-Kuang Shen, Yong-Mei Cha, Hon-Chi Lee
The L-type calcium channel (LTCC) is one of the major ion channels that are known to be associated with the electrical remodeling of atrial fibrillation (AF). In AF, there is significant downregulation of the LTCC, but the underlying mechanism for such downregulation is not clear. We have previously reported that microRNA-499 (miR-499) is significantly upregulated in patients with permanent AF and that KCNN3, the gene that encodes the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3), is a target of miR-499...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226541/combined-reconstruction-of-atrial-morphology-and-paracardial-fat-depositions-to-study-remodeling-in-atrial-fibrillation
#5
N Popovic, P Haemers, R Willems, P Claus, N Popovic, P Haemers, R Willems, P Claus, P Claus, P Haemers, N Popovic, R Willems
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent sustained cardiac arrhythmia. AF is shown to be a progressive disease, which is strongly associated with important structural (morphological and histological), electrical and mechanical remodeling of the left atrium (LA). Adipose tissue accumulation has been shown to be a risk factor in AF. We set out to explore the connection between adipose tissue coverage of the LA surface, for both the complete LA and specific regions and the progression of AF. In this study we propose a methodology to study the regional coverage of the left-atrial wall with adipose tissue based on magnetic resonance data...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217939/pitx2-dependent-gene-regulation-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-rhythm-control
#6
Fahima Syeda, Paulus Kirchhof, Larissa Fabritz
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia. Better prevention and treatment of AF are needed to reduce AF-associated morbidity and mortality. There are several major mechanisms that cause AF in patients, including a genetic predisposition to develop AF. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with AF populations, with the strongest hits clustering on chromosome 4q25, close to the gene for the homeobox transcription factor PITX2. The effect of these common gene variants on cardiac PITX2 mRNA is currently under study...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183844/association-between-posterior-left-atrial-adipose-tissue-mass-and-atrial-fibrillation
#7
Alexander R van Rosendael, Aukelien C Dimitriu-Leen, Philippe J van Rosendael, Melissa Leung, Jeff M Smit, Antti Saraste, Juhani Knuuti, Rob J van der Geest, Britt W H van der Arend, Erik W van Zwet, Arthur J Scholte, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue located close to the atrial wall can change the electric conduction of the left atrium, potentially leading to atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to assess whether an increased atrial adipose tissue mass posterior to the left atrium is related to AF independent of demographical and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred patients with AF and 200 patients without AF who underwent computed tomographic angiography were included...
February 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155995/sinus-node-dysfunction-and-atrial-fibrillation-a-reversible-phenomenon
#8
REVIEW
Larry R Jackson Ii, Bharath Rathakrishnan, Kristen Campbell, Kevin L Thomas, Jonathan P Piccini, Tristram Bahnson, Jonathan A Stiber, James P Daubert
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic sinus node dysfunction (SND) consists of a variety of manifestations including tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is commonly associated with SND, which complicates the management of both conditions. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical trial data investigating therapeutic approaches for treatment of patients with both SND and AF. METHODS: The authors reviewed articles published in English describing the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic approaches for patients with SND and AF...
February 3, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124623/cardiac-cx43-cx40-and-cx45-co-assembling-involvement-of-connexins-epitopes-in-formation-of-hemichannels-and-gap-junction-channels
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Desplantez
BACKGROUND: This review comes after the International Gap Junction Conference (IGJC 2015) and describes the current knowledge on the function of the specific motifs of connexins in the regulation of the formation of gap junction channels. Moreover the review is complemented by a summarized description of the distinct contribution of gap junction channels in the electrical coupling. RESULTS: Complementary biochemical and functional characterization on cell models and primary cells have improved our understanding on the oligomerization of connexins and the formation and the electrical properties of gap junction channels...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108860/early-cardioversion-in-atrial-fibrillation-earlier-is-better-but-not-always-and-maybe-not-immediately
#10
REVIEW
Paloma G Piña, Alexandru B Chicos
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in humans. One of its important features is the tendency to become more persistent over time, even in the absence of underlying progressive heart disease. Conversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm by pharmacological or electrical methods become increasingly difficult the longer the arrhythmia persists. Electrical, mechanical, structural, and autonomic remodeling processes have been implicated in the mechanisms of AF initiation, perpetuation, and progression...
January 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091409/effect-of-shensong-yangxin-on-the-progression-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-is-correlated-with-regulation-of-autonomic-nerve-activity
#11
Hong-Yi Zhao, Shu-Di Zhang, Kai Zhang, Xi Wang, Qing-Yan Zhao, Shu-Juan Zhang, Zi-Xuan Dai, Yong-Sheng Qian, You-Jing Zhang, Hao-Tian Wei, Yan-Hong Tang, Cong-Xin Huang
BACKGROUND: Shensong Yangxin (SSYX), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has long been used clinically to treat arrhythmias in China. However, the mechanism of SSYX on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of SSYX on the progression of paroxysmal AF is correlated with the regulation of autonomic nerve activity. METHODS: Eighteen mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control group (n = 6), pacing group (n = 6), and pacing + SSYX group (n = 6)...
January 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077320/serine-threonine-phosphatases-in-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Jordi Heijman, Shokoufeh Ghezelbash, Xander H T Wehrens, Dobromir Dobrev
Serine/threonine protein phosphatases control dephosphorylation of numerous cardiac proteins, including a variety of ion channels and calcium-handling proteins, thereby providing precise post-translational regulation of cardiac electrophysiology and function. Accordingly, dysfunction of this regulation can contribute to the initiation, maintenance and progression of cardiac arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart rhythm disorder and is characterized by electrical, autonomic, calcium-handling, contractile, and structural remodeling, which include, among other things, changes in the phosphorylation status of a wide range of proteins...
February 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073885/reduction-of-atrial-fibrillation-burden-by-pulmonary-vein-isolation-leads-to-a-decrease-of-cd11b-expression-on-inflammatory-cells
#13
Daniel Tarnowski, Lina Plichta, Mathias Forkmann, Silvio Quick, Stefan Ulbrich, Felix Matthias Heidrich, Stephan Wiedemann, Marian Christoph, David Maximilian Poitz, Carsten Wunderlich, Karim Ibrahim, Ruth H Strasser, Christian Pfluecke
AIMS: It is hypothesized that inflammation could promote structural and electrical remodelling processes in atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial infiltration of monocytes and granulocytes has been shown to be dependent on CD11b expression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment of AF by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) may lead to reduced inflammation, as indicated by a decrease of CD11b expression on monocytes and granulocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Flow-cytometric quantification analysis and determination of systemic inflammatory markers of peripheral blood were performed in 75 patients undergoing PVI 1 day before and 6 months after PVI...
January 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057773/inverse-remodelling-of-k2p3-1-k-channel-expression-and-action-potential-duration-in-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-atrial-fibrillation-implications-for-patient-specific-antiarrhythmic-drug-therapy
#14
Constanze Schmidt, Felix Wiedmann, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Jordi Heijman, Niels Voigt, Antonius Ratte, Siegfried Lang, Stefan M Kallenberger, Chiara Campana, Alexander Weymann, Raffaele De Simone, Gabor Szabo, Arjang Ruhparwar, Klaus Kallenbach, Matthias Karck, Joachim R Ehrlich, István Baczkó, Martin Borggrefe, Ursula Ravens, Dobromir Dobrev, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence increases with advanced stages of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Remote proarrhythmic effects of ventricular dysfunction on atrial electrophysiology remain incompletely understood. We hypothesized that repolarizing K2P3.1 K(+ )channels, previously implicated in AF pathophysiology, may contribute to shaping the atrial action potential (AP), forming a specific electrical substrate with LV dysfunction that might represent a target for personalized antiarrhythmic therapy...
January 4, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057220/left-atrial-reverse-remodeling-mechanisms-evaluation-and-clinical-significance
#15
REVIEW
Liza Thomas, Walter P Abhayaratna
The left atrium is considered a biomarker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, particularly in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and atrial fibrillation in whom left atrial (LA) enlargement is of prognostic importance. LA enlargement with a consequent decrease in LA function represents maladaptive structural and functional "remodeling" that in turn promotes electrical remodeling and a milieu conducive for incident atrial fibrillation. Medical and nonmedical interventions may arrest this pathophysiologic process to the extent that subsequent reverse remodeling results in a reduction in LA size and improvement in LA function...
January 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040290/obstructive-sleep-and-atrial-fibrillation-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#16
REVIEW
Christos A Goudis, Dimitrios G Ketikoglou
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest arrhythmia in clinical practice and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common breathing disorder, is an independent risk factor for AF. Several pathophysiological mechanisms, including apnea-induced hypoxia, intrathoracic pressure shifts, sympathovagal imbalance, atrial remodeling, oxidative stress, inflammation and neurohumoral activation have been implicated in the occurrence of AF in OSA patients...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005193/trek-1-k2p2-1-k-channels-are-suppressed-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure-and-provide-therapeutic-targets-for-rhythm-control
#17
Patrick Lugenbiel, Fabian Wenz, Pascal Syren, Pascal Geschwill, Katharina Govorov, Claudia Seyler, Derk Frank, Patrick A Schweizer, Jennifer Franke, Tanja Weis, Claus Bruehl, Bastian Schmack, Arjang Ruhparwar, Matthias Karck, Norbert Frey, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Concomitant heart failure (HF) poses a particular therapeutic challenge and is associated with prolonged atrial electrical refractoriness compared with non-failing hearts. We hypothesized that downregulation of atrial repolarizing TREK-1 (K2P2.1) K(+) channels contributes to electrical remodeling during AF with HF, and that TREK-1 gene transfer would provide rhythm control via normalization of atrial effective refractory periods in this AF subset...
January 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995745/towards-an-integrated-understanding-of-cardiac-arrhythmogenesis-growing-roles-of-experimental-pathology
#18
REVIEW
Hideo Tanaka, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Tetsuro Takamatsu
Cardiac arrhythmias have long been regarded as derangement of electrical impulse initiation and conduction within the heart. However, underlying mechanisms for arrhythmogenesis are not fully understood solely from the electrophysiological viewpoint. This review article discusses pathogenesis of arrhythmias from non-electrical aspects, which were elucidated by spatiotemporal imaging of functional molecules in combination with morphological analysis of living heart tissues. Intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]i ) overload, caused by myocardial injury, provokes Ca(2+) waves that could lead to abnormal excitations, i...
January 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917818/galectin-3-a-biochemical-marker-to-detect-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#19
Yusuf Selcoki, H İbrahim Aydin, Tugrul H Celik, Ahmet Isleyen, Ali Erayman, M Bora Demircelik, Hilmi Demirin, Aydin Kosus, Beyhan Eryonucu
PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of arrhythmia. AF leads to electrical remodelling and fibrosis of the atria; however, the mechanism(s) remain poorly understood. Galectin-3 is a potential mediator of cardiac fibrosis. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between serum galectin-3 levels and paroxysmal AF. METHODS: Forty-six patients with paroxysmal AF and preserved left ventricular systolic function, and 38 age- and gender-matched control subjects, were involved in the study...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907144/a-new-efficient-method-for-detecting-phase-singularity-in-cardiac-fibrillation
#20
Young-Seon Lee, Jun-Seop Song, Minki Hwang, Byounghyun Lim, Boyoung Joung, Hui-Nam Pak
BACKGROUND: The point of phase singularity (PS) is considered to represent a spiral wave core or a rotor in cardiac fibrillation. Computational efficiency is important for detection of PS in clinical electrophysiology. We developed a novel algorithm for highly efficient and robust detection of PS. METHODS: In contrast to the conventional method, which calculates PS based on the line integral of the phase around a PS point equal to ±2π (the Iyer-Gray method), the proposed algorithm (the location-centric method) looks for the phase discontinuity point at which PS actually occurs...
2016: PloS One
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