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Atrial electrical remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759716/atrial-fibrillation-in-athletes-a-lesson-in-the-virtue-of-moderation
#1
REVIEW
N A Mark Estes, Christopher Madias
Although the cardiovascular benefits of moderate exercise are well established, there is growing epidemiological support for the notion that high-intensity endurance athletics increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). There are many gaps in evidence related to epidemiology and mechanisms of AF in endurance athletes. The proposed pathophysiological mechanisms include alterations of autonomic tone, electrical remodeling, anatomical remodeling, fibrosis, and inflammation. Clinical management of the athlete with AF often includes a period of decreased frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise with assessment for improvement in AF recurrence...
September 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748195/does-high-intensity-endurance-training-increase-the-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-a-longitudinal-study-of-left-atrial-structure-and-function
#2
Mildred A Opondo, Norman Aiad, Matthew A Cain, Satyam Sarma, Erin Howden, Douglas A Stoller, Jason Ng, Pieter van Rijckevorsel, Michinari Hieda, Takashi Tarumi, M Dean Palmer, Benjamin D Levine
BACKGROUND: Exercise mitigates many cardiovascular risk factors associated with atrial fibrillation. Endurance training has been associated with atrial structural changes which can increase the risk for atrial fibrillation. The dose of exercise training required for these changes is uncertain. We sought to evaluate the impact of exercise on left atrial (LA) mechanical and electrical function in healthy, sedentary, middle-aged adults. METHODS: Sixty-one adults (52±5 years) were randomized to either 10 months of high-intensity exercise training or yoga...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743409/impact-of-sinus-node-recovery-time-after-long-standing-atrial-fibrillation-termination-on-the-long-term-outcome-of-catheter-ablation
#3
Naoko Yamaguchi, Yasuo Okumura, Ichiro Watanabe, Koichi Nagashima, Keiko Takahashi, Kazuki Iso, Ryuta Watanabe, Masaru Arai, Hiroaki Mano, Rikitake Kogawa, Sayaka Kurokawa, Kimie Ohkubo, Toshiko Nakai, Atsushi Hirayama, Kazumasa Sonoda, Toshimasa Tosaka
Atrial electrical and structural remodeling is related to the perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF) subsequent to sinus node dysfunction. We investigated the relationship between AF recurrence after catheter ablation and sinus node dysfunction in long-standing persistent AF patients using the sinus node recovery time (SNRT) after defibrillation.Fifty-one consecutive patients who underwent a first ablation for long-standing persistent AF were enrolled. Intracardiac cardioversion was applied before ablation in the absence of any antiarrhythmic drugs, and the power required to defibrillate, number, and SNRT after defibrillation were measured...
May 9, 2018: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739637/adverse-effects-of-left-ventricular-electrical-dyssynchrony-on-cardiac-reverse-remodeling-and-prognosis-after-aortic-valve-surgery
#4
Soo Youn Lee, Chi Young Shim, Geu-Ru Hong, In Jeong Cho, Seng Chan You, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Jong-Won Ha, Namsik Chung
BACKGROUND: Electrical dyssynchrony (ED) is one of the important contributing mechanisms in the progression of heart failure. We hypothesized that ED would interfere with cardiac reverse remodeling and affect prognosis after aortic valve surgery. METHODS: A total of 411 consecutive patients (233 males, mean age 65±11 years) who underwent aortic valve surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of ED [Group 1: no ED (n=382, 93%), Group 2: ED (n=29, 7%)]...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723239/analysis-of-the-microrna-signature-in-left-atrium-from-patients-with-valvular-heart-disease-reveals-their-implications-in-atrial-fibrillation
#5
Rosa Doñate Puertas, Audrey Jalabert, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Vanessa Euthine, Philippe Chevalier, Sophie Rome
BACKGROUND: Among the potential factors which may contribute to the development and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation, dysregulation of miRNAs has been suggested. Thus in this study, we have quantified the basal expressions of 662 mature human miRNAs in left atrium (LA) from patients undergoing cardiac surgery for valve repair, suffering or not from atrial fibrillation (AF) by using TaqMan® Low Density arrays (v2.0). RESULTS: Among the 299 miRNAs expressed in all patients, 42 miRNAs had altered basal expressions in patients with AF...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721673/linagliptin-prevents-atrial-electrical-and-structural-remodeling-in-a-canine-model-of-atrial-fibrillation
#6
Tazuru Igarashi, Shinichi Niwano, Hiroe Niwano, Tomoharu Yoshizawa, Hironori Nakamura, Hidehira Fukaya, Tamami Fujiishi, Naruya Ishizue, Akira Satoh, Jun Kishihara, Masami Murakami, Junya Ako
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have recently been reported to exhibit additional cardioprotective effects; however, their effect in atrial remodeling, such as in atrial fibrillation (AF), remains unclear. In this study, the effect of linagliptin on atrial electrical and structural remodeling was evaluated in a canine AF model. Sixteen beagle dogs with 3-week atrial rapid stimulation were divided into the linagliptin group (9 mg/kg/day, n = 8) and pacing control group (n = 8). Three additional dogs without rapid pacing were assigned into non-pacing group, which was used as sham in this study...
May 2, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720500/xanthine-oxidase-inhibitor-allopurinol-prevents-oxidative-stress-mediated-atrial-remodeling-in-alloxan-induced-diabetes-mellitus-rabbits
#7
Yajuan Yang, Jianping Zhao, Jiuchun Qiu, Jian Li, Xue Liang, Zhiwei Zhang, Xiaowei Zhang, Huaying Fu, Panagiotis Korantzopoulos, Konstantinos P Letsas, Gary Tse, Guangping Li, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND: There are several mechanisms, including inflammation, oxidative stress and abnormal calcium homeostasis, involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. In diabetes mellitus (DM), increased oxidative stress may be attributable to higher xanthine oxidase activity. In this study, we examined the relationship between oxidative stress and atrial electrical and structural remodeling, and calcium handling abnormalities, and the potential beneficial effects of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol upon these pathological changes...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706494/is-there-a-role-for-genes-in-exercise-induced-atrial-cardiomyopathy
#8
REVIEW
Diane Fatkin, Charles D Cox, Inken G Huttner, Boris Martinac
In endurance athletes, prolonged high intensity exercise participation can have deleterious effects on the myocardium with subsequent structural and electrical remodelling. In a subset of athletes, there is a predilection for atrial involvement and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased. The mechanisms underpinning exercise-induced atrial cardiomyopathy have yet to be fully elucidated and the contribution of an individual's genetic makeup is unknown. Some athletes may have rare genetic variants that are sufficient to cause AF irrespective of exercise exposure...
April 9, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652036/clinical-effects-of-selective-drug-regulating-vagus-nerve-signal-pathway-in-vagally-mediated-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Xue Lou, Yanmei Lu, Baopeng Tang, Xianhui Zhou
BACKGROUND The cardiac autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in genesis and development of atrial fibrillation (AF) through the G protein signal transduction pathway. Therefore, intervening in the G protein signal transduction pathway may be a new "selective drug" method to regulate autonomic nerve activity to prevent vagally-mediated AF. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventeen adult beagles were randomized into 3 groups: shame-operation control group (group A, n=5), empty vector gene control group (group B, n=6), and Gαi2ctp gene experimental group (group C, n=6)...
April 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609270/-effect-of-%C3%AE-7nachr-mediated-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-on-inhibition-of-atrial-fibrillation-by-low-level-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#10
Y S Qian, Q Y Zhao, S J Zhang, Y J Zhang, Y C Wang, H Y Zhao, Z X Dai, Y H Tang, X Wang, T Wang, C X Huang
Objective: To investigate the effect of α7nAChR mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway on inhibition of atrial fibrillation by low-level vagus nerve stimulation(LL-VNS). Methods: Eighteen beagles were randomized into control group ( n =6), LL-VNS group ( n =6) and methyllycaconitine (MLA) + LL-VNS group ( n =6). All the beagles were subjected to rapid atrial pacing at 800 beats/min for 6 hours.And the effective refractory period (ERP) of atriums and pulmonary veins and induced atrial fibrillation (AF) were measured hourly during non-pacing...
March 20, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600790/biatrial-electrical-and-structural-atrial-changes-in-heart-failure-electroanatomic-mapping-in-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-in-humans
#11
Sandeep Prabhu, Aleksandr Voskoboinik, Alex J A McLellan, Kah Y Peck, Bhupesh Pathik, Chrishan J Nalliah, Geoff R Wong, Sonia M Azzopardi, Geoffrey Lee, Justin Mariani, Liang-Han Ling, Andrew J Taylor, Jonathan M Kalman, Peter M Kistler
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the biatrial substrate in heart failure (HF) and persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF). BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and HF frequently coexist; however, the contribution of HF to the biatrial substrate in PeAF is unclear. METHODS: Consecutive patients with PeAF and normal left ventricular (NLV) systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] >55%) or idiopathic cardiomyopathy (LVEF ≤45%) undergoing AF ablation were enrolled...
January 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590384/atrial-remodelling-and-function-implications-for-atrial-fibrillation-surgery
#12
Stefano Benussi, Gijs E de Maat
The exact mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF) is still incompletely understood. A number of alterations that impact focal electrical discharge, the atrial substrate and modulating factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Atrial remodelling (resulting in atrial cardiomyopathy) sets the stage for AF development. Once present, AF results in the loss of synchronized atrial contraction, which affects ventricular filling and atrial reservoir and conduit functions. Passive atrial function is particularly important in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587379/galectin-3-in-atrial-fibrillation-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#13
REVIEW
Nicolas Clementy, Eric Piver, Arnaud Bisson, Clémentine Andre, Anne Bernard, Bertrand Pierre, Laurent Fauchier, Dominique Babuty
Maintenance of atrial fibrillation is a complex mechanism, including extensive electrical and structural remodeling of the atria which involves progressive fibrogenesis. Galectin-3 is a biomarker of fibrosis, and, thus, may be involved in atrial remodeling in atrial fibrillation patients. We review the role of galectin-3 in AF mechanisms and its potential therapeutic implications.
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569353/cardioversion-of-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-a-24-hour-relapse-gap-observations-from-prolonged-postcardioversion-rhythm-monitoring
#14
Bob Weijs, Ione Limantoro, Tammo Delhaas, Cees B de Vos, Yuri Blaauw, Richard P M Houben, Sander Verheule, Ronny Pisters, Harry J G M Crijns
BACKGROUND: Many recurrences occur after electrical cardioversion (ECV) of atrial fibrillation (AF). Assessment of extent of remodeling and continuous prolonged rhythm monitoring might reveal actionable recurrence mechanisms. HYPOTHESIS: After ECV of AF specific patterns of arrhythmia recurrence can be distinguished. METHODS: All patients who underwent successful ECV due to persistent AF were included. Tissue velocity echocardiography during AF was performed before ECV to study atrial fibrillatory cycle length and fibrillatory velocity...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541763/associations-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-treatment-a-review
#15
Dominik Linz, R Doug McEvoy, Martin R Cowie, Virend K Somers, Stanley Nattel, Patrick Lévy, Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders
Importance: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common clinically significant breathing abnormality during sleep. It is highly prevalent among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and it promotes arrhythmogenesis and impairs treatment efficacy. Observations: The prevalence of OSA ranges from 3% to 49% in population-based studies and from 21% to 74% in patients with AF. Diagnosis and treatment of OSA in patients with AF requires a close interdisciplinary collaboration between electrophysiologists, cardiologists, and sleep specialists...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453328/management-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-rheumatic-mitral-stenosis
#16
REVIEW
Bernard Iung, Antoine Leenhardt, Fabrice Extramiana
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequent in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS). Pressure overload leads to marked structural and electrical remodelling of left atrium. The frequency of persistent AF increases with age and paroxysmal, asymptomatic, AF seems even more frequent. The occurrence of AF worsens the haemodynamic tolerance of MS and markedly increases the risk of thromboembolic events. AF has a negative impact on the natural history of MS and on its outcome after commissurotomy. The respective indications of rhythm and rate control should be adapted to patient characteristics, particularly the consequences of MS, and take into account the high risk of recurrence of AF...
February 16, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429026/modulation-of-renal-sympathetic-innervation-recent-insights-beyond-blood-pressure-control
#17
REVIEW
Dominik Linz, Mathias Hohl, Adrian D Elliott, Dennis H Lau, Felix Mahfoud, Murray D Esler, Prashanthan Sanders, Michael Böhm
Renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerves are involved in the regulation of blood pressure and have a pathophysiological role in hypertension. Additionally, several conditions that frequently coexist with hypertension, such as heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, atrial fibrillation, renal dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome, demonstrate enhanced sympathetic activity. Renal denervation (RDN) is an approach to reduce renal and whole body sympathetic activation. Experimental models indicate that RDN has the potential to lower blood pressure and prevent cardio-renal remodeling in chronic diseases associated with enhanced sympathetic activation...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425570/a-potential-relationship-between-gut-microbes-and-atrial-fibrillation-trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-gut-microbe-derived-metabolite-facilitates-the-progression-of-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Lilei Yu, Guannan Meng, Bing Huang, Xiaoya Zhou, Stavros Stavrakis, Menglong Wang, Xuefei Li, Liping Zhou, Yuhong Wang, Meng Wang, Zhenya Wang, Jielin Deng, Sunny S Po, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates gut microbes and their products could activate the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which plays important roles in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite derived from gut microbes, is associated with cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the role of TMAO in the progression of AF. METHODS: In part 1: TMAO or saline was locally injected into 4 major atrial ganglionated plexi (GP) to clarify its effect on cardiac ANS and AF inducibility in normal canines...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403390/fatty-infiltration-of-the-myocardium-and-arrhythmogenesis-potential-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Justus M B Anumonwo, Todd Herron
Anatomical evidence in several species shows highly heterogeneous fat distribution in the atrial and ventricular myocardium. Atrial appendages have fat deposits, and more so on the posterior left atrium. Although such fat distributions are considered normal, fatty infiltration is regarded arrhythmogenic, and various cardiac pathophysiological conditions show excess myocardial fat deposits, especially in the epicardium. Hypotheses have been presented for the physiological and pathophysiological roles of epicardial fat, however this issue is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392412/cardiac-fibroblasts-active-players-in-atrial-electrophysiology
#20
REVIEW
Alexander Klesen, Dorothee Jakob, Ramona Emig, Peter Kohl, Ursula Ravens, Rémi Peyronnet
Fibrotic areas in cardiac muscle-be it in ventricular or atrial tissue-are considered as obstacles for conduction of the excitatory wave and can therefore facilitate re-entry, which may contribute to the sustenance of cardiac arrhythmias. Persistence of one of the most frequent arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation (AF), is accompanied by enhanced atrial fibrosis. Any kind of myocardial perturbation, whether via mechanical stress or ischemic damage, inflammation, or irregular and high-frequency electrical activity, activates fibroblasts...
March 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
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