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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077320/serine-threonine-phosphatases-in-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Jordi Heijman, Shokoufeh Ghezelbash, Xander H T Wehrens, Dobromir Dobrev
Serine/threonine protein phosphatases control dephosphorylation of numerous cardiac proteins, including a variety of ion channels and calcium-handling proteins, thereby providing precise post-translational regulation of cardiac electrophysiology and function. Accordingly, dysfunction of this regulation can contribute to the initiation, maintenance and progression of cardiac arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart rhythm disorder and is characterized by electrical, autonomic, calcium-handling, contractile, and structural remodeling, which include, among other things, changes in the phosphorylation status of a wide range of proteins...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073567/the-influence-of-native-aortic-valve-calcium-and-transcatheter-valve-oversize-on-the-need-for-pacemaker-implantation-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-insertion
#2
Fu'ad Al-Azzam, Kevin L Greason, Chayakrit Krittanawong, Eric E Williamson, Christopher J McLeod, Katherine S King, Verghese Mathew
OBJECTIVE: Native aortic valve calcium and transcatheter aortic valve oversize have been reported to predict pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve insertion. We reviewed our experience to better understand the association. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 300 patients with no prior permanent pacemaker implantation who underwent transcatheter aortic valve insertion from November 2008 to February 2015. Valve oversize was calculated using area...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943168/hemodialysis-induced-repolarization-abnormalities-on-ecg-are-influenced-by-serum-calcium-levels-and-ultrafiltration-volumes
#3
Hande Ozportakal, Abdullah Ozkok, Ozlem Alkan, Ahmet Sait Bulut, Memduha Boyraz, Mehmet Inanir, Goksel Acar, Ali Riza Odabas
PURPOSE: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are known to have high cardiovascular mortality rate. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to arrhythmias causes most of the cardiac deaths. HD per se may lead to ECG abnormalities and ventricular arrhythmias. Monitoring ECG parameters such as corrected QT interval, QT dispersion (QTd), Tpe interval may be useful to stratify the patients with high risk of arrhythmia and SCD. Herein we aimed to investigate the effects of changes in serum electrolyte levels and pH on ECG parameters before and after the HD...
December 10, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943113/significance-and-clinical-characteristics-of-atrial-fibrillation-post-epicardial-access
#4
Alan Sugrue, Ammar M Killu, David O Hodge, Christopher J McLeod, Thomas M Munger, Siva K Mulpuru, Douglas L Packer, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J Asirvatham, Paul A Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Epicardial access (EpiAcc) has become an important adjunct for ventricular tachycardia (VT) or premature ventricular complex (PVC) ablation. We hypothesized that post-procedural pericarditis may lead to an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), and therefore assessed the incidence and clinical impact of post-procedural AF in patients undergoing EpiAcc. METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent EpiAcc as part of an ablation procedure between January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2014 at Mayo Clinic Rochester...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940934/adverse-outcomes-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-peripheral-arterial-disease-a-report-from-the-eurobservational-research-programme-pilot-survey-on-atrial-fibrillation
#5
Marco Proietti, Valeria Raparelli, Cécile Laroche, Georghe-Andrei Dan, Marianna Janion, Raluca Popescu, Gianfranco Sinagra, Johan Vijgen, Giuseppe Boriani, Aldo P Maggioni, Luigi Tavazzi, Gregory Y H Lip
AIMS: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is highly prevalent in general population. Data on the prevalence of symptomatic PAD in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are limited, and the impact of PAD on adverse outcomes in AF patients is controversial. Our aims were: (i) to define the prevalence of symptomatic PAD in European AF patients and describe its associated clinical risk factors and (ii) to establish the relationship of PAD to adverse events in AF, especially all-cause death...
December 8, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919874/diltiazem-versus-metoprolol-for-rate-control-in-atrial-fibrillation-with-rapid-ventricular-response-in-the-emergency-department
#6
Michelle C Hines, Brent N Reed, Vijay Ivaturi, Laura J Bontempo, Michael C Bond, Bryan D Hayes
PURPOSE: The impact of patient-specific factors on the choice of β-blocker versus calcium channel blocker therapy for rate control in emergency department (ED) patients treated for atrial fibrillation (AF) was investigated. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the influence of demographics, prior medication use, hemodynamic and clinical characteristics, and other variables on selection of first-line therapy for AF among patients admitted to the ED of an academic medical center over a 22-month period (October 2012-July 2014) who received i...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915047/physical-and-functional-interaction-of-snapin-with-cav1-3-calcium-channel-impacts-channel-protein-trafficking-in-atrial-myocytes
#7
Xiao-Li Sun, Ju-Fang Yuan, Tao Jin, Xiao-Qing Cheng, Qiang Wang, Jia Guo, Wei Zhang, Yin Zhang, Ling Lu, Zhao Zhang
The L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) Cav1.3 plays a critical role in generating electrical activity in atrial myocytes and cardiac pacemaker cells. However, the molecular and functional basis of Cav1.3 modulation in atrial myocytes has not yet been fully understood. By using the yeast two-hybrid system (Y2H), a Cav1.3-associated protein was screened, which was identified as Snapin. Physical interaction and co-localization between Snapin and Cav1.3 were then confirmed in both the heterologous expression system and mouse atrial myocytes...
January 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914501/levosimendan-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-on-cardiopulmonary-bypass-rationale-and-study-design-of-the-levosimendan-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-requiring
#8
Rajendra H Mehta, Sean Van Diepen, James Meza, Paula Bokesch, Jeffrey D Leimberger, Sandra Tourt-Uhlig, Merri Swartz, Jodi Parrotta, Rachael Jankowich, Douglas Hay, Robert W Harrison, Stephen Fremes, Shaun G Goodman, John Luber, Wolfgang Toller, Matthias Heringlake, Kevin J Anstrom, Jerrold H Levy, Robert A Harrington, John H Alexander
BACKGROUND: Low cardiac output syndrome is associated with increased mortality and occurs in 3% to 14% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Levosimendan, a novel calcium sensitizer and KATP channel activator with inotropic, vasodilatory, and cardioprotective properties, has shown significant promise in reducing the incidence of low cardiac output syndrome and related adverse outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB. METHODS: LEVO-CTS is a phase 3 randomized, controlled, multicenter study evaluating the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of levosimendan in reducing morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤35%) undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884747/novel-function-of-%C3%AE-1d-l-type-calcium-channel-in-the-atria
#9
Ujala Srivastava, Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Frank Fabris, Deana Lazaro, John Kassotis, Yongxia Qu, Mohamed Boutjdir
Ca entry through atrial L-type Calcium channels (α1C and α1D) play an important role in muscular contraction, regulation of gene expression, and release of hormones including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). α1D Ca channel is exclusively expressed in atria, and has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Recent data have shown that the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, SK4 is also atrial specific and also contributes prominently to the secretion of ANP and BNP...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882143/expression-of-connexin-43-ion-channels-and-ca-2-handling-proteins-in-rat-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes
#10
Yaqiong Xiao, Xue Cai, Andrew Atkinson, Sunil Jit Logantha, Mark Boyett, Halina Dobrzynski
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. AF is thought to be triggered by ectopic beats, originating primarily in the myocardial sleeves surrounding the pulmonary veins (PVs). The mechanisms underlying these cardiac arrhythmias remain unclear. To investigate this, frozen sections of heart and lung tissue from adult rats without arrhythmia were obtained in different planes, stained with Masson's trichrome, and immunolabeled for connexin 43 (Cx43), caveolin-3 (Cav3), hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HCN4), Nav1...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870913/genomic-contributors-to-rhythm-outcome-of-atrial-fibrillation-catheter-ablation-pathway-enrichment-analysis-of-gwas-data
#11
Daniela Husser, Petra Büttner, Laura Ueberham, Borislav Dinov, Philipp Sommer, Arash Arya, Gerhard Hindricks, Andreas Bollmann
BACKGROUND: Left atrial enlargement and persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) are well-known predictors for arrhythmia recurrence after AF catheter ablation (LRAF). In this study, by using pathway enrichment analysis of GWAS data, we tested the hypothesis that genetic pathways associated with these phenotypes are also associated with LRAF. METHODS: Samples from 660 patients with paroxysmal (n = 370) or persistent AF (n = 290) undergoing de-novo AF catheter ablation were genotyped for ~1,000,000 SNPs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857207/genomic-contributors-to-atrial-electroanatomical-remodeling-and-atrial-fibrillation-progression-pathway-enrichment-analysis-of-gwas-data
#12
Daniela Husser, Laura Ueberham, Borislav Dinov, Jedrzej Kosiuk, Jelena Kornej, Gerhard Hindricks, M Benjamin Shoemaker, Dan M Roden, Andreas Bollmann, Petra Büttner
In atrial fibrillation (AF), left atrial diameter (LAD) and low voltage area (LVA) are intermediate phenotypes that are associated with AF type and progression. In this study, we tested the hypothesis, that these phenotypes share common, genetically-determined pathways using pathway enrichment analysis of GWAS data. Samples from 660 patients with paroxysmal (n = 370) or persistent AF (n = 290) were genotyped for ~1,000,000 SNPs. SNPs found significantly associated with LAD, LVA or AF type were used for gene-based association tests in a systematic biological Knowledge-based mining system for Genome-wide Genetic studies (KGG)...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836293/asymptomatic-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-implanted-pacemaker
#13
Michal Witkowski, Andrzej Bissinger, Tomasz Grycewicz, Andrzej Lubinski
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation is the most common chronic arrhythmia. Due to diagnostic difficulties, the exact prevalence of silent atrial fibrillation is not precisely defined. AIM: The main aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation and the relation between clinical status and presence of symptoms of atrial fibrillation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty patients with implanted pacemaker with atrial fibrillation recording function and diagnosed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were enrolled to the study in order to detect episodes of atrial fibrillation...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812293/atrial-electrophysiological-remodeling-and-fibrillation-in-heart-failure
#14
REVIEW
Sandeep V Pandit, Antony J Workman
Heart failure (HF) causes complex, chronic changes in atrial structure and function, which can cause substantial electrophysiological remodeling and predispose the individual to atrial fibrillation (AF). Pharmacological treatments for preventing AF in patients with HF are limited. Improved understanding of the atrial electrical and ionic/molecular mechanisms that promote AF in these patients could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Animal models of HF have identified numerous changes in atrial ion currents, intracellular calcium handling, action potential waveform and conduction, as well as expression and signaling of associated proteins...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812021/mechanisms-of-arrhythmogenesis-related-to-calcium-driven-alternans-in-a-model-of-human-atrial-fibrillation
#15
Kelly C Chang, Natalia A Trayanova
The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with progressive changes in the calcium handling system of atrial myocytes. Calcium cycling instability has been implicated as an underlying mechanism of electrical alternans observed in patients who experience AF. However, the extent to which calcium-induced alternation of electrical activity in the atria contributes to arrhythmogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcium-driven alternans (CDA) on arrhythmia susceptibility in a biophysically detailed, 3D computer model of the human atria representing electrical and structural remodeling secondary to chronic AF...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794017/predictors-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#16
Oliver P Guttmann, Menelaos Pavlou, Constantinos O'Mahony, Lorenzo Monserrat, Aristides Anastasakis, Claudio Rapezzi, Elena Biagini, Juan Ramon Gimeno, Giuseppe Limongelli, Pablo Garcia-Pavia, William J McKenna, Rumana Z Omar, Perry M Elliott
OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The primary aim of this study (HCM Risk-AF) was to determine the predictors of AF in a large multicentre cohort of patients with HCM. Exploratory analyses were performed to investigate the association between AF and survival and the efficacy of antiarrhythmic therapy in maintaining sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort of patients recruited between 1986 and 2008 in seven centres was used to develop multivariable Cox regression models fitted with preselected predictors...
October 28, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753830/sy-03-3-overview-of-somatic-mutations-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-aldosterone-producing-adenoma-apa
#17
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742243/cardiac-calcifications-on-echocardiography-are-associated-with-mortality-and-stroke
#18
Marvin Louis Roy Lu, Shuchita Gupta, Abel Romero-Corral, Magdaléna Matejková, Toni De Venecia, Edinrin Obasare, Vikas Bhalla, Gregg S Pressman
BACKGROUND: Calcium deposits in the aortic valve and mitral annulus have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. However, there is no accepted standard method for scoring such cardiac calcifications, and most existing methods are simplistic. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a semiquantitative score, one that accounts for all visible calcium on echocardiography, could predict all-cause mortality and stroke in a graded fashion. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 443 unselected subjects derived from a general echocardiography database...
December 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729264/prophylaxis-against-atrial-fibrillation-after-general-thoracic-surgery-trial-sequential-analysis-and-network-meta-analysis
#19
Bing-Cheng Zhao, Tong-Yi Huang, Qi-Wen Deng, Wei-Feng Liu, Jian Liu, Wen-Tao Deng, Ke-Xuan Liu, Cai Li
BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation/flutter (POAF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality after general thoracic surgery, but the need for and the best agent for prophylaxis remains obscure. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that compared regimens for POAF prophylaxis after general thoracic surgery. Random-effects meta-analyses with trial sequential analyses were performed to compare the effects of medical prophylaxis vs placebo/usual care...
January 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713141/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-dysregulates-late-sodium-current-and-calcium-homeostasis-with-enhanced-arrhythmogenesis-in-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes
#20
Shih-Yu Huang, Yao-Chang Chen, Yu-Hsun Kao, Ming-Hsiung Hsieh, Yung-Kuo Lin, Cheng-Chih Chung, Ting-I Lee, Wen-Chin Tsai, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), elevated in chronic renal failure, increases atrial arrhythmogenesis and dysregulates calcium homeostasis. Late sodium currents (INa-Late) critically induces ectopic activity of pulmoanry vein (the most important atrial fibrillation trigger). This study was to investigate whether FGF23 activates the INa-Late leading to calcium dysregulation and increases PV arrhythmogenesis. Patch clamp, western blot, and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the electrical activities, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PV cardiomyocytes with or without FGF23 (0...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
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