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Atrial fibrillation calcium

Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Marvin Louis Roy Lu, Shuchita Gupta, Abel Romero-Corral, Magdaléna Matejková, Toni De Venecia, Edinrin Obasare, Vikas Bhalla, Gregg S Pressman
BACKGROUND: Calcium deposits in the aortic valve and mitral annulus have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. However, there is no accepted standard method for scoring such cardiac calcifications, and most existing methods are simplistic. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a semiquantitative score, one that accounts for all visible calcium on echocardiography, could predict all-cause mortality and stroke in a graded fashion. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 443 unselected subjects derived from a general echocardiography database...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Bing-Cheng Zhao, Tong-Yi Huang, Qi-Wen Deng, Wei-Feng Liu, Jian Liu, Wen-Tao Deng, Ke-Xuan Liu, Cai Li
BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation/flutter (POAF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality after general thoracic surgery, but the need and the best agent for prophylaxis remains obscure. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that compared regimens for POAF prophylaxis after general thoracic surgery. Random-effects meta-analyses with trial sequential analyses were performed to compare the effects of medical prophylaxis versus placebo/usual care...
October 8, 2016: Chest
Shih-Yu Huang, Yao-Chang Chen, Yu-Hsun Kao, Ming-Hsiung Hsieh, Yung-Kuo Lin, Cheng-Chih Chung, Ting-I Lee, Wen-Chin Tsai, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), elevated in chronic renal failure, increases atrial arrhythmogenesis and dysregulates calcium homeostasis. Late sodium currents (INa-Late) critically induces ectopic activity of pulmoanry vein (the most important atrial fibrillation trigger). This study was to investigate whether FGF23 activates the INa-Late leading to calcium dysregulation and increases PV arrhythmogenesis. Patch clamp, western blot, and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the electrical activities, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PV cardiomyocytes with or without FGF23 (0...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Levent Cerit, Hatice Kemal, Kamil Gulsen, Barcin Ozcem, Zeynep Cerit, Hamza Duygu
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with many diverse cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension, heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. The relationship between Vitamin D and the development of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has not been studied. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between Vitamin D and the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after CABG. METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients who underwent CABG surgery were retrospectively reviewed for the development of atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period...
August 2, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Kihei Yoneyama, Ravi K Sharma, Yoshiaki Ohyama, Colin O Wu, Gregory L Burke, Steven Shea, Antoinette S Gomes, Alistair A Young, David A Bluemke, João Ac Lima
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether sphericity volume index (SVI), an indicator of left ventricular (LV) remodelling, predicts incident cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease, CHD; all cardiovascular disease, CVD; heart failure, HF; atrial fibrillation, AF) over 10 years of follow-up in a multiethnic population (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). METHODS: 5004 participants free of known CVD had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2000-2002. Cine images were analysed to compute, [Formula: see text] equivalent to LV volume/volume of sphere with length of LV as the diameter...
September 30, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Zewei Sun, Dongchen Zhou, Xudong Xie, Shuai Wang, Zhen Wang, Wenting Zhao, Hongfei Xu, Liangrong Zheng
Increased macrophage accumulation occurs in the atria of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the phenotype and functions of the macrophages in AF remain unclear. We investigated the macrophage-atrial myocyte interaction in AF patients and found that the increased macrophages were mainly pro-inflammatory macrophages (iNOS(+), Arg1(-)). Tachypacing of HL-1 atrial myocytes also led to pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated pro-inflammatory macrophages-induced atrial electrical remodeling, evidenced by increased AF incidence and decreased atrial effective refractory period and L-type calcium currents (I Ca-L) in both canine and mouse AF models...
November 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Sarah L Turley, Kerry E Francis, Denise K Lowe, William D Cahoon
Control of ventricular rate is recommended for patients with paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Existing rate-control options, including beta-blockers, nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and digoxin, are limited by adverse hemodynamic effects and their ability to attain target heart rate (HR). Ivabradine, a novel HR-controlling agent, decreases HR through deceleration of conduction through If ('funny') channels, and is approved for HR reduction in heart failure patients with ejection fraction less than 35% and elevated HR, despite optimal pharmacological treatment...
September 22, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wei Wang, Yun Zhu, Jianguang Yi, Wei Cheng
Remodeling of atrial electrophysiology and structure is the primary feature of atrial fibrillation (AF). Evidence suggests that abnormalities in the expression levels of embryological cardiovascular development‑associated transcription factors, including Nkx2.5, are crucial for the development of AF. Rat atrial myocardial cells (AMCs) in culture dishes were placed in an electric field and stimulated. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastucture prior to and following rapid pacing...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sadık Volkan Emren, Mustafa Aldemir, Fatih Ada
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of vitamin D is known to be effective in the development of hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Deficiency of vitamin D was also shown to be associated with new onset atrial fibrillation (AF) by activating the renin-angiotensin system. This study investigated whether or not levels of vitamin D are effective in the development of AF after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. METHODS: A total of 283 patients undergoing CABG were included in this study...
August 22, 2016: Heart Surgery Forum
Rangarajan D Nadadur, Michael T Broman, Bastiaan Boukens, Stefan R Mazurek, Xinan Yang, Malou van den Boogaard, Jenna Bekeny, Margaret Gadek, Tarsha Ward, Min Zhang, Yun Qiao, James F Martin, Christine E Seidman, Jon Seidman, Vincent Christoffels, Igor R Efimov, Elizabeth M McNally, Christopher R Weber, Ivan P Moskowitz
Cardiac rhythm is extremely robust, generating 2 billion contraction cycles during the average human life span. Transcriptional control of cardiac rhythm is poorly understood. We found that removal of the transcription factor gene Tbx5 from the adult mouse caused primary spontaneous and sustained atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial cardiomyocytes from the Tbx5-mutant mice exhibited action potential abnormalities, including spontaneous depolarizations, which were rescued by chelating free calcium. We identified a multitiered transcriptional network that linked seven previously defined AF risk loci: TBX5 directly activated PITX2, and TBX5 and PITX2 antagonistically regulated membrane effector genes Scn5a, Gja1, Ryr2, Dsp, and Atp2a2 In addition, reduced Tbx5 dose by adult-specific haploinsufficiency caused decreased target gene expression, myocardial automaticity, and AF inducibility, which were all rescued by Pitx2 haploinsufficiency in mice...
August 31, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Yung-Kuo Lin, Yao-Chang Chen, Yi-Ann Chen, Yung-Hsin Yeh, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) plays a critical role in the genesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). A high B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level occurs in patients with HF and in patients with AF. However, the role of BNP in the pathophysiology of AF is not clear. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of BNP on pulmonary vein (PV) arrhythmogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole-cell patch clamp and fluorescence were used to study the action potential, ionic currents, and calcium homeostasis in isolated single rabbit PV cardiomyocytes before and after a BNP infusion, with or without ODQ (10 μM), milrinone (50 μM), or ouabain (1 μM)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Alejandro Liberos, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Miguel Rodrigo, Ursula Ravens, Ismael Hernandez-Romero, Francisco Fernandez-Aviles, Maria S Guillem, Blanca Rodriguez, Andreu M Climent
BACKGROUND: Atrial remodeling as a result of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) induces substrate modifications that lead to different perpetuation mechanisms than in paroxysmal AF and a reduction in the efficacy of antiarrhythmic treatments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the ionic current modifications that could destabilize reentries during chronic AF and serve to personalize antiarrhythmic strategies. METHODS: A population of 173 mathematical models of remodeled human atrial tissue with realistic intersubject variability was developed based on action potential recordings of 149 patients diagnosed with AF...
August 26, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Yung-Hsin Yeh, Lung-An Hsu, Ying-Hwa Chen, Chi-Tai Kuo, Gwo-Jyh Chang, Wei-Jan Chen
Structural and electrical remodeling in the atrium constitutes the main feature of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is characterized by increased oxidative stress. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a potent anti-oxidant system that may provide protection against various oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HO-1 has a protective effect on AF-related remodeling. Cultured atrium-derived myocytes (HL-1 cell line) were used to evaluate tachypacing-induced oxidative stress, structural, and electrical remodeling...
September 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Isabelle C Van Gelder, Michiel Rienstra, Harry J G M Crijns, Brian Olshansky
Control of the heart rate (rate control) is central to atrial fibrillation management, even for patients who ultimately require control of the rhythm. We review heart rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation, including the rationale for the intervention, patient selection, and the treatments available. The choice of rate control depends on the symptoms and clinical characteristics of the patient, but for all patients with atrial fibrillation, rate control is part of the management. Choice of drugs is patient-dependent...
August 20, 2016: Lancet
Susana Cañón, Ricardo Caballero, Adela Herraiz-Martínez, Marta Pérez-Hernández, Begoña López, Felipe Atienza, José Jalife, Leif Hove-Madsen, Eva Delpón, Antonio Bernad
microRNAs (miR) have considerable potential as therapeutic tools in cardiac diseases. Alterations in atrial miR are involved in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the molecular mechanism underlying their contribution to atrial remodeling in chronic atrial fibrillation (CAF) is only partially understood. Here we used miR array to analyze the miR profile of atrial biopsies from sinus rhythm (SR) and CAF patients. qRT-PCR identified a distinctive CAF-miR signature and described conserved miR-208b upregulation in human and ovine AF atrial tissue...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Jesús Díez-Manglano, Máximo Bernabeu-Wittel, José Murcia-Zaragoza, Belén Escolano-Fernández, Guadalupe Jarava-Rol, Carlos Hernández-Quiles, Miguel Oliver, Susana Sanz-Baena
Many patients with non-neoplastic disease develop atrial fibrillation in advanced stages of their disease. The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with the use of oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation and non-neoplastic medical disease in a terminal stage, and whether their use is associated with a longer survival. Design is prospective, observational, multicentre study. Patients with atrial fibrillation and non-neoplastic disease (severe not reversible organ insufficiency) in a terminal stage were included between February 2009 and September 2010...
August 11, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
F Wallentin, B Wettermark, T Kahan
OBJECTIVE: To describe current antihypertensive drug therapy in Sweden in relation to gender, age, and comorbidity. DESIGN AND METHOD: By use of the Stockholm County Council database, comprising all healthcare consultations, hospitalizations and dispensed drugs for 2.1 million inhabitants living in the Greater Stockholm region in 2013, we identified all persons >20 years with a recorded diagnosis of hypertension during 2009-2013, their comorbidity, and their dispensed antihypertensive drugs during 2013...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Feng-Chun Tsai, Yen-Chen Lin, Shang-Hung Chang, Gwo-Jyh Chang, Yu-Juei Hsu, Yuan-Min Lin, Yun-Shien Lee, Chun-Li Wang, Yung-Hsin Yeh
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes atrial remodeling, and the left atrium (LA) is the favored substrate for maintaining AF. It remains unclear if AF remodels both atria differently and contributes to LA arrhythmogenesis and thrombogenesis. Therefore, we wished to characterize the transcript profiles in the LA and right atrium (RA) in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF respectively. METHODS: Paired LA and RA appendages acquired from patients receiving cardiac surgery were used for ion-channel- and whole-exome-based transcriptome analysis...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
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