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Atrial fibrillation calcium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701305/redox-and-activation-of-protein-kinase-a-dysregulates-calcium-homeostasis-in-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Shih-Yu Huang, Yao-Chang Chen, Yu-Hsun Kao, Ming-Hsiung Hsieh, Yung-Kuo Lin, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the occurrence of atrial fibrillation and pulmonary vein (PV) arrhythmogenesis. Calcium dysregulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance PV arrhythmogenic activity. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether CKD modulates PV electrical activity through dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and ROS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biochemical and electrocardiographic studies were conducted in rabbits with and without CKD (induced by 150 mg/kg per day neomycin sulfate and 500 mg/kg per day cefazolin)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648626/mechanosensitivity-of-microdomain-calcium-signalling-in-the-heart
#2
REVIEW
Patrick Schönleitner, Uli Schotten, Gudrun Antoons
In cardiac myocytes, calcium (Ca(2+)) signalling is tightly controlled in dedicated microdomains. At the dyad, i.e. the narrow cleft between t-tubules and junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), many signalling pathways combine to control Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release during contraction. Local Ca(2+) gradients also exist in regions where SR and mitochondria are in close contact to regulate energetic demands. Loss of microdomain structures, or dysregulation of local Ca(2+) fluxes in cardiac disease, is often associated with oxidative stress, contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645513/atrial-fibrillation-current-therapies
#3
REVIEW
Romain Pariaut
A rate control or a rhythm control strategy can be applied to the management of atrial fibrillation. Rate control of atrial fibrillation consists of decreasing the ventricular response rate by limiting the number of supraventricular impulses that can travel through the atrioventricular node. The goal of decreasing heart rate in dogs with atrial fibrillation is usually achieved with a combination of the calcium channel blocker diltiazem and digoxin. Rhythm control of atrial fibrillation encompasses pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods to terminate the arrhythmia and restore sinus rhythm...
June 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645473/efficacy-and-safety-of-rivaroxaban-versus-warfarin-in-patients-taking-nondihydropyridine-calcium-channel-blockers-for-atrial-fibrillation-from-the-rocket-af-trial
#4
Jeffrey B Washam, Anne S Hellkamp, Yuliya Lokhnygina, Jonathan P Piccini, Scott D Berkowitz, Christopher C Nessel, Richard C Becker, Günter Breithardt, Keith A A Fox, Jonathan L Halperin, Graeme J Hankey, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Daniel E Singer, Manesh R Patel
Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (non-DHP CCBs) possess combined P-glycoprotein and moderate CYP3A4 inhibition, which may lead to increased exposure of medications that are substrates for these metabolic pathways, such as rivaroxaban. We evaluated the use and outcomes of non-DHP CCBs in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF)...
May 29, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546098/altered-long-non-coding-rna-expression-profile-in-rabbit-atria-with-atrial-fibrillation-tcons_00075467-modulates-atrial-electrical-remodeling-by-sponging-mir-328-to-regulate-cacna1c
#5
Zhan Li, Ximin Wang, Weizong Wang, Juanjuan Du, Jinqiu Wei, Yong Zhang, Jiangrong Wang, Yinglong Hou
Electrical remodeling has been reported to play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been increasingly recognized as contributors to the pathology of heart diseases. However, the roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs in electrical remodeling during AF remain unknown. In this study, the lncRNA expression profiles of right atria were investigated in AF and non-AF rabbit models by using RNA sequencing technique and validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535166/adult-height-prevalent-coronary-calcium-score-and-incident-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-a-multi-ethnic-cohort
#6
Joseph Yeboah, Michael J Blaha, Erin D Michos, Waqas Qureshi, Michael Miedema, Peter Flueckiger, Carlos J Rodriguez, Moyses Szklo, Alain G Bertoni
We assessed the relationships among adult height, coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, and atrial fibrillation (Afib) in a multi-ethnic cohort. We used race/ethnicity -specific height (dichotomized by median and quartiles) as the predictor variable within the four race/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N = 6,814). After a mean of 10.2 years of follow-up (2000-2012), 556 ASCVD events (8.2%) and 539 afib events (7.9%) occurred...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514017/isopimaric-acid-a-multi-targeting-ion-channel-modulator-reducing-excitability-and-arrhythmicity-in-a-spontaneously-beating-mouse-atrial-cell-line
#7
Sajjad Salari, Malin Silverå Ejneby, Johan Brask, Fredrik Elinder
AIM: Atrial fibrillation is the most common persistent cardiac arrhythmia, and it is not well controlled by present drugs. Because some resin acids open voltage-gated potassium channels and reduce neuronal excitability, we explored the effects of the resin acid isopimaric acid (IPA) on action potentials and ion currents in cardiomyocytes. METHODS: Spontaneously beating mouse atrial HL-1 cells were investigated with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: 1-25 μmol L(-1) IPA reduced the action potential frequency by up to 50%...
May 17, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495655/increased-sodium-calcium-exchanger-activity-enhances-beta-adrenergic-mediated-increase-in-heart-rate-whole-heart-study-in-a-homozygous-sodium-calcium-exchanger-overexpressor-mouse-model
#8
Sven Kaese, Nils Bögeholz, Paul Pauls, Dirk Dechering, Jan Olligs, Katharina Kölker, Sascha Badawi, Gerrit Frommeyer, Christian Pott, Lars Eckardt
BACKGROUND: The cardiac sodium/calcium (Na(+)/Ca(2+)) exchanger (NCX) contributes to diastolic depolarization in cardiac pacemaker cells. Increased NCX activity has been found in heart failure and atrial fibrillation. The influence of increased NCX activity on resting heart rate, beta-adrenergic-mediated increase in heart rate, and cardiac conduction properties is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of NCX overexpression in a homozygous transgenic whole-heart mouse model (NCX-OE) on sinus and AV nodal function...
May 8, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460029/mitral-annular-calcification-progression-and-the-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-results-from-mesa
#9
Wesley T O'Neal, Jimmy T Efird, Saman Nazarian, Alvaro Alonso, Erin D Michos, Moses Szklo, Susan R Heckbert, Elsayed Z Soliman
Aims: To determine if progression of mitral annular calcium (MAC) detected by cardiac computed tomography (CT) predicts incident atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods and results: This analysis included 5683 participants (mean age 64 ± 10 years; 52% women; 40% whites; 27% blacks; 21% Hispanics; 12% Chinese-Americans) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. MAC was measured by cardiac CT at baseline and at a follow-up CT scan over a mean time of 2.4 ± 0...
April 27, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399139/ibutilide-treatment-protects-against-er-stress-induced-apoptosis-by-regulating-calumenin-expression-in-tunicamycin-treated-cardiomyocytes
#10
Yu Wang, Liying Xuan, Xiaoxue Cui, Yilin Wang, Shaoqing Chen, Chengxi Wei, Ming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Ibutilide, a class III antiarrhythmic agent has been shown to be cardioprotective in treating atrial fibrillation, promoting cardioconversion and recently this agent has been shown to protect against ER stress induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In this study we begin to identify the mechanism by which ibutilide exerts its cardioprotection in tunicamycin treated cardiomyocytes. We examined ER stress markers including calumenin; a calcium binding ER chaperone protein that has recently been linked to ER stress in cardiomyocytes, in our treated cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360032/multimodality-strategy-for-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-performance-in-2-population-based-cohorts
#11
James A de Lemos, Colby R Ayers, Benjamin Levine, Christopher R deFilippi, Thomas J Wang, W Gregory Hundley, Jarett D Berry, Stephen L Seliger, Darren K McGuire, Pamela Ouyang, Mark H Drazner, Matthew Budoff, Philip Greenland, Christie M Ballantyne, Amit Khera
BACKGROUND: Current strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment among adults without known CVD are limited by suboptimal performance and a narrow focus on only atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). We hypothesized that a strategy combining promising biomarkers across multiple different testing modalities would improve global and atherosclerotic CVD risk assessment among individuals without known CVD. METHODS: We included participants from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) (n=6621) and the Dallas Heart Study (n=2202) who were free from CVD and underwent measurement of left ventricular hypertrophy by ECG, coronary artery calcium, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein...
May 30, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332202/calcium-signalling-silencing-in-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Maura Greiser
Subcellular calcium signalling silencing is a novel and distinct cellular and molecular adaptive response to rapid cardiac activation. Calcium signalling silencing develops during short-term sustained rapid atrial activation as seen clinically during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). It is the first 'anti-arrhythmic' adaptive response in the setting of AF and appears to counteract the maladaptive changes that lead to intracellular Ca(2+) signalling instability and Ca(2+) -based arrhythmogenicity. Calcium signalling silencing results in a failed propagation of the [Ca(2+) ]i signal to the myocyte centre both in patients with AF and in a rabbit model...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322838/effect-of-antiarrhythmic-drugs-on-small-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#13
Rafel Simó-Vicens, Daniel R P Sauter, Morten Grunnet, Jonas G Diness, Bo H Bentzen
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of arrhythmia. Current pharmacological treatment for AF is moderately effective and/or increases the risk of serious ventricular adverse effects. To avoid ventricular adverse effects, a new target has been considered, the small conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels (KCa2.X, SK channels). In the heart, KCa2.X channels are functionally more important in atria compared to ventricles, and pharmacological inhibition of the channel confers atrial selective prolongation of the cardiac action potential and converts AF to sinus rhythm in animal models of AF...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295387/short-and-long-term-clinical-predictors-of-pharmacological-cardioversion-of-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-by-dofetilide-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-160-patients
#14
Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Waqas T Qureshi, Nayani Makkar, Joseph Bastawrose, Nektarios Souvaliotis, Joshua Aziz, Emad Aziz
INTRODUCTION: Dofetilide is a class III antiarrhythmic prescribed to cardiovert persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) to sinus rhythm (SR). HYPOTHESIS: To determine the clinical predictors of cardioversion and readmission in persistent AF patients on dofetilide. METHODS: We analyzed 160 patients with persistent AF who were started on dofetilide and followed for 1 year. We examined age, sex, race, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, dyslipidemia, CAD, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), creatinine, BMI and concomitant use of calcium channel blockers (CCB), β-blockers in a multivariable logistic regression model...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286836/intravenous-amiodarone-versus-digoxin-in-atrial-fibrillation-rate-control-a-clinical-trial
#15
Majid Shojaee, Bahareh Feizi, Reza Miri, Jalil Etemadi, Amir Hossein Feizi
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of rapid ventricular response arterial fibrillation (rapid AF) varies depending on the decision of the in-charge physician, condition of the patient, availability of the drug, and the treatment protocol of the hospital. The present study was designed aiming to compare IV digoxin and amiodarone in controlling the heart rate of patients presenting to emergency department with rapid AF and relative contraindication for first line drug in this regard. METHOD: In the present clinical trial, patients presented to the ED with rapid AF and relative contraindication for calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers were treated with either IV amiodarone or IV digoxin and compared regarding success rate and complication using SPSS version 22...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286753/preoperative-antihypertensive-medication-in-relation-to-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Ai-Guo Zhou, Xian-Xue Wang, Dao-Bo Pan, An-Ji Chen, Xiong-Fei Zhang, Hui-Wei Deng
Background. We undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of preoperative hypertension and preoperative antihypertensive medication to postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to March 2016) for eligible studies. The outcomes were the effects of preoperative hypertension, preoperative calcium antagonists regimen, preoperative ACE inhibitors regimen, and preoperative beta blocking agents regimen with POAF...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266823/cardiovascular-disease-update-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Johnathan D McDivitt, Craig Barstow
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. The prevalence increases with age, especially in the seventh and eighth decades of life. AF also is associated with multiple risk factors and conditions that are managed commonly in family medicine settings, such as hypertension and diabetes. Rhythm control and rate control are primarily equivalent for mortality rate, but patients treated for rhythm control have more hospitalizations; however, rhythm control may be a viable option for select patients...
March 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257761/membrane-potential-determines-calcium-alternans-through-modulation-of-sr-ca-2-load-and-l-type-ca-2-current
#18
Giedrius Kanaporis, Lothar A Blatter
Alternans is a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia, including atrial fibrillation. At the cellular level alternans is observed as beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology and magnitude of the Ca(2+) transient (CaT). It is widely accepted that the bi-directional interplay between membrane voltage and Ca(2+) is crucial for the development of alternans, however recently the attention has shifted to instabilities in cellular Ca(2+) handling, while the role of AP alternation remains poorly understood...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239561/regulation-of-cardiac-cacnb2-by-microrna-499-potential-role-in-atrial-fibrillation
#19
Tian-You Ling, Xiao-Li Wang, Qiang Chai, Tong Lu, John M Stulak, Lyle D Joyce, Richard C Daly, Kevin L Greason, Li-Qun Wu, Win-Kuang Shen, Yong-Mei Cha, Hon-Chi Lee
The L-type calcium channel (LTCC) is one of the major ion channels that are known to be associated with the electrical remodeling of atrial fibrillation (AF). In AF, there is significant downregulation of the LTCC, but the underlying mechanism for such downregulation is not clear. We have previously reported that microRNA-499 (miR-499) is significantly upregulated in patients with permanent AF and that KCNN3, the gene that encodes the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3), is a target of miR-499...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215065/application-of-computer-models-on-atrial-fibrillation-research
#20
Michela Masè
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a multifactorial and multiscale disease, where electrical, structural, anatomical and genetic factors contribute to the emergence of a complex and dynamic macroscopic phenotype. The incomplete understanding of AF mechanisms and the diversity and multiplicity of factors promoting the arrhythmia in humans have hampered the development of effective therapeutic approaches. Computer models and simulation of atrial arrhythmias may represent an unique allied to investigate AF mechanisms and direct therapeutic strategies, being able to merge and provide interpretation for multiscale data from cellular to entire organ scale levels...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
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