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Calcium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526240/endocrine-actions-of-vitamin-d-in-skin-relevance-for-photocarcinogenesis-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525621/ros-induced-store-operated-ca2-entry-coupled-to-parp-1-hyperactivation-is-independent-of-parg-activity-in-necrotic-cell-death
#2
Frances M Munoz, Fengjiao Zhang, Argel Islas-Robles, Serrine S Lau, Terrence J Monks
2,3,5-tris(Glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a potent nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic metabolite of benzene and hydroquinone, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing DNA strand breaks and the subsequent activation of DNA repair enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1. Under robust oxidative DNA damage, PARP-1 is hyperactivated, resulting in the depletion of NAD+ and ATP with accompanying elevations in intracellular calcium concentrations (iCa2+), and ultimately necrotic cell death...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522876/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-mitochondria-associated-er-membrane-mam-in-a-long-term-type-2-diabetic-rodent-model
#3
Jacey Hongjie Ma, Shichen Shen, Joshua J Wang, Zhanwen He, Amanda Poon, Jun Li, Jun Qu, Sarah X Zhang
The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a critical role in cellular energetics and calcium homeostasis; however, how MAM is affected under diabetic condition remains elusive. This study presented a comprehensive proteome profiling of isolated brain MAM from long-term type 2 diabetic mice vs. non-diabetic controls. MAM protein was extracted efficiently by a surfactant-aided precipitation/on-pellet digestion (SOD) method, and MAM proteome was quantified by an ion-current-based MS1 method combined with nanoLC-MS/MS...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522037/calcium-and-regulation-of-the-mitochondrial-permeability-transition
#4
REVIEW
Valentina Giorgio, Lishu Guo, Claudio Bassot, Valeria Petronilli, Paolo Bernardi
Recent years have seen renewed interest in the permeability transition pore, a high conductance channel responsible for permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, a process that leads to depolarization and Ca(2+) release. Transient openings may be involved in physiological Ca(2+) homeostasis while long-lasting openings may trigger and/or execute cell death. In this review we specifically focus (i) on the hypothesis that the PTP forms from the F-ATP synthase and (ii) on the mechanisms through which Ca(2+) can reversibly switch this energy-conserving nanomachine into an energy-dissipating device...
May 10, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518143/calcium-sensing-receptor-protects-high-glucose-induced-energy-metabolism-disorder-via-blocking-gp78-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway
#5
Yuehong Wang, Ping Gao, Can Wei, Hongzhu Li, Li Zhang, Yajun Zhao, Bo Wu, Ye Tian, Weihua Zhang, Lingyun Wu, Rui Wang, Changqing Xu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication and fatal cause of the patients with diabetes. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis, regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, and so on. In our previous study, we found that CaSR expression, intracellular calcium levels and cardiac function were all significantly decreased in DCM rats; however, the exact mechanism are not clear yet. The present study revealed the protective role of CaSR in myocardial energy metabolism disorder induced by high glucose (HG) as well as the underlying mechanism...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518055/a-positive-feedback-loop-linking-enhanced-mglur-function-and-basal-calcium-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#6
Pratap Meera, Stefan Pulst, Thomas Otis
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) function in Purkinje neurons (PNs) is essential for cerebellar development and for motor learning and altered mGluR1 signaling causes ataxia. Downstream of mGluR1, dysregulation of calcium homeostasis has been hypothesized as a key pathological event in genetic forms of ataxia but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We find in a spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) mouse model that calcium homeostasis in PNs is disturbed across a broad range of physiological conditions...
May 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515000/mitochondrial-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-homeostasis-and-cell-death
#7
REVIEW
Saverio Marchi, Simone Patergnani, Sonia Missiroli, Giampaolo Morciano, Alessandro Rimessi, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria cannot be considered as static structures, as they intimately communicate, forming very dynamic platforms termed mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). In particular, the ER transmits proper Ca(2+) signals to mitochondria, which decode them into specific inputs to regulate essential functions, including metabolism, energy production and apoptosis. Here, we will describe the different molecular players involved in the transfer of Ca(2+) ions from the ER lumen to the mitochondrial matrix and how modifications in both ER-mitochondria contact sites and Ca(2+) signaling can alter the cell death execution program...
May 5, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513549/brain-rna-seq-profiling-of-the-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-mouse-model
#8
Marika Salvalaio, Francesca D'Avanzo, Laura Rigon, Alessandra Zanetti, Michela D'Angelo, Giorgio Valle, Maurizio Scarpa, Rosella Tomanin
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a group of about 50 genetic metabolic disorders, mainly affecting children, sharing the inability to degrade specific endolysosomal substrates. This results in failure of cellular functions in many organs, including brain that in most patients may go through progressive neurodegeneration. In this study, we analyzed the brain of the mouse model for Hunter syndrome, a LSD mostly presenting with neurological involvement. Whole transcriptome analysis of the cerebral cortex and midbrain/diencephalon/hippocampus areas was performed through RNA-seq...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511604/duplicated-or-hybridized-peptide-functional-domains-promote-oral-homeostasis
#9
T Basiri, N D Johnson, E B Moffa, Y Mulyar, P L Serra Nunes, M A A M Machado, W L Siqueira
Proteins that have existed for millions of years frequently contain repeats of functional domains within their primary structure, thereby improving their functional capacity. In the evolutionary young statherin protein contained within the in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle (AEP), we identified a single functional domain (DR9) located within the protein N-terminal portion that exhibits a higher affinity for hydroxyapatite and more efficient protection against enamel demineralization compared to other native statherin peptides...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511145/plasma-membrane-repair-the-adaptable-cell-life-insurance
#10
REVIEW
Ana Joaquina Jimenez, Franck Perez
The plasma membrane is the most basic element necessary for the cell to exist and be distinguishable from its environment. Regulated mechanisms allow tightly controlled communication between intacellular and extracellular medium allowing the maintenance of a specific biochemical environment, optimized for cellular functions. The anarchic and uncontrolled opening of a hole in the PM induces a change in the concentration of ions and oxidizing agents perturbing homeostasis. Fortunately, the cell possesses mechanisms that are capable of reacting to sudden extracellular medium entry and to block the leakage locally...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508565/menaquinone-4-enhances-osteogenic-potential-of-human-amniotic-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-in-a-2d-and-3d-dynamic-culture-system
#11
Domitilla Mandatori, Letizia Penolazzi, Caterina Pipino, Pamela Di Tomo, Sara Di Silvestre, Natalia Di Pietro, Sara Trevisani, Marco Angelozzi, Mariangela Ucci, Roberta Piva, Assunta Pandolfi
Menaquinones, also known as Vitamin K2 family, regulate calcium homeostasis in a "bone-vascular cross talk" and recently received particular attention for their positive effect on bone formation. Since the correlation between menaquinones and bone metabolism to date is still unclear, the objective of our study was to investigate the possible role of menaquinone-4 (MK-4), an isoform of the menaquinones family, in the modulation of osteogenesis. For this reason we used a model of human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hAFMSCs) cultured both in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D, RCCS™bioreactor) in vitro culture systems...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508315/trpc-channels-and-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Pramod Sukumaran, Yuyang Sun, Anne Schaar, Senthil Selvaraj, Brij B Singh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, which involves degeneration of dopaminergic neurons that are present in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region. Many factors have been identified that could lead to Parkinson's disease; however, almost all of them are directly or indirectly dependent on Ca(2+) signaling. Importantly, though disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis have been implicated in Parkinson's disease and other neuronal diseases, the identity of the calcium channel remains elusive...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508314/trpc-channels-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Rui Lu, Qian He, Junfeng Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. The "amyloid hypothesis" is one of the predominant hypotheses for the pathogenesis of AD. Besides, tau protein accumulation, calcium homeostasis disruption, and glial cell activation are also remarkable features in AD. Recently, there are some reports showing that TRPC channels may function in AD development, especially TRPC6. In this chapter, we will discuss the evidence for the involvement of TRPC channels in Alzheimer's disease and the potential of therapeutics for AD based on TRPC channels...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507517/the-role-of-unfolded-protein-response-and-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-special-focus-on-prion-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Tariq Hussain, Lifeng Yang
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative pathologies characterized by the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the cellular prion protein named prion protein scrapie (PrP(Sc)) in the brain. PrP(Sc) accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) result in a dysregulated calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and subsequent initiation of unfolded protein response (UPR) leading to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms for the transition between adaptation to ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506443/endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-selenoproteins-as-regulators-of-calcium-signaling-and-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Matthew W Pitts, Peter R Hoffmann
The human selenoprotein family contains 25 members that share the common feature of containing the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Seven selenoproteins are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exhibit different structural features contributing to a range of cellular functions. Some of these functions are either directly or indirectly related to calcium (Ca(2+)) flux or homeostasis. The presence of the unique Sec residue within these proteins allows some to exert oxidoreductase activity, while the function of the Sec in other ER selenoproteins remains unclear...
May 4, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506204/antibiotic-effects-of-loperamide-homology-of-human-targets-of-loperamide-with-targets-in-acanthamoeba-spp
#16
Abdul Mannan Baig, Zohaib Rana, M Mohsin Mannan, S Sumayya Tariq, H R Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Loperamide is an anti-diarrheal drug prescribed for non-infectious diarrhea. The drug is an opioid receptor agonist, a blocker of voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav) and a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor on human cells. Loperamide has been reported to exert anti-amoebic effects against pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii. OBJECTIVES: The precise mode of antibiotic action, cellular target homology with human counterparts and the pattern of cell death induced by loperamide in Acanthamoeba castellanii remain to be established...
April 25, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504081/dissecting-physical-structure-of-calreticulin-an-intrinsically-disordered-ca-2-buffering-chaperone-from-endoplasmic-reticulum
#17
Anna Rita Migliaccio, Vladimir N Uversky
Calreticulin (CALR) is a Ca(2+) binding multifunctional protein that mostly resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plays a number of important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. Although the major functions ascribed to CALR are controlling the Ca(2+) homeostasis in ER and acting as a lectin-like ER chaperon for many glycoproteins, this moonlighting protein can be found in various cellular compartments where it has many non-ER functions. To shed more light on the mechanisms underlying polyfunctionality of this moonlighting protein that can be found in different cellular compartments and that possesses a wide spectrum of unrelated biological activities, being able to interact with Ca(2+) (and potentially other metal ions), RNA, oligosaccharides, and numerous proteins, we used a set of experimental and computational tools to evaluate the intrinsic disorder status of CALR and the role of calcium binding on structural properties and conformational stability of the full-length CALR and its isolated P- and C-domains...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503871/subcellular-distribution-of-calcium-during-spermatogenesis-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#18
Amin Golpour, Martin Pšenička, Hamid Niksirat
Calcium plays a variety of vital regulatory functions in many physiological and biochemical events in the cell. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructural distribution of calcium during different developmental stages of spermatogenesis in a model organism, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), using a combined oxalate-pyroantimonate technique. Samples were treated by potassium oxalate and potassium pyroantimonate during two fixation stages and examined using transmission electron microscopy to detect electron dense intracellular calcium...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501920/a-dramatic-blood-plasticity-in-hibernating-and-14-day-hindlimb-unloading-daurian-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-dauricus
#19
Huan-Xin Hu, Fang-Ying Du, Wei-Wei Fu, Shan-Feng Jiang, Jin Cao, Shen-Hui Xu, Hui-Ping Wang, Hui Chang, Nandu Goswami, Yun-Fang Gao
We compared the effects of hibernation inactivity and 14-day hindlimb unloading in non-hibernating period on biochemical, rheological, and hematological parameters of blood in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Twenty-four squirrels were randomly divided into four groups: control (CON), hibernation (HIB), post-hibernation (POST), and 14-day hindlimb unloading (HU). The results showed that serum enzymes (L-lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase) activities decreased in HIB, POST, and HU squirrels compared with CON...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501915/role-of-the-inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-ipk2-in-regulation-of-hyphal-development-calcium-signaling-and-secretion-in-candida-albicans
#20
Jianrong Li, Bing Zhang, Tianyu Ma, Honggang Wang, Biao Zhang, Qilin Yu, Mingchun Li
Inositol polyphosphates are a family of inositol derivatives and ubiquitously distributed in various organisms. Their generation is catalyzed by inositol polyphosphate multikinases, which play essential roles in abundant cellular processes. However, little is known about the kinds and functions of inositol polyphosphate multikinases in the important fungal pathogen, C. albicans. In this study, we identified a C. albicans inositol polyphosphate multikinase, Ipk2. This kinase shares the conserved IPK domain and localizes in the nucleus...
May 13, 2017: Mycopathologia
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