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Calcium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786640/vitamin-d-in-vascular-calcification-a-double-edged-sword
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey Wang, Jimmy J Zhou, Graham R Robertson, Vincent W Lee
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782955/loss-of-calretinin-and-parvalbumin-positive-interneurones-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-of-aged-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#2
Fatima Zallo, Emanuela Gardenal, Alexei Verkhratsky, José Julio Rodríguez
Neuronal degeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), is linked to impaired calcium homeostasis and to changes in calcium-binding proteins (CBPs). The AD-related modification of neuronal CBPs remains controversial. Here we analyzed the presence and expression of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the hippocampal CA1 neurones of 18 months old 3xTg-AD mice compared to non-Tg animals. We found a layer specific decrease in number of interneurones expressing CR and PV (by 33.7% and 52%, respectively)...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782940/defining-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-lineages-in-the-bone-marrow
#3
J L Pierce, D L Begun, J J Westendorf, M E McGee-Lawrence
Bone is a complex endocrine organ that facilitates structural support, protection to vital organs, sites for hematopoiesis, and calcium homeostasis. The bone marrow microenvironment is a heterogeneous niche consisting of multipotent musculoskeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative terminal cell types. Amongst these progenitors, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) may differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages to support musculoskeletal development as well as tissue homeostasis, regeneration and repair during adulthood...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782346/claudins-and-nephrolithiasis
#4
Allein Plain, R Todd Alexander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The greatest risk factor for kidney stone formation is increased urinary calcium excretion. Most filtered calcium is reabsorbed from the proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop via a paracellular pathway. Claudins are tight junction proteins that confer the permeability properties of an epithelium. We review the contribution of renal claudins to nephron calcium permeability and how perturbations in these pathways cause alterations in tubular calcium transport, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, or nephrolithiasis...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778593/effects-of-deoxynivalenol-exposure-on-cerebral-lipid-peroxidation-neurotransmitter-and-calcium-homeostasis-of-chicks-in-vivo
#5
Xichun Wang, Jishun Tang, Fangfang Geng, Lei Zhu, Xiaoyan Chu, Yafei Zhang, Sajid Ur Rahman, Xiaofang Chen, Yunjing Jiang, Dianfeng Zhu, Shibin Feng, Yu Li, Jin Jie Wu
During current research, the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure on cerebral lipid peroxidation, neurotransmitter secretion and calcium homeostasis in chicks were evaluated. One hundred and twenty Hailan chicks (male, 1-day-old) were randomly divided into four groups. Chicks in low, medium and high dose groups were fed with 0.27, 1.68 and 12.21 mg/kg-1 DON respectively by gavage according to feed intake. Chicks in control group were fed with physiological saline by gavage. The trials were conducted for 36 d...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777722/ca-2-signaling-and-spinocerebellar-ataxia
#6
REVIEW
Chihiro Hisatsune, Kozo Hamada, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a neural disorder, which is caused by degenerative changes in the cerebellum. SCA is primarily characterized by gait ataxia, and additional clinical features include nystagmus, dysarthria, tremors and cerebellar atrophy. Forty-four hereditary SCAs have been identified to date, along with >35 SCA-associated genes. Despite the great diversity and distinct functionalities of the SCA-related genes, accumulating evidence supports the occurrence of a common pathophysiological event among several hereditary SCAs...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774890/genetic-and-clinical-aspects-of-wolfram-syndrome-1-a-severe-neurodegenerative-disease
#7
REVIEW
Luciana Rigoli, Placido Bramanti, Chiara Di Bella, Filippo De Luca
Wolfram syndrome 1 (WS1) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, and other abnormalities. WS1 usually results in death before the age of 50 years. The pathogenesis of WS1 is ascribed to mutations of human WFS1 gene on chromosome 4p encoding a transmembrane protein called wolframin which has physiological functions in membrane trafficking, secretion, processing, and/or regulation of ER calcium homeostasis. Different types of WFS1 mutations have been identified, and some of these have been associated with a dominant, severe type of WS...
May 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772389/hippocampal-microglia-modifications-in-c57bl-6-pah-enu2-and-btbr-pah-enu2-phenylketonuria-pku-mice-depend-on-the-genetic-background-irrespective-of-disturbed-sleep-patterns
#8
Els van der Goot, Vibeke M Bruinenberg, Femke M Hormann, Ulrich L M Eisel, Francjan J van Spronsen, Eddy A Van der Zee
Toxic levels of phenylalanine in blood and brain is a characteristic of (untreated) phenylketonuria (PKU), leading to cognitive deficits in PKU mice. In addition, our recent findings showed that PKU mice (as well as PKU patients) have a disturbed sleep/wake cycle. As a consequence, sleep loss may contribute to cognitive deficits in PKU. Sleep loss has been linked to increased activation of microglia in the hippocampus. In this study, we set out to examine morphological features of the microglia population in the hippocampus of the mouse PKU model, using both the C57Bl/6 and the BTBR strain and their wild-type controls (age 5...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772264/reactive-oxygen-species-impair-the-excitation-contraction-coupling-of-papillary-muscles-after-acute-exposure-to-a-high-copper-concentration
#9
Filipe Martinuzo Filetti, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Mirian Fioresi, Maylla Ronacher Simões
Copper is an essential metal for homeostasis and the functioning of living organisms. We investigated the effects of a high copper concentration on the myocardial mechanics, investigating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated effects. The developed force of papillary muscles was reduced after acute exposure to a high copper concentration and was prevented by co-incubation with tempol, DMSO and catalase. The reuptake of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum was reduced by copper and restored by tempol. The contractile response to Ca2+ was reduced and reversed by antioxidants...
May 14, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771914/regulation-of-vitamin-d-metabolizing-enzymes-in-murine-renal-and-extrarenal-tissues-by-dietary-phosphate-fgf23-and-1-25-oh-2d3
#10
Larissa Kägi, Carla Bettoni, Eva M Pastor-Arroyo, Udo Schnitzbauer, Nati Hernando, Carsten A Wagner
BACKGROUND: The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) together with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (Pi) homeostasis, 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis is mediated by hydroxylases of the cytochrome P450 (Cyp) family. Vitamin D is first modified in the liver by the 25-hydroxylases CYP2R1 and CYP27A1 and further activated in the kidney by the 1α-hydroxylase CYP27B1, while the renal 24-hydroxylase CYP24A1 catalyzes the first step of its inactivation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769309/etoposide-induced-protein-2-4-functions-as-a-regulator-of-the-calcium-atpase-and-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival
#11
Lin Yuan, Huiyu Wang, Qi Liu, Zhe Wang, Mingshu Zhang, Yan Zhao, Kuo Liang, Liangyi Chen, Tao Xu, Pingyong Xu
Calcium homeostasis is essential for maintaining the viability and function of pancreatic β cells and plays a key role in preventing the development of diabetes. Decreased levels of ATPase sarco-plasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -transporting 2 (ATP2a2), the main calcium pump in β cells, are often found in individuals with diabetes and in diabetic animal models. However, the regulators of ATP2a2 and the molecular mechanisms responsible for controlling ATP2a2 activity remain unclear. Etoposide-induced protein 2...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769092/mineralization-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-inclusion-bodies-in-mmalton-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#12
Francesco Callea, Isabella Giovannoni, Paola Francalanci, Renata Boldrini, Gavino Faa, Daniela Medicina, Valerio Nobili, Valeer J Desmet, Kamal Ishak, Kuniaki Seyama, Emanuele Bellacchio
BACKGROUND: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) of Z, Mmalton, Siiyama type is associated with liver storage of the mutant proteins and liver disease. The Z variant can be diagnosed on isoelectric focusing (IEF) while Mmalton and Siiyama may be missed or misdiagnosed with this technique. Therefore, molecular analysis is mandatory for their characterization. In particular, that holds true for the Mmalton variant as on IEF profile it resembles the wild M2 subtype. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis involving review of medical records and of liver biopsy specimens from a series of Mmalton, Z and Siiyama Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency patients...
May 16, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767698/mechanisms-by-which-dietary-fatty-acids-regulate-mitochondrial-structure-function-in-health-and-disease
#13
E Madison Sullivan, Edward Ross Pennington, William D Green, Melinda A Beck, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles within a cell. Furthermore, mitochondria have a role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and proper calcium concentrations, building critical components of hormones and other signaling molecules, and controlling apoptosis. Structurally, mitochondria are unique because they have 2 membranes that allow for compartmentalization. The composition and molecular organization of these membranes are crucial to the maintenance and function of mitochondria. In this review, we first present a general overview of mitochondrial membrane biochemistry and biophysics followed by the role of different dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in modulating mitochondrial membrane structure-function...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764979/the-complex-relationship-between-tfeb-transcription-factor-phosphorylation-and-subcellular-localization
#14
REVIEW
Rosa Puertollano, Shawn M Ferguson, James Brugarolas, Andrea Ballabio
The MiT-TFE family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper transcription factors includes four members: TFEB, TFE3, TFEC, and MITF Originally described as oncogenes, these factors play a major role as regulators of lysosome biogenesis, cellular energy homeostasis, and autophagy. An important mechanism by which these transcription factors are regulated involves their shuttling between the surface of lysosomes, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. Such dynamic changes in subcellular localization occur in response to nutrient fluctuations and various forms of cell stress and are mediated by changes in the phosphorylation of multiple conserved amino acids...
May 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762054/altered-sarco-endo-plasmic-reticulum-calcium-adenosine-triphosphatase-2a-content-targets-for-heart-failure-therapy
#15
Gang Liu, Si Qi Li, Ping Ping Hu, Xiao Yong Tong
Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase is responsible for transporting cytosolic calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and endoplasmic reticulum to maintain calcium homeostasis. Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase is the dominant isoform expressed in cardiac tissue, which is regulated by endogenous protein inhibitors, post-translational modifications, hormones as well as microRNAs. Dysfunction of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase is associated with heart failure, which makes sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase a promising target for heart failure therapy...
May 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760952/downregulation-of-the-psychiatric-susceptibility-gene-cacna1c-promotes-mitochondrial-resilience-to-oxidative-stress-in-neuronal-cells
#16
Susanne Michels, Goutham K Ganjam, Helena Martins, Gerhard M Schratt, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Carsten Culmsee
Affective disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder are among the most prevalent forms of mental illness and their etiologies involve complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Over the past ten years, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified CACNA1C as one of the strongest genetic risk factors for the development of affective disorders. However, its role in disease pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Vulnerability to affective disorders also involves diverse environmental risk factors such as perinatal insults, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse pathophysiological or psychosocial life events...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760186/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-mutations-increase-myofilament-ca-2-buffering-alter-intracellular-ca-2-handling-and-stimulate-ca-2-dependent-signalling
#17
Paul Robinson, Xing Liu, Alexander Sparrow, Suketu Patel, Yin Hua Zhang, Barbara Casadei, Hugh Watkins, Charles S Redwood
Mutations in thin filament regulatory proteins that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) increase myofilament Ca2+ -sensitivity. Mouse models exhibit increased Ca2+ buffering and arrhythmias, and we hypothesized that these changes are primary effects of the mutations (independent of compensatory changes) and that increased Ca2+ - buffering and altered Ca2+ -handling contribute to HCM pathogenesis via activation of Ca2+ -dependent signalling. Here, we determined the primary effects of HCM mutations on intracellular Ca2+ -handling and Ca2+ -dependent signalling in a model system possessing Ca2+ -handling mechanisms and contractile protein isoforms close to human in the absence of potentially confounding remodeling...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758378/enhanced-oxidative-stress-in-the-jasmonic-acid-deficient-tomato-mutant-def-1-exposed-to-nacl-stress
#18
Ibrahim Abouelsaad, Sylvie Renault
Jasmonic acid (JA) has been mostly studied in responses to biotic stresses, such as herbivore attack and pathogenic infection. More recently, the involvement of JA in abiotic stresses including salinity was highlighted; yet, its role in salt stress remained unclear. In the current study, we compared the physiological and biochemical responses of wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv Castlemart and its JA-deficient mutant defenseless-1 (def-1) under salt stress to investigate the role of JA. Plant growth, photosynthetic pigment content, ion accumulation, oxidative stress-related parameters, proline accumulation and total phenolic compounds, in addition to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities, were measured in both genotypes after 14 days of 100 mM NaCl treatment...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757220/annexins-coordinators-of-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-endocytic-pathways
#19
REVIEW
Carles Rentero, Patricia Blanco-Muñoz, Elsa Meneses-Salas, Thomas Grewal, Carlos Enrich
The spatiotemporal regulation of calcium (Ca2+ ) storage in late endosomes (LE) and lysosomes (Lys) is increasingly recognized to influence a variety of membrane trafficking events, including endocytosis, exocytosis, and autophagy. Alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis within the LE/Lys compartment are implicated in human diseases, ranging from lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) to neurodegeneration and cancer, and they correlate with changes in the membrane binding behaviour of Ca2+ -binding proteins. This also includes Annexins (AnxA), which is a family of Ca2+ -binding proteins participating in membrane traffic and tethering, microdomain organization, cytoskeleton interactions, Ca2+ signalling, and LE/Lys positioning...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756482/physical-contact-between-human-vascular-endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-cells-modulates-cytosolic-and-nuclear-calcium-homeostasis
#20
Ghada S Hassan, Danielle Jacques, Pedro D'Orleans-Juste, Sheldon Magder, Ghassan Bkaily
The interaction between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the modulation of vascular tone. There is however no information on whether direct physical communication regulates the intracellular calcium levels of human VECs (hVECs) and/or hVSMCs . Thus, the objective of the study is to verify whether co-culture of hVECs and hVSMCs modulates cytosolic ([Ca2+]c) and nuclear calcium ([Ca2+]n) levels via physical contact and/or factors released by both cell types...
May 14, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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