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Calcium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342966/time-courses-of-post-injury-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-and-respiratory-dysfunction-and-neuronal-cytoskeletal-degradation-in-a-rat-model-of-focal-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Rachel L Hill, Indrapal N Singh, Juan A Wang, Edward D Hall
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative damage to essential brain cellular components leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. It is increasingly appreciated that a major player in TBI-induced oxidative damage is the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (PN) which is produced in large part in injured brain mitochondria. Once formed, PN decomposes into highly reactive free radicals that trigger membrane lipid peroxidation (LP) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (e...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342856/reproductive-endocrinology-of-vitamin-d
#2
Mette Lorenzen, Ida Marie Boisen, Li Juel Mortensen, Beate Lanske, Anders Juul, Martin Blomberg Jensen
Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus of this review...
March 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336831/-calcilytic-drugs-feature-and-future
#3
Itsuro Endo
Calcium-sensing receptor(CaSR)is highly expressed in parathyroid, kidney, bone, and small and large intestines to regulate Ca homeostasis. Calcilytics are allosteric antagonists of CaSR, and stimulate endogenous PTH release. Several calcilytics have been evaluated as anabolic therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis but clinical development of all of them has been abandoned because the lacked clinical efficacy. Calcilytics might be repurposed for new indications like autosomal dominant hypocalcemia or other disorders...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336824/-the-functions-of-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-regulating-mineral-metabolism
#4
Yuka Kinoshita
Calcium-sensing receptor(CaSR)which belongs to a G protein-coupled receptor family is one of the key elements in regulating calcium homeostasis. CaSR has been identified as a receptor to control parathyroid hormone(PTH)secretion in parathyroid glands according to serum calcium ion(Ca2+)levels. It has also been shown that CaSR controls reabsorption of water and several cations including Ca2+and magnesium ion(Mg2+)in renal tubular cells. This review summarizes the functions and roles of CaSR in mineral metabolism that are exerted in parathyroid glands, kidney, and intestine...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336440/astroglial-ca-2-signaling-is-generated-by-the-coordination-of-ip3r-and-store-operated-ca-2-channels
#5
Shigeo Sakuragi, Fumihiro Niwa, Yoichi Oda, Hiroko Bannai, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
Astrocytes play key roles in the central nervous system and regulate local blood flow and synaptic transmission via intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. Astrocytic Ca(2+) signals are generated by multiple pathways: Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and Ca(2+) influx through various Ca(2+) channels on the plasma membrane. However, the Ca(2+) channels involved in astrocytic Ca(2+) homeostasis or signaling have not been fully characterized...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334404/calcium-homeostasis-modulator-1-like-currents-in-rat-fungiform-taste-cells-expressing-amiloride-sensitive-sodium-currents
#6
Albertino Bigiani
Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels...
March 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333383/calcium-transport-and-signaling-in-mitochondria
#7
Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Valentina Parra, Camila López-Crisosto, Paula Díaz, Andrew F G Quest, Sergio Lavandero
Calcium (Ca2+) is a key player in the regulation of many cell functions. Just like Ca2+, mitochondria are ubiquitous, versatile, and dynamic players in determining both cell survival and death decisions. Given their ubiquitous nature, the regulation of both is deeply intertwined, whereby Ca2+ regulates mitochondrial functions, while mitochondria shape Ca2+ dynamics. Deregulation of either Ca2+ or mitochondrial signaling leads to abnormal function, cell damage or even cell death, thereby contributing to muscle dysfunction or cardiac pathologies...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332488/parkinson-disease
#8
REVIEW
Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi, Caroline M Tanner, Glenda M Halliday, Patrik Brundin, Jens Volkmann, Anette-Eleonore Schrag, Anthony E Lang
Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332412/drug-safety-evaluation-of-parathyroid-hormone-for-hypocalcemia-in-patients-with-hypoparathyroidism
#9
Gemma Marcucci, Giuseppe Della Pepa, Maria Luisa Brandi
Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder characterized by low serum calcium levels and high serum phosphate levels. This disease is commonly treated with calcium supplements and active vitamin D metabolites or analogues, but large doses of these supplements are often utilized to relieve the symptoms caused by hypocalcemia, without guarantee of a physiological normalization of calcium-phosphate homeostasis. Areas covered: Several studies have investigated replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH [rhPTH (1-84) and rhPTH (1-34)] for subjects with hypoparathyroidism...
March 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330496/calcium-dysregulation-functional-calpainopathy-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-sporadic-inclusion-body-myositis
#10
David R Amici, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Davi A G Mázala, Thomas E Lloyd, Andrea M Corse, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Andrew L Mammen, Eva R Chin
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common primary myopathy in the elderly, but its pathoetiology is still unclear. Perturbed myocellular calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis can exacerbate many of the factors proposed to mediate muscle degeneration in IBM, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Ca(2+) dysregulation may plausibly be initiated in IBM by immune-mediated membrane damage and/or abnormally accumulating proteins, but no studies to date have investigated Ca(2+) regulation in IBM patients...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329862/the-transcriptome-of-the-zebrafish-embryo-after-chemical-exposure-a-meta-analysis
#11
Andreas Schüttler, Kristin Reiche, Rolf Altenburger, Wibke Busch
Numerous studies have been published in the past years investigating the transcriptome of the zebrafish embryo (ZFE) upon being subjected to chemical stress. Aiming at a more mechanistic understanding of the results of such studies, knowledge about commonalities of transcript regulation in response to chemical stress is needed. Thus, our goal in this study was to identify and interpret genes and gene sets constituting a general response to chemical exposure. Therefore, we aggregated and reanalyzed published toxicogenomics data obtained with the ZFE...
February 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329545/darier-white-disease
#12
Mitalee P Christman, Evan Reider, Randie H Kim, Nooshin Brinster, Elisa Femia, Miriam Keltz Pomeranz
We present a 58-year-old woman with bipolardisorder and with a longstanding history of yellowbrown,hyperkeratotic papules in a seborrheicdistribution and nail changes. Her father andpaternal grandmother had similar eruptions and alsohad psychiatric disease. Histopathologic examinationshowed acantholysis and dyskeratosis, which wasconsistent with Darier-White disease. Darier-Whitedisease is a rare, hereditary disorder that is inheritedin an autosomal dominant manner and that usuallypresents in adolescence or early adulthood dueto mutations in the SERCA2 calcium pump...
December 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327657/dynasore-impairs-vegfr2-signalling-in-an-endocytosis-independent-manner
#13
Dimitris Basagiannis, Sofia Zografou, Katerina Galanopoulou, Savvas Christoforidis
VEGFR2 is a critical angiogenic receptor playing a key role in vascular homeostasis. Upon activation by VEGF, VEGFR2 becomes endocytosed. Internalisation of VEGFR2 is facilitated, in part, through clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME), the role of which in VEGFR2 function is debated. Here, we confirm the contribution of CME in VEGFR2 uptake. However, curiously, we find that different approaches of inhibition of CME exert contradictory effects on VEGF signalling; knockdown of clathrin, or of dynamin, or overexpression of dynamin K44A, do not affect VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, while dynasore causes strong inhibition...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327563/health-benefits-and-consequences-of-the-eastern-orthodox-fasting-in-monks-of-mount-athos-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
S N Karras, A Persynaki, A Petróczi, E Barkans, H Mulrooney, M Kypraiou, T Tzotzas, K Tziomalos, K Kotsa, A A Tsioudas, C Pichard, D P Naughton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Greek Orthodox fasting (OF), which involves 180-200 days of fasting per year, is dictated by the Christian Orthodox religion. For the first time, this cross-sectional study examines the characteristics and the effects of OF on anthropometry, cardiometabolic markers and calcium homeostasis in Athonian monks (AMs). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Daily intakes of energy, macro- and micronutrients of a day during a weekend of Nativity Fast, defined as non-restrictive day (NRD), and a weekday during Great Lent, labeled as restrictive day (RD) were recorded...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325213/mitochondrion-a-common-organelle-for-distinct-cell-deaths
#15
Z Wang, C Figueiredo-Pereira, C Oudot, H L A Vieira, C Brenner
Mitochondria are deeply involved in cell fate decisions via their multiple roles in metabolism, cell growth, and cell death. In healthy cells, these functions are highly regulated to provide sufficient energy for cell function, maintain cell homeostasis, and avoid undesirable cell death. This is achieved by an orchestrated cooperation of cellular and molecular mechanisms such as mitochondrial mass control (mitophagy vs biogenesis), oxidative phosphorylation, redox and calcium homeostasis, and the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic proteins...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324742/epithelial-homeostasis-a-piezo-of-the-puzzle
#16
Eugenia Piddini
A recent study shows that, upon stretching or wounding, epithelia display a fast proliferative response that allows for re-establishment of optimal cell density or sealing of the wound. This increased proliferation is induced by the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 and involves calcium-triggered ERK signalling.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324658/mitochondrial-respiration-links-tor-complex-2-signaling-to-calcium-regulation-and-autophagy
#17
Ariadne Vlahakis, Nerea Lopez Muniozguren, Ted Powers
The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved regulator of cell growth and functions within 2 different protein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, where TORC2 positively controls macroautophagy/autophagy during amino acid starvation. Under these conditions, TORC2 signaling inhibits the activity of the calcium-regulated phosphatase calcineurin and promotes the general amino acid control (GAAC) response and autophagy. Here we demonstrate that TORC2 regulates calcineurin by controlling the respiratory activity of mitochondria...
March 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324491/monitoring-mitophagy-during-aging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Nikolaos Charmpilas, Konstantinos Kounakis, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Mitochondria constitute the main energy-producing centers of eukaryotic cells. In addition, they are involved in several crucial cellular processes, such as lipid metabolism, calcium buffering, and apoptosis. As such, their malfunction can be detrimental for proper cellular physiology and homeostasis. Mitophagy is a mechanism that protects and maintains cellular function by sequestering harmful or dysfunctional mitochondria to lysosomes for degradation. In this report, we present experimental procedures for quantitative, in vivo monitoring of mitophagy events in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323996/molecular-physiology-of-the-hypocalcemic-action-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#19
Chia-Hao Lin, Huei-Jyun Hu, Pung-Pung Hwang
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormone required for phosphorus metabolism, was recently proposed to act on Ca2+ uptake; however, the available evidences of how FGF23 controls the body fluid Ca2+ homeostasis needs to be further clarified. The use of zebrafish as a model system revealed that FGF23 is specifically expressed in the corpuscles of Stannius (CS), an organ involved in Ca2+ homeostasis in fish, and its expression is stimulated by ambient water with a high Ca2+ level. The overexpression of FGF23 inhibited Ca2+ uptake by downregulating the mRNA expression of epithelium calcium channel (ECaC)...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323960/fgf23-is-not-associated-with-age-related-changes-in-phosphate-but-enhances-renal-calcium-reabsorption-in-girls
#20
Deborah M Mitchell, Harald Jüppner, Sherri-Ann M Burnett-Bowie
Context: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a critical determinant of phosphate homeostasis. The role of FGF23, however, in regulating physiologic changes in serum phosphate and renal phosphate handling across childhood is not well-described. In addition, animal models have suggested a role for FGF23 in regulating renal calcium excretion. Objective: To assess changes in FGF23 concentrations across childhood in relation to changes in mineral ions and hormones of mineral ion homeostasis...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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