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Calcium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743063/glutamate-pathways-of-the-beta-cell-and-the-control-of-insulin-secretion
#1
REVIEW
Pierre Maechler
Pancreatic beta-cells secrete insulin in response to circulating glucose, thereby maintaining euglycemia. Inside the beta-cell, glucose is transformed into intracellular signals stimulating exocytosis. While calcium is an obligatory messenger, this ion is not sufficient to promote the full secretory response. Accordingly, glucose metabolism produces the additive factor glutamate that participates to an amplifying pathway of the calcium signal. Although intracellular glutamate potentiates insulin secretion, extracellular glutamate may activate ionotropic receptors...
July 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742503/pth-and-pthr1-in-osteocytes-new-insights-into-old-partners
#2
Maria P Yavropoulou, Alexandros Michopoulos, John G Yovos
Parathyroid hormone receptors are present in bone cells and play a crucial role in the maintenance of skeletal integrity, bone homeostasis and regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. Although the function of these receptors has long being recognized in the cells of the osteoblastic lineage regulating directly osteoblast differentiation and function and indirectly osteoclastogenesis, recent findings demonstrate their functional presence in osteocytes participating in the co-ordination of bone remodelling...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740830/structure-activity-regulation-and-role-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Cristina Mammucari, Gaia Gherardi, Rosario Rizzuto
Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake plays a pivotal role both in cell energy balance and in cell fate determination. Studies on the role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling in pathophysiology have been favored by the identification of the genes encoding the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and its regulatory subunits. Thus, research carried on in the last years on one hand has determined the structure of the MCU complex and its regulation, on the other has uncovered the consequences of dysregulated mitochondrial Ca(2+) signaling in cell and tissue homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740581/the-parathyroid-gland-and-heart-disease
#4
Spandana J Brown, Mary D Ruppe, Laila S Tabatabai
The parathyroid glands are critical to maintaining calcium homeostasis through actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Recent clinical and molecular research has shown that direct and indirect actions of PTH also affect the heart and vasculature through downstream actions of G protein-coupled receptors in the myocardium and endothelial cells. Patients with disorders of the parathyroid gland have higher incidences of hypertension, arrhythmias, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and calcific disease which translate into increased cardiac morbidity and mortality...
April 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740392/cholecalciferol-improves-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-6-month-prospective-interventional-study
#5
Aml Mohamed Nada, Dalia A Shaheen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on glucose homeostasis and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients who have vitamin D deficiency. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-five type 2 diabetic patients taking oral hypoglycemic agents as mono- or combination therapy were recruited from the diabetes and endocrinology clinic. Subject demographics, duration of diabetes, antidiabetic medication, body mass index (BMI), pulse, and blood pressure (BP) were assessed...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739347/association-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphism-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-kashmir-valley
#6
Rawoof Malik, Rabia Farooq, Promela Mehta, Sheikh Ishaq, Insha Din, Parvaiz Shah, Sabhiya Majid
OBJECTIVES: Approx 1 billion people across various ethnic and age groups have vitamin D deficiency. The high prevalence of such a deficiency is an imperative public health issue because hypovitaminosis D is an autonomous risk factor for mortality in the general population. Beyond bone integrity and calcium homeostasis, it is involved in numerous physiologic and pathologic processes. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus has sparked universal interest...
July 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739256/palmitoylation-of-ca-2-channel-subunit-cav%C3%AE-2a-induces-pancreatic-beta-cell-toxicity-via-ca-2-overload
#7
Abdulla S Kazim, Petter Storm, Enming Zhang, Erik Renström
High blood glucose triggers the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells, but if chronic, causes cellular stress, partly due to impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis. Ca(2+) influx is controlled by voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) and high density of CaV in the plasma membrane could lead to Ca(2+) overload. Trafficking of the pore-forming CaVα1 subunit to the plasma membrane is regulated by auxiliary subunits, such as the CaVβ2a subunit. This study investigates, using Ca(2+) imaging and immunohistochemistry, the role of palmitoylation of CaVβ2a in maintaining Ca(2+) homeostasis and beta cell function...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736941/in-vivo-neutralization-of-%C3%AE-4-and-%C3%AE-7-integrins-inhibits-eosinophil-trafficking-and-prevents-lung-injury-during-tropical-pulmonary-eosinophilia-in-mice
#8
Pankaj Sharma, Aditi Sharma, Mrigank Srivastava
Integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking during homeostasis and inflammatory conditions. However, the role of α4 and β7 integrins in guiding eosinophil transmigration into the lungs during filarial manifestation of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) has not been explored. In this study, mice exhibiting TPE manifestations were administered with in vivo neutralizing antibodies against integrins α4 and β7 or their combination and immuno-pathological parameters were evaluated. Results show an intact lung barrier, significantly lower lung inflammation and reduced eosinophil counts in the Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs of mice receiving anti-α4(+) β7 treatment...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736792/double-injected-human-stem-cells-enhance-rehabilitation-in-tbi-mice-via-modulation-of-survival-and-inflammation
#9
Chul Kim, Ji-Min Park, TaeHo Kong, Seungmin Lee, Ki-Weon Seo, Yuri Choi, Young Sook Song, Jisook Moon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a complicated form of brain damage, is a major cause of mortality in adults. Following mechanical and structural primary insults, a battery of secondary insults, including neurotransmitter-mediated cytotoxicity, dysregulation of calcium and macromolecule homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress, exacerbate brain injury and functional deficits. Although stem cell therapy is considered to be an alternative treatment for brain injuries, such as TBI and stroke, many obstacles remain...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735473/low-concentration-bpaf-and-bpf-induced-cell-biological-effects-are-mediated-by-ros-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Bingli Lei, Su Sun, Jie Xu, Chenglian Feng, Yingxin Yu, Gang Xu, Minghong Wu, Wei Peng
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by bisphenol A (BPA) have been implicated in cellular oxidative damage and carcinogenesis. It is not known whether the potential alternatives of BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF), and bisphenol F (BPF) can also induce ROS involved in mediating biological responses. This study evaluated the toxicity of BPAF and BPF on cell proliferation, DNA damage, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and ROS generation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The results showed that BPAF at 0.001-1 μM and BPF at 0...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733328/thermal-imprinting-modifies-bone-homeostasis-in-cold-challenged-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#11
Ana Patrícia Mateus, Rita Costa, Enric Gisbert, Patricia I S Pinto, Karl B Andree, Alicia Estévez, Deborah M Power
Fish are ectotherms and temperature plays a determinant role in their physiology, biology and ecology and is a driver of seasonal responses. The present study assessed how thermal imprinting during embryonic and larval stages modified the response of adult fish to low water temperature. We targeted the gilthead sea bream that develops a condition known as winter syndrome when it is exposed to low water temperatures. Eggs and larvae of sea bream were exposed to four different thermal regimes and then the response of the resulting adults to a low temperature challenge was assessed...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732170/angiotensin-ii-receptors-modulation-of-calcium-homeostasis-in-human-vascular-endothelial-cells
#12
Maud Kamal, Danielle Jacques, Ghassan Bkaily
Angiotensin II (AngII) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle function. However, little is known about AngII and its receptors AT1 (AT1R) and AT2 (AT2R) and their modulation of intracellular calcium in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in general and more particularly of human origin. Using western blots, our results showed that AT1Rs and AT2Rs are present in human VECs (hVECs). Using quantitative 3D confocal imaging, our results showed that AngII is present at the cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic levels and its relative density is lower in the nucleoplasm...
July 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726733/interaction-of-mitochondria-with-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-plasma-membrane-in-calcium-homeostasis-lipid-trafficking-and-mitochondrial-structure
#13
REVIEW
Jędrzej Szymański, Justyna Janikiewicz, Bernadeta Michalska, Paulina Patalas-Krawczyk, Mariasole Perrone, Wiesław Ziółkowski, Jerzy Duszyński, Paolo Pinton, Agnieszka Dobrzyń, Mariusz R Więckowski
Studying organelles in isolation has been proven to be indispensable for deciphering the underlying mechanisms of molecular cell biology. However, observing organelles in intact cells with the use of microscopic techniques reveals a new set of different junctions and contact sites between them that contribute to the control and regulation of various cellular processes, such as calcium and lipid exchange or structural reorganization of the mitochondrial network. In recent years, many studies focused their attention on the structure and function of contacts between mitochondria and other organelles...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725049/loss-of-calreticulin-uncovers-a-critical-role-for-calcium-in-regulating-cellular-lipid-homeostasis
#14
Wen-An Wang, Wen-Xin Liu, Serpen Durnaoglu, Sun-Kyung Lee, Jihong Lian, Richard Lehner, Joohong Ahnn, Luis B Agellon, Marek Michalak
A direct link between Ca(2+) and lipid homeostasis has not been definitively demonstrated. In this study, we show that manipulation of ER Ca(2+) causes the re-distribution of a portion of the intracellular unesterified cholesterol to a pool that is not available to the SCAP-SREBP complex. The SREBP processing pathway in ER Ca(2+) depleted cells remained fully functional and responsive to changes in cellular cholesterol status but differed unexpectedly in basal activity. These findings establish the role of Ca(2+) in determining the reference set-point for controlling cellular lipid homeostasis...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723387/sigma-1-receptor-activation-modifies-intracellular-calcium-exchange-in-the-g93a-hsod1-als-model
#15
Vedrana Tadić, Ayse Malci, Nadine Goldhammer, Beatrice Stubendorff, Saikata Sengupta, Tino Prell, Silke Keiner, Jingyu Liu, Madlen Guenther, Christiane Frahm, Otto W Witte, Julian Grosskreutz
Aberrations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) have been well established within amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a severe motor neuron disease. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is controlled in part through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria Ca(2+) cycle (ERMCC). The ER supplies Ca(2+) to the mitochondria at close contacts between the two organelles, i.e. the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). The Sigma 1 receptor (Sig1R) is enriched at MAMs, where it acts as an inter-organelle signaling modulator...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721440/selectivity-of-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpase-pmca-mediated-extrusion-of-toxic-divalent-cations-in-vitro-and-in-cultured-cells
#16
Mariela S Ferreira-Gomes, Irene C Mangialavori, Mallku Q Ontiveros, Debora E Rinaldi, Jorge Martiarena, Sandra V Verstraeten, Juan Pablo F C Rossi
In the recent years, the toxicity of certain divalent cations has been associated with the alteration of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Among other mechanisms, these cations may affect the functionality of certain Ca(2+)-binding proteins and/or Ca(2+) pumps. The plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) maintains Ca(2+) homeostasis in eukaryotic cells by mediating the efflux of this cation in a process coupled to ATP hydrolysis. The aim of this work was to investigate both in vitro and in cultured cells if other divalent cations (Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+) or Be(2+)) could be transported by PMCA...
July 18, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717166/targeting-cellular-calcium-homeostasis-to-prevent-cytokine-mediated-beta-cell-death
#17
Amy L Clark, Kohsuke Kanekura, Zeno Lavagnino, Larry D Spears, Damien Abreu, Jana Mahadevan, Takuya Yagi, Clay F Semenkovich, David W Piston, Fumihiko Urano
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of islet inflammation, leading to beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Although alterations in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosolic free calcium levels are known to play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death, there are currently no treatments targeting cellular calcium homeostasis to combat type 1 diabetes. Here we show that modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis can mitigate cytokine- and ER stress-mediated beta cell death. The calcium modulating compounds, dantrolene and sitagliptin, both prevent cytokine and ER stress-induced activation of the pro-apoptotic calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain, and partly suppress beta cell death in INS1E cells and human primary islets...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715866/protective-effects-of-isorhamnetin-on-n2a-cell-against-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-injury-is-mediated-by-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5
#18
Lingyu Qiu, Yurong Ma, Yougen Luo, Zigang Cao, Huiqiang Lu
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) overload and ROS burst plays a critical role in apoptosis. Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) is involved in regulating the homeostasis of Ca(2+) and ROS production. isorhamnetin (Iso), as an ROS scavenger, effectively inhibit apoptosis, but the mechanism is still unclear. This study was to investigate whether Iso can inhibit ERS-induced apoptosis in N2a cells, and the protective effects are involved in PKCε-mediated Ca(2+) homeostasis and inhibition of ROS...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715648/tumor-suppressor-candidate-2-tusc2-fus-1-and-human-cancers
#19
Tadas Rimkus, Sherona Sirkisoon, Alexandra Harrison, Hui-Wen Lo
Tumor suppressor candidate 2 (TUSC2, also known as FUS1) was identified in 2000 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene located in a region on chromosome 3p21.3 that is homozygously deleted in some lung and breast cancers. The deletion is rare in lung and breast cancers, but is frequent in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Evidence to date indicates that TUSC2 behaves as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer; however, its role as a tumor suppressor for other tumor types has not been fully established. Loss of TUSC2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels has been reported in various cancers...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715135/chronic-pharmacological-blockade-of-the-na-ca-2-exchanger-modulates-the-growth-and-development-of-the-purkinje-cell-dendritic-arbor-in-mouse-cerebellar-slice-cultures
#20
Pradeep Sherkhane, Josef P Kapfhammer
The Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a bi-directional plasma membrane antiporter involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis in eukaryotes. NCX has three isoforms, NCX1-3, and all of them are expressed in the cerebellum. Immunostaining on cerebellar slice cultures indicates that NCX is widely expressed in the cerebellum, including expression in Purkinje cells. The pharmacological blockade of the forward mode of NCX (Ca(2+) efflux mode) by Bepridil moderately inhibited growth and development of Purkinje cell dendritic arbor in cerebellar slice cultures...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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