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Calcium homeostasis

Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Francisco Sampaio, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events...
October 17, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
David Reigada, Rosa María Navarro-Ruiz, Marcos Javier Caballero-López, Ángela Del Águila, Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano, Rodrigo M Maza, Manuel Nieto-Díaz
Reducing cell death during the secondary injury is a major priority in the development of a cure for traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). One of the earliest processes that follow SCI is the excitotoxicity resulting from the massive release of excitotoxicity mediators, including ATP, which induce an excessive and/or prolonged activation of their receptors and a deregulation of the calcium homeostasis. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) is an endogenous purinergic agonist, present in both extracellular and intracellular fluids, with promising cytoprotective effects in different diseases including neurodegenerative processes...
October 19, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Reza Dabiri, Touraj Mahmoudi, Hamid Farahani, Hossein Nobakht, Mohammad Reza Zali
BACKGROUND: With regard to the effect of calcium against colorectal cancer (CRC) and considering the key role of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in calcium homeostasis, this study investigated whether CaSR gene rs1801725 or A986S variant was associated with susceptibility to CRC risk. METHODS: This study was conducted as a case-control study and 303 cases with CRC and 354 controls were enrolled. All 657 subjects were genotyped for CaSR gene A986S variant using PCR-RFLP method...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
Hyun Jun Jung, Tae-Hwan Kwon
Kidney collecting duct is an important renal tubular segment for regulation of body water homeostasis and urine concentration. Water reabsorption in the collecting duct principal cells is controlled by vasopressin, a peptide hormone which induces the osmotic water transport across the collecting duct epithelia through regulation of water channel proteins aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3). In particular, vasopressin induces both intracellular translocation of AQP2-bearing vesicles to the apical plasma membrane and transcription of Aqp2 gene to increase AQP2 protein abundance...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Wei Hu, Zhiqiang Ma, Shouyin Di, Shuai Jiang, Yue Li, Chongxi Fan, Yang Yang, Dongjin Wang
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important intracellular membranous organelle. Previous studies have demonstrated that the ER is responsible for protein folding and trafficking, lipid synthesis, and the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Interestingly, the morphology and structure of the ER were recently found to be important. Melatonin is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness in mammals, and it is well known that melatonin acts as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the body...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Yasuhiro Matsuo, Makoto Kawamukai
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase Pka1 is known as a regulator of glycogenesis, meiosis, and stress responses in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We demonstrated that Pka1 is responsible for calcium tolerance. Loss of functional components of the PKA pathway such as Git3, Gpa2, Cyr1, and Pka1 yields a CaCl2-sensitive phenotype, while loss of Cgs1, a regulatory subunit of PKA, results in CaCl2 tolerance. Cytoplasmic distribution of Cgs1 and Pka1 is increased by the addition of CaCl2, suggesting that CaCl2 induces dissociation of Cgs1 and Pka1...
October 19, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Adriana Van Ballegooijen, Natasja Van Schoor, Ingeborg Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Joline Beulens
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. The role of vitamin D in bone and cardiovascular health has mainly been studied in isolation and the synergistic effect of vitamin D and vitamin K is largely unknown. We assessed whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and dephosphorylated, uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-unMGP) levels -an established marker of vitamin K status- are associated with incident hypertension among older adults in the Netherlands...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
M B Madsen, L J A Kogelman, H N Kadarmideen, H B Rasmussen
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely used antidepressants, but the efficacy of the treatment varies significantly among individuals. It is believed that complex genetic mechanisms play a part in this variation. We have used a network based approach to unravel the involved genetic components. Moreover, we investigated the potential difference in the genetic interaction networks underlying SSRI treatment response over time. We found four hub genes (ASCC3, PPARGC1B, SCHIP1 and TMTC2) with different connectivity in the initial SSRI treatment period (baseline to week 4) compared with the subsequent period (4-8 weeks after initiation), suggesting that different genetic networks are important at different times during SSRI treatment...
October 18, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Chen Zhang, Cassandra L Miller, Rakshya Gorkhali, Juan Zou, Kenneth Huang, Edward M Brown, Jenny J Yang
Ca(2+)-sensing receptors (CaSRs) play a central role in regulating extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]o) homeostasis and many (patho)physiological processes in multiple organs. This regulation is orchestrated by a cooperative response to extracellular stimuli such as small changes in Ca(2+), Mg(2+), amino acids, and other ligands. In addition, CaSR is a pleiotropic receptor regulating several intracellular signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization and intracellular calcium oscillation. Nearly 200 mutations and polymorphisms have been found in CaSR in relation to a variety of human disorders associated with abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Amelia Davis, Adrian C B Meedeniya, Dean L Pountney
α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregates (Lewy bodies) in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) may be associated with disturbed calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress. We investigated the interplay between α-syn aggregation, expression of the calbindin-D28k (CB) neuronal calcium-buffering protein and oxidative stress, combining immunofluorescence double labelling and Western analysis, and examining DLB and normal human cases and a unilateral oxidative stress lesion model of α-syn disease (rotenone mouse). DLB cases showed a greater proportion of CB+ cells in affected brain regions compared to normal cases with Lewy bodies largely present in CB- neurons and virtually undetected in CB+ neurons...
October 13, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Yong Xie, Zhen-Jie Gu, Mao-Xiong Wu, Tu-Cheng Huang, Jing-Song Ou, Huiping-Son Ni, Mao-Huan Lin, Wo-Liang Yuan, Jing-Feng Wang, Yang-Xin Chen
AIMS: Adverse cardiovascular effects induced by peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) activation were observed in clinical setting. But the underlying mechanism is unclear. Now, transgenic mice with cardiac specific peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ overexpression (TG-PPAR-γ) were used to explore the possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac tissues from TG-PPAR-γ mice, a PPAR-γ over-expressing human cardiomyocyte line AC16 cell, and PPAR-γ agonist-treated primary cardiomyocytes were used to evaluate the expression of cardiac calcium regulatory proteins as sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+)exchanger 1, ryanodine receptor 2 and phospholamban...
October 13, 2016: Life Sciences
Nan Zhang, Shengchang Yang, Chang Wang, Jianghua Zhang, Lifang Huo, Yiru Cheng, Chuan Wang, Zhanfeng Jia, Leiming Ren, Lin Kang, Wei Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type II diabetes mellitus (DM2) are the most common aging-related diseases and are characterized by β-amyloid and amylin accumulation, respectively. Multiple studies have indicated a strong correlation between these two diseases. Amylin oligomerization in the brain appears to be a novel risk factor for developing AD. Although amylin aggregation has been demonstrated to induce cytotoxicity in neurons through altering Ca(2+) homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Paige M Kulling, Kristine C Olson, Thomas L Olson, David J Feith, Thomas P Loughran
Commonly known for its critical role in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, more recently vitamin D has been implicated in haematological cancer pathogenesis and shows promise as an anti-cancer therapy. Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 , the precursor to the active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, are typically lower in patients with haematological disease compared to healthy individuals. This often correlates with worse disease outcome. Furthermore, diseased cells typically highly express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is required for many of the anti-cancer effects observed in multiple in vivo and in vitro cancer models...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Haematology
Mark V Pinti, Quincy A Hathaway, John M Hollander
Heart failure (HF) is an endpoint resulting from a number of disease states. The prognosis for HF patients is poor with survival rates precipitously low. Energy metabolism is centrally linked to the development of HF and it involves the proteomic remodeling of numerous pathways, many of which are targeted to the mitochondrion. MicroRNA (miRNA) are noncoding RNAs that influence post-transcriptional gene regulation. MiRNA have garnered considerable attention for their ability to orchestrate changes to the transcriptome and ultimately the proteome, during HF...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Annalisa Allegorico
The role of vitamin D in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is well known; however, in addition to traditional functions, vitamin D modulates a variety of processes, and evidence shows that it has an important role in different allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Vitamin D acts by binding to the vitamin D receptor, which is present in a variety of tissues; for this reason it is considered a hormone. One of the most important functions is to modulate the immune system response, both innate and adaptive, by suppressing Th2-type response and increasing natural killer cells...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Changhwan Ahn, Dongoh Lee, Jae-Hwan Lee, Hyun Yang, Beum-Soo An, Eui-Bae Jeung
It has been proposed that cellular Ca2+ signals activate hormone secretion. In pancreatic β cells, which produce insulin, Ca2+ signals have been known to contribute to insulin secretion. Prior to this study, we confirmed that insulin-secreting β cells express CaBP-9k, and assumed that CaBP-9k play a role in β cell insulin synthesis or secretion. Using CaBP-9k knock out (KO) mice, we demonstrated that ablation of CaBP-9k causes reducing insulin secretion and increasing serum glucose. To compare the role of CaBP-9k with pathophysiological conditions, we exposed wild-type and CaBP-9k KO mice to hypoxic conditions for 10 days...
2016: PloS One
Wei Miao, Xiujuan Wu, Kang Wang, Wenjing Wang, Yumei Wang, Zhigang Li, Jingjing Liu, Li Li, Luying Peng
As a physiological small molecular product from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, butyrate plays an important role in maintaining intestinal health. Our previous works have proved that the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on the intestinal barrier function is mediated by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the detailed pathway involved remains unknown. Using the calcium switch assay in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model, we found here that NaB activated AMPK mainly by increasing the calcium level, but not the ATP concentration, via promoting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE)...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ji Hye Park, Sung Hyun Choi, Hyungtae Kim, Seung Taek Ji, Woong Bi Jang, Jae Ho Kim, Sang Hong Baek, Sang Mo Kwon
Doxorubicin (DOXO) is widely used to treat solid tumors. However, its clinical use is limited by side effects including serious cardiotoxicity due to cardiomyocyte damage. Resident cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) act as key regulators of homeostasis in myocardial cells. However, little is known about the function of hCPCs in DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. In this study, we found that DOXO-mediated hCPC toxicity is closely related to calcium-related autophagy signaling and was significantly attenuated by blocking mTOR signaling in human hCPCs...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniele Bellavia, Viviana Costa, Angela De Luca, Melania Maglio, Stefania Pagani, Milena Fini, Gianluca Giavaresi
Vitamin D is a key molecule in calcium and phosphate homeostasis; however, increasing evidence has recently shown that it also plays a crucial role in the immune system, both innate and adaptive. A deregulation of vitamin D levels, due also to mutations and polymorphisms in the genes of the vitamin D pathway, determines severe alterations in the homeostasis of the organism, resulting in a higher risk of onset of some diseases, including osteoporosis. This review gives an overview of the influence of vitamin D levels on the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, between bone homeostasis and immune system...
October 13, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Bart L Clarke, Tamara J Vokes, John P Bilezikian, Dolores M Shoback, Hjalmar Lagast, Michael Mannstadt
In hypoparathyroidism, inappropriately low levels of parathyroid hormone lead to unbalanced mineral homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of recombinant human parathyroid hormone, rhPTH(1-84), on phosphate and vitamin D metabolite levels in patients with hypoparathyroidism. Following pretreatment optimization of calcium and vitamin D doses, 124 patients in a phase III, 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adults with hypoparathyroidism received subcutaneous injections of placebo or rhPTH(1-84) (50 µg/day, titrated to 75 and then 100 µg/day, to permit reductions in oral calcium and active vitamin D doses while maintaining serum calcium within 2...
October 12, 2016: Endocrine
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