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Calcium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933435/ranolazine-promotes-muscle-differentiation-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-c2c12-skeletal-muscle-cells
#1
Terruzzi Ileana, Montesano Anna, Senesi Pamela, Vacante Fernanda, Benedini Stefano, Luzi Livio
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate Ranolazine action on skeletal muscle differentiation and mitochondrial oxidative phenomena. Ranolazine, an antianginal drug, which acts blocking the late INaL current, was shown to lower hemoglobin A1c in patients with diabetes. In the present study, we hypothesized an action of Ranolazine on skeletal muscle cells regeneration and oxidative process, leading to a reduction of insulin resistance. METHODS: 10 μM Ranolazine was added to C2C12 murine myoblastic cells during proliferation, differentiation and newly formed myotubes...
December 8, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927654/expression-of-sodium-dependent-dicarboxylate-transporter-1-nadc1-slc13a2-in-normal-and-neoplastic-human-kidney
#2
Hyun-Wook Lee, Mary E Handlogten, Gunars Osis, William L Clapp, Dara N Wakefield, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Regulated dicarboxylate transport is critical for acid-base homeostasis, prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis, regulation of collecting duct sodium chloride transport and the regulation of blood pressure. Although luminal dicarboxylate reabsorption via NaDC1 (SLC13A2) is believed to be the primary mechanism regulating renal dicarboxylate transport, the specific localization of NaDC1 in the human kidney is currently unknown. This study's purpose was to determine NaDC1's expression in normal and neoplastic human kidneys...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926991/human-mitochondrial-nucleases
#3
REVIEW
Francesco Bruni, Robert N Lightowlers, Zofia M Chrzanowska-Lightowlers
Mitochondria are cytosolic organelles that have many essential roles including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis, heme and steroid synthesis, calcium homeostasis and regulation of cellular redox state. One of the unique features of these organelles is the presence of an extra-chromosomal mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), together with all the machinery required to replicate and transcribe mtDNA. The accurate maintenance of mitochondrial gene expression is essential for correct organellar metabolism, and is in part dependent on the levels of mtDNA and mt-RNA, which are regulated by balancing synthesis against degradation...
December 7, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926951/a-novel-mutation-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-gene-in-a-franconian-kindred-heterozygous-mutation-c-1697_1698deltg-exon-6
#4
M Cordes, T Kuwert, C Haag, F Raue
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) belongs to the disorders of a disturbed calcium homeostasis. Genetically, the disorder is inherited in an autosomal-dominant trait and represents an inactivating mutation of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) gene. We identified a Franconian kindred in which 6 individuals could be tested by molecular genetic means. In 5 individuals of 3 generations, the mutation could be classified as c.1697_1698delTG. This novel germline mutation creates a premature stop codon leading to a loss of 510 amino acids of the protein...
December 7, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925190/s100a1-and-s100b-calcium-sensors-at-the-cross-roads-of-multiple-chondrogenic-pathways
#5
REVIEW
José Diaz-Romero, Dobrila Nesic
The S100 protein family comprises more than 20 members of small calcium binding proteins operating as Ca2 + -activated switches that interact and modulate the activity of a large number of targets. S100A1 and S100B, two members of this family, have been recently associated with the differentiation status of human articular chondrocytes. Both proteins are homogeneously expressed in all cartilage zones, their expression decreases during chondrocyte dedifferentiation, and can be induced under conditions promoting redifferentiation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922495/toxic-and-endocrine-myopathies
#6
Hans D Katzberg, Charles D Kassardjian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of toxic and endocrine myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Early detection and expeditious correction of metabolic disturbances in endocrinopathies such as Cushing syndrome, thyroid and parathyroid diseases, and acromegaly can minimize and prevent neurologic complications including myopathy. Recently proposed mechanisms of injury in patients with critical illness myopathy include inhibition of protein synthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative stress, and disruption of intramuscular calcium homeostasis, which can cause a myosin-loss myopathy...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918306/targeting-integrin-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-ameliorates-severe-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-experimental-asthma
#7
Aparna Sundaram, Chun Chen, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Amha Atakilit, Xin Ren, Wenli Qiu, Hyunil Jo, William DeGrado, Xiaozhu Huang, Dean Sheppard
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917774/screening-for-calreticulin-mutations-in-a-cohort-of-patients-suspected-of-having-a-myeloproliferative-neoplasm
#8
A De Kock, C Booysen
BACKGROUND: The discovery of calreticulin (CALR) has shown it to be the second most frequent mutation after the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Its structure indicates various functions, of which two are to ensure calcium homeostasis and proper folding of other target proteins. Over 36 types of CALR mutations have been identified, all causing a recurrent frameshift in the C-terminal domain affecting CALR's localisation and calcium-binding function...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916815/changes-in-biochemical-parameters-of-the-calcium-phosphorus-homeostasis-in-relation-to-nutritional-intake-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#9
Viola Christmann, Charlotte J W Gradussen, Michelle N Körnmann, Nel Roeleveld, Johannes B van Goudoever, Arno F J van Heijst
Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s)/urinary (u) Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); tubular reabsorption of P (TrP); and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin (creat) and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on Postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14...
November 29, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915991/control-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer-by-synthetic-vitamin-d-receptor-ligands
#10
Ichiro Takada, Makoto Makishima
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are associated with an increased risk of cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammation, infection, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease, as well as bone and mineral disorders. The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a receptor for the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and mediates vitamin D regulation of specific target gene expression. The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, which is produced by intestinal bacteria, is another natural VDR ligand...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915149/trans-and-paracellular-calcium-transport-along-the-small-and-large-intestine-in-horses
#11
M R Wilkens, L Marholt, N Eigendorf, A S Muscher-Banse, K Feige, B Schröder, G Breves, A Cehak
Intestinal calcium absorption plays a key role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis and may either occur by paracellular or transcellular mechanisms. The horse has some unique peculiarities in calcium homeostasis compared to other species including a high absorptive capacity for calcium in the intestine, high plasma calcium concentrations, high renal excretion, and low plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. So far, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms and the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption is still limited concerning this species...
November 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913853/the-role-of-intestinal-oxalate-transport-in-hyperoxaluria-and-the-formation-of-kidney-stones-in-animals-and-man
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan M Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch
The intestine exerts a considerable influence over urinary oxalate in two ways, through the absorption of dietary oxalate and by serving as an adaptive extra-renal pathway for elimination of this waste metabolite. Knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for oxalate absorption and secretion by the intestine therefore have significant implications for understanding the etiology of hyperoxaluria, as well as offering potential targets for future treatment strategies for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. In this review, we present the recent developments and advances in this area over the past 10 years, and put to the test some of the new ideas that have emerged during this time, using human and mouse models...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913291/a-saposin-deficiency-model-in-drosophila-lysosomal-storage-progressive-neurodegeneration-and-sensory-physiological-decline
#13
Samantha J Hindle, Sarita Hebbar, Dominik Schwudke, Christopher J Elliott, Sean T Sweeney
Saposin deficiency is a childhood neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that can cause premature death within three months of life. Saposins are activator proteins that promote the function of lysosomal hydrolases that mediate the degradation of sphingolipids. There are four saposin proteins in humans, which are encoded by the prosaposin gene. Mutations causing an absence or impaired function of individual saposins or the whole prosaposin gene lead to distinct LSDs due to the storage of different classes of sphingolipids...
November 29, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913273/the-endocrine-vitamin-d-system-in-the-gut
#14
Antonio Barbáchano, Asunción Fernández-Barral, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Alba Costales-Carrera, María Jesús Larriba, Alberto Muñoz
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important regulatory actions in the gut through endocrine and probably also intracrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. By activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed at a high level in the small intestine and colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 is a major responsible for epithelial barrier function and calcium and phosphate absorption, and the host's defense against pathogens and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913207/overexpression-of-stim1-in-neurons-in-mouse-brain-improves-contextual-learning-and-impairs-long-term-depression
#15
Łukasz Majewski, Filip Maciąg, Paweł M Boguszewski, Iga Wasilewska, Grzegorz Wiera, Tomasz Wójtowicz, Jerzy Mozrzymas, Jacek Kuznicki
STIM1 is an endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor that is involved in several processes in neurons, including store-operated calcium entry. STIM1 also inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels, such as Cav1.2 and Cav3.1, and is thus considered a multifunctional protein. The aim of this work was to investigate the ways in which transgenic neuronal overexpression of STIM1 in FVB/NJ mice affects animal behavior and the electrophysiological properties of neurons in acute hippocampal slices. We overexpressed STIM1 from the Thy1...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913205/trp-channels-in-calcium-homeostasis-from-hormonal-control-to-structure-function-relationship-of-trpv5-and-trpv6
#16
REVIEW
Mark K C van Goor, Joost G J Hoenderop, Jenny van der Wijst
Maintaining plasma calcium levels within a narrow range is of vital importance for many physiological functions. Therefore, calcium transport processes in the intestine, bone and kidney are tightly regulated to fine-tune the rate of absorption, storage and excretion. The TRPV5 and TRPV6 calcium channels are viewed as the gatekeepers of epithelial calcium transport. Several calciotropic hormones control the channels at the level of transcription, membrane expression, and function. Recent technological advances have provided the first near-atomic resolution structural models of several TRPV channels, allowing insight into their architecture...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908485/managing-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Cathy Langston
Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908408/protective-effect-of-magnesium-acetyltaurate-against-nmda-induced-retinal-damage-involves-restoration-of-minerals-and-trace-elements-homeostasis
#18
Azliana Jusnida Ahmad Jafri, Natasha Najwa Nor Arfuzir, Lidawani Lambuk, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Puneet Agarwal, Norhafiza Razali, Anna Krasilnikova, Maria Kharitonova, Vasily Demidov, Evgeny Serebryansky, Anatoly Skalny, Alexander Spasov, Ahmad Pauzi Md Yusof, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been recognized as a final common outcome in pathological conditions involving death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Overstimulation of NMDA receptors results in influx of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) ions and efflux of potassium (K). NMDA receptors are blocked by magnesium (Mg). Such changes due to NMDA overstimulation are also associated with not only the altered levels of minerals but also that of trace elements and redox status...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905548/neurexin-regulates-nighttime-sleep-by-modulating-synaptic-transmission
#19
Huawei Tong, Qian Li, Zi Chao Zhang, Yi Li, Junhai Han
Neurexins are cell adhesion molecules involved in synaptic formation and synaptic transmission. Mutations in neurexin genes are linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are frequently associated with sleep problems. However, the role of neurexin-mediated synaptic transmission in sleep regulation is unclear. Here, we show that lack of the Drosophila α-neurexin homolog significantly reduces the quantity and quality of nighttime sleep and impairs sleep homeostasis. We report that neurexin expression in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) αβ neurons is essential for nighttime sleep...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905067/mathematical-model-of-bone-remodeling-captures-the-antiresorptive-and-anabolic-actions-of-various-therapies
#20
David S Ross, Khamir Mehta, Antonio Cabal
A better understanding of the molecular pathways regulating the bone remodeling process should help in the development of new antiresorptive regulators and anabolic regulators, that is, regulators of bone resorption and of bone formation. Understanding the mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) influences bone formation and how it switches from anabolic to catabolic action is important for treating osteoporosis (Poole and Reeve in Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:612-617, 2005). In this paper we describe a mathematical model of bone remodeling that incorporates, extends, and integrates several models of particular aspects of this biochemical system (Cabal et al...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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