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Calcium homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930993/confocal-imaging-of-neuropeptide-y-phluorin-a-technique-to-visualize-insulin-granule-exocytosis-in-intact-murine-and-human-islets
#1
Madina Makhmutova, Tao Liang, Herbert Gaisano, Alejandro Caicedo, Joana Almaça
Insulin secretion plays a central role in glucose homeostasis under normal physiological conditions as well as in disease. Current approaches to study insulin granule exocytosis either use electrophysiology or microscopy coupled to the expression of fluorescent reporters. However most of these techniques have been optimized for clonal cell lines or require dissociating pancreatic islets. In contrast, the method presented here allows for real time visualization of insulin granule exocytosis in intact pancreatic islets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927245/calcium-homeostasis-in-diabetes-mellitus
#2
REVIEW
Changhwan Ahn, Ji-Houn Kang, Eui-Bae Jeung
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a lifestyle-related pandemic disease. Diabetic patients frequently develop electrolyte disorders, especially diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such patients show characteristic potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium depletion. In this review, we discuss a homeostatic mechanism that links calcium and DM. We also provide a synthesis of the evidence in favor or against this linking mechanism by presenting recent clinical indications, mainly from veterinary research...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924233/pharmacological-inhibition-of-camkk2-with-the-selective-antagonist-sto-609-regresses-nafld
#3
Brian York, Feng Li, Fumin Lin, Kathrina L Marcelo, Jianqiang Mao, Adam Dean, Naomi Gonzales, David Gooden, Suman Maity, Cristian Coarfa, Nagireddy Putluri, Anthony R Means
Binding of calcium to its intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) activates a family of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinases. CaMKK2 (Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase 2) is a central member of this kinase family as it controls the actions of a CaMK cascade involving CaMKI, CaMKIV or AMPK. CaMKK2 controls insulin signaling, metabolic homeostasis, inflammation and cancer cell growth highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target for a variety of diseases. STO-609 is a selective, small molecule inhibitor of CaMKK2...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922497/mutual-independence-of-alkaline-and-calcium-mediated-signalling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-refutes-the-existence-of-a-conserved-druggable-signalling-nexus
#4
Omar Loss, Margherita Bertuzzi, Yu Yan, Natalie Fedorova, Bethany L McCann, Darius Armstrong-James, Eduardo A Espeso, Nick D Read, William C Nierman, Elaine M Bignell
Functional coupling of calcium- and alkaline responsive signalling occurs in multiple fungi to afford efficient cation homeostasis. Host microenvironments exert alkaline stress and potentially toxic concentrations of Ca(2+) , such that highly conserved regulators of both calcium- (Crz) and pH- (PacC/Rim) responsive signalling are crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Drugs targeting calcineurin are potent antifungal agents but also perturb human immunity thereby negating their use as anti-infectives, abrogation of alkaline signalling has therefore been postulated as an adjunctive antifungal strategy...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922379/elevating-serotonin-pre-partum-alters-the-holstein-dairy-cow-hepatic-adaptation-to-lactation
#5
Samantha R Weaver, Allan S Prichard, Noah L Maerz, Austin P Prichard, Elizabeth L Endres, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Matthew S Akins, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921001/c3ar-and-c5ar1-act-as-key-regulators-of-human-and-mouse-%C3%AE-cell-function
#6
Patricio Atanes, Inmaculada Ruz-Maldonado, Attilio Pingitore, Ross Hawkes, Bo Liu, Min Zhao, Guo Cai Huang, Shanta J Persaud, Stefan Amisten
AIMS: Complement components 3 and 5 (C3 and C5) play essential roles in the complement system, generating C3a and C5a peptides that are best known as chemotactic and inflammatory factors. In this study we characterised islet expression of C3 and C5 complement components, and the impact of C3aR and C5aR1 activation on islet function and viability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and mouse islet mRNAs encoding key elements of the complement system were quantified by qPCR and distribution of C3 and C5 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry...
September 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919534/glutamate-induced-rapid-induction-of-arc-arg3-1-requires-nmda-receptor-mediated-phosphorylation-of-erk-and-creb
#7
Tao Chen, Jie Zhu, Li-Kun Yang, Yi Feng, Wei Lin, Yu-Hai Wang
Arc/Arg3.1 is a unique immediate early gene whose expression is highly dynamic and correlated with various forms of synaptic plasticity. Many previous reports highlight the complexity of mechanisms that regulate Arc/Arg3.1 expression in neurons. In the present study, the expression and regulation of Arc/Arg3.1 after glutamate treatment in primary cultured cortical neurons were investigated. We found that both Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA and Arc/Arg3.1 protein dynamically increased within 24h after glutamate treatment. The results of immunostaining showed that abundant amounts of Arc/Arg3...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919046/fgf23-activates-injury-primed-renal-fibroblasts-via-fgfr4-dependent-signalling-and-enhancement-of-tgf-%C3%AE-autoinduction
#8
Edward R Smith, Stephen G Holt, Tim D Hewitson
Bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an important endocrine regulator of mineral homeostasis with effects transduced by cognate FGF receptor (FGFR)1-α-Klotho complexes. Circulating FGF23 levels rise precipitously in patients with kidney disease and portend to worse renal and cardiovascular outcomes. De novo expression of FGF23 has been found in the heart and kidney following injury but its significance remains unclear. Studies showing that exposure to chronically high FGF23 concentrations activates hypertrophic gene programmes in the cardiomyocyte, has spawned intense interest in other pathological off-target effects of FGF23 excess...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910660/toxic-effects-of-pb-2-entering-sperm-through-ca-2-channels-in-the-freshwater-crab-sinopotamon-henanense
#9
Na Li, Peng Xu, Wei-Xin Jing, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Lan Wang
Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal that can damage animal sperm. To study the effects of Pb on calcium homeostasis and calcium channel in the sperm of freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense, the induction of acrosome reaction (AR) and acrosin activity were investigated when crabs were exposed to different Pb concentrations (0, 3.675, 7.35, 14.7, 29.4 and 58.8mg/L) for 3, 5 and 7 d separately. Fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM was loaded into the sperm, and [Ca(2+)] in the sperm was measured by fluorescence microscopy and using microplate reader...
September 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906486/small-molecule-rl71-triggered-excessive-autophagic-cell-death-as-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#10
Jian Gao, Minmin Fan, Shuang Peng, Minxia Zhang, Gang Xiang, Xin Li, Wenjie Guo, Yang Sun, Xuefeng Wu, Xudong Wu, Guang Liang, Yan Shen, Qiang Xu
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has an aggressive phenotype and a poor prognosis owing to the high propensity for metastatic progression and the absence of specific targeted treatment. Here, we revealed that small-molecule RL71 targeting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) exhibited potent anti-cancer activity on all TNBC cells tested. Apart from apoptosis induction, RL71 triggered excessive autophagic cell death, the main contributor to RL71-induced TNBC cell death. RL71 augmented the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the cytosol by inhibiting SERCA2 activity...
September 14, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903979/calcium-dependent-o-glcnac-signaling-drives-liver-autophagy-in-adaptation-to-starvation
#11
Hai-Bin Ruan, Yina Ma, Sara Torres, Bichen Zhang, Colleen Feriod, Ryan M Heck, Kevin Qian, Minnie Fu, Xiuqi Li, Michael H Nathanson, Anton M Bennett, Yongzhan Nie, Barbara E Ehrlich, Xiaoyong Yang
Starvation induces liver autophagy, which is thought to provide nutrients for use by other organs and thereby maintain whole-body homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is required for glucagon-stimulated liver autophagy and metabolic adaptation to starvation. Genetic ablation of OGT in mouse livers reduces autophagic flux and the production of glucose and ketone bodies. Upon glucagon-induced calcium signaling, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates OGT, which in turn promotes O-GlcNAc modification and activation of Ulk proteins by potentiating AMPK-dependent phosphorylation...
September 13, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903493/editor-s-highlight-formulation-and-toxicology-evaluation-of-the-intrathecal-ayx1-dna-decoy-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Julien Mamet, David C Yeomans, Tony L Yaksh, Donald C Manning, Scott Harris
The longevity of pain after surgery is debilitating and limits the recovery of patients. AYX1 is a double-stranded, unprotected, 23 base-pair oligonucleotide designed to reduce acute post-surgical pain and prevent its chronification with a single intrathecal perioperative dose. AYX1 mimics the DNA sequence normally bound by EGR1 on chromosomes, a transcription factor transiently induced in the dorsal root ganglia-spinal cord network following a noxious input. AYX1 binds to EGR1 and prevents it from launching waves of gene regulation that are necessary to maintain pain over time...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901272/disorders-of-mechanisms-of-calcium-metabolism-control-as-potential-risk-factors-of-prostate-cancer
#13
Dorota Skrajnowska, Barbara Bobrowska-Korczak, Andrzej Tokarz
Prostate cancer significantly affects the overall morbidity and mortality of malignant tumours in highly developed countries. Important risk factors include family predisposition and regional, racial and dietary determinants. The scientific literature contains a great deal of data on the role of calcium and dairy products in general in the process of neoplastic transformation of the prostate. This is most likely linked to the fact that changes in the concentration of calcium ions control such varied life processes as secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters, the level of cyclic nucleotides, and cell growth, division and differentiation...
September 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900935/metabolic-disorders-and-cancer-hepatocyte-store-operated-ca-2-channels-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Eunüs S Ali, Grigori Y Rychkov, Greg J Barritt
In steatotic hepatocytes, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is substantially altered compared to normal. Decreased Ca(2+) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can lead to ER stress, an important mediator of the progression of liver steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, type 2 diabetes, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) in hepatocytes are composed principally of Orai1 and STIM1 proteins. Their main role is the maintenance of adequate Ca(2+) in the lumen of the ER. In steatotic hepatocytes, store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is substantially inhibited...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900932/neurological-and-motor-disorders-neuronal-store-operated-ca-2-signaling-an-overview-and-its-function
#15
Sunitha Bollimuntha, Biswaranjan Pani, Brij B Singh
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous second messenger that performs significant physiological task such as neurosecretion, exocytosis, neuronal growth/differentiation, and the development and/or maintenance of neural circuits. An important regulatory aspect of neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis is store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) which, in recent years, has gained much attention for influencing a variety of nerve cell responses. Essentially, activation of SOCE ensues following the activation of the plasma membrane (PM) store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCC) triggered by the depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900911/the-stim-orai-pathway-regulation-of-stim-and-orai-by-thiol-modifications
#16
Barbara A Niemeyer
Cysteines are among the least abundant amino acids found in proteins. Due to their unique nucleophilic thiol group, they are able to undergo a broad range of chemical modifications besides their known role in disulfide formation, such as S-sulfenylation (-SOH), S-sulfinylation (-SO(2)H), S-sufonylation (-SO(3)H), S-glutathionylation (-SSG), and S-sulfhydration (-SSH), among others. These posttranslational modifications can be irreversible and act as transitional modifiers or as reversible on-off switches for the function of proteins...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898923/repurposing-a-novel-parathyroid-hormone-pth-analog-to-treat-hypoparathyroidism
#17
Venkatesh Krishnan, Yanfei L Ma, Catherine Z Chen, Natasha Thorne, Heather Bullock, Gregory Tawa, Christy Javella-Cauley, Shaoyou Chu, Weiming Li, Wayne Kohn, Mary D Adrian, Charles Benson, Lifei Liu, Masahiko Sato, Wei Zheng, Andre M Pilon, N Nora Yang, Henry U Bryant
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human parathyroid hormone (PTH) is critical for maintaining physiologic calcium homeostasis, and plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of bone. Full-length PTH and a truncated peptide form are approved for treatment of hypoparathyroidism and osteoporosis, respectively. Our initial goal was to develop an improved PTH therapy for osteoporosis, but clinical development was halted. The novel asset was then repurposed as an improved therapy for hypoparathyroidism...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898616/the-calcium-phosphorus-homeostasis-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-clinical-epidemiology-to-pathophysiology
#18
Ana Pires, Luis Sobrinho, Hugo Gil Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: A simple data filtering process together with some basic concepts of control theory applied to electronically stored clinical data were used to identify some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the perturbations of the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective data (a set per patient of serum single value concentrations of creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) from 2507 patients with stable chronic kidney disease not on renal replacement therapy were studied...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895880/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-thyroid-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Dohee Kim
The main role of vitamin D is regulating bone metabolism and calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Over the past few decades, the importance of vitamin D in non-skeletal actions has been studied, including the role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases, metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, and all-cause mortality. Recent evidence has demonstrated an association between low vitamin D status and autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, and impaired vitamin D signaling has been reported in thyroid cancers...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895869/amiloride-interferes-with-platelet-activating-factor-induced-respiratory-burst-and-mmp-9-release-in-bovine-neutrophils-independent-of-na-h-exchanger-1
#20
C S Larrazabal, M D Carretta, M A Hidalgo, R A Burgos
Cytoplasmic pH homeostasis is required for an appropriate response in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). In these cells, chemotaxis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are reduced by the use of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-1) inhibitors, but these results are mainly obtained using amiloride, a non-selective NHE-1 inhibitor. In bovine PMNs, the role of NHE-1 in functional responses has not been confirmed yet. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NHE-1 using amiloride and zoniporide in pH regulation, ROS production, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) release and calcium flux in bovine PMNs induced by the platelet activation factor (PAF), additionally we evaluated the presence of NHE-1 and NHE-2 mRNA Our data show the presence only of NHE-1 but not NHE-2 in bovine PMNs...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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