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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691958/brain-based-treatment-a-new-approach-or-a-well-forgotten-old-one
#1
Vanya Matanova, Zlatomira Kostova, Martin Kolev
For a relatively long period of time, mental functioning was mainly associated with personal profile while brain functioning went by the wayside. After the 90s of the 20th century, or the so called "Decade of the Brain", today, contemporary specialists work on the boundary between fundamental science and medicine. This brings neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy closer to each other. Today, we definitely know that brain structures are being built and altered thanks to experience...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691465/longitudinal-two-photon-imaging-in-somatosensory-cortex-of-behaving-mice-reveals-dendritic-spine-formation-enhancement-by-subchronic-administration-of-low-dose-ketamine
#2
Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Ekaterina Mugantseva, Plinio Casarotto, Julia Kolikova, Senem Merve Fred, Dmytro Toptunov, Ramil Afzalov, Pirta Hotulainen, Vootele Voikar, Ryan Terry-Lorenzo, Sharon Engel, Sergei Kirov, Eero Castren, Leonard Khiroug
Ketamine, a well-known anesthetic, has recently attracted renewed attention as a fast-acting antidepressant. A single dose of ketamine induces rapid synaptogenesis, which may underlie its antidepressant effect. To test whether repeated exposure to ketamine triggers sustained synaptogenesis, we administered a sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg i.p.) once-daily for 5 days, and repeatedly imaged dendritic spines of the YFP-expressing pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex of awake female mice using in vivo two-photon microscopy...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691362/neurotropism-and-behavioral-changes-associated-with-zika-infection-in-the-vector-aedes-aegypti
#3
Julie Gaburro, Asim Bhatti, Jenni Harper, Isabelle Jeanne, Megan Dearnley, Diane Green, Saeid Nahavandi, Prasad N Paradkar, Jean-Bernard Duchemin
Understanding Zika virus infection dynamics is essential, as its recent emergence revealed possible devastating neuropathologies in humans, thus causing a major threat to public health worldwide. Recent research allowed breakthrough in our understanding of the virus and host pathogenesis; however, little is known on its impact on its main vector, Aedes aegypti. Here we show how Zika virus targets Aedes aegypti's neurons and induces changes in its behavior. Results are compared to dengue virus, another flavivirus, which triggers a different pattern of behavioral changes...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691331/gabaergic-local-interneurons-shape-female-fruit-fly-response-to-mating-songs
#4
Daichi Yamada, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Xiaodong Li, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yuki Ishikawa, Azusa Kamikouchi
Many animals use acoustic signals to attract a potential mating partner. In fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ), the courtship pulse song has a species-specific inter-pulse interval (IPI) that activates mating. Although a series of auditory neurons in the fly brain exhibit different tuning patterns to IPIs, it is unclear how the response of each neuron is tuned. Here we studied the neural circuitry regulating the activity of AMMC-B1 neurons, key secondary auditory neurons in the excitatory neural pathway that relay song information...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691328/genetic-ablation-of-all-cerebellins-reveals-synapse-organizer-functions-in-multiple-regions-throughout-the-brain
#5
Erica Seigneur, Thomas C Südhof
Cerebellins are synaptic organizer molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic receptors. Cerebellins are well studied in cerebellum, but three of the four cerebellins (Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4) are also broadly expressed outside of the cerebellum, suggesting that they perform general functions throughout the brain. Here we generated male and female single, double, and triple constitutive KO mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4. We found that all constitutive cerebellin-deficient mice are viable and fertile, suggesting that cerebellins are not essential for survival...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691324/suppression-of-costimulation-by-human-cytomegalovirus-promotes-evasion-of-cellular-immune-defenses
#6
Eddie C Y Wang, Mariana Pjechova, Katie Nightingale, Virginia-Maria Vlahava, Mihil Patel, Eva Ruckova, Simone K Forbes, Luis Nobre, Robin Antrobus, Dawn Roberts, Ceri A Fielding, Sepehr Seirafian, James Davies, Isa Murrell, Betty Lau, Gavin S Wilkie, Nicolás M Suárez, Richard J Stanton, Borivoj Vojtesek, Andrew Davison, Paul J Lehner, Michael P Weekes, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Peter Tomasec
CD58 is an adhesion molecule that is known to play a critical role in costimulation of effector cells and is intrinsic to immune synapse structure. Herein, we describe a virally encoded gene that inhibits CD58 surface expression. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL148 was necessary and sufficient to promote intracellular retention of CD58 during HCMV infection. Blocking studies with antagonistic anti-CD58 mAb and an HCMV UL148 deletion mutant (HCMV∆UL148) with restored CD58 expression demonstrated that the CD2/CD58 axis was essential for the recognition of HCMV-infected targets by CD8+ HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691318/control-of-motor-coordination-by-astrocytic-tonic-gaba-release-through-modulation-of-excitation-inhibition-balance-in-cerebellum
#7
Junsung Woo, Joo Ok Min, Dae-Si Kang, Yoo Sung Kim, Guk Hwa Jung, Hyun Jung Park, Sunpil Kim, Heeyoung An, Jea Known, Jeongyeon Kim, Insop Shim, Hyung-Gun Kim, C Justin Lee, Bo-Eun Yoon
Tonic inhibition in the brain is mediated through an activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors by the tonically released GABA, resulting in a persistent GABAergic inhibitory action. It is one of the key regulators for neuronal excitability, exerting a powerful action on excitation/inhibition balance. We have previously reported that astrocytic GABA, synthesized by monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), mediates tonic inhibition via GABA-permeable bestrophin 1 (Best1) channel in the cerebellum. However, the role of astrocytic GABA in regulating neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and cerebellar brain function has remained elusive...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689341/calcium-dependent-activator-protein-for-secretion-2-cadps2-deficiency-causes-abnormal-synapse-development-in-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-terminals
#8
Yo Shinoda, Tetsushi Sadakata, Takumi Akagi, Yuriko Sakamaki, Tsutomu Hashikawa, Yoshitake Sano, Teiichi Furuichi
Hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) project from dentate gyrus granule cells onto the CA2-CA3 region. MF-mediated synaptic transmission plays an important role in hippocampal learning and memory. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MF synaptic development and subsequent functional organization are not fully understood. We previously reported that calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2, also known as CAPS2) regulates the secretion of dense-core vesicles (DCVs). Because CADPS2 is strongly expressed in MF terminals, we hypothesized that CADPS2 regulates the development and functional organization of MF synapses by controlling the secretion of DCVs and their contents...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688792/super-resolution-imaging-of-drosophila-tissues-using-expansion-microscopy
#9
Nan Jiang, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Tyler J Chozinski, Jorge E Azpurua, Benjamin A Eaton, Joshua C Vaughan, Jay Z Parrish
The limited resolving power of conventional diffraction-limited microscopy hinders analysis of small, densely packed structural elements in cells. Expansion Microscopy (ExM) provides an elegant solution to this problem, allowing for increased resolution with standard microscopes via physical expansion of the specimen in a swellable polymer hydrogel. Here, we apply, validate, and optimize ExM protocols that enable the study of Drosophila embryos, larval brains, and larval and adult body walls. We achieve a lateral resolution of ∼70 nm in Drosophila tissues using a standard confocal microscope, and we use ExM to analyze fine intracellular structures and intercellular interactions...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688171/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-enhances-corticospinal-synaptic-plasticity-in-humans
#10
Lasse Christiansen, M A Urbin, Gordon S Mitchell, Monica A Perez
Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) enhances voluntary motor output in humans with central nervous system damage. The neural mechanisms contributing to these beneficial effects are unknown. We examined corticospinal function by evaluating motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by cortical and subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons and the activity in intracortical circuits in a finger muscle before and after 30 min of AIH or sham AIH. We found that the amplitude of cortically and subcortically elicited MEPs increased for 75 min after AIH but not sham AIH while intracortical activity remained unchanged...
April 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687712/chitosan-based-polysaccharide-gated-flexible-indium-tin-oxide-synaptic-transistor-with-learning-abilities
#11
Fei Yu, Li Qiang Zhu, Wan Tian Gao, Yang Ming Fu, Hui Xiao, Jian Tao, Ju Mei Zhou
Recently, surrounding friendly electronic devices are attracting increasing interests. "Green" artificial synapses with learning abilities are also interesting for neuromorphic platforms. Here, solution processed chitosan-based polysaccharide electrolyte gated indium tin oxide (ITO) synaptic transistors are fabricated on PET substrate. Good transistor performances against mechanical stress are observed. Short-term synaptic plasticities are mimicked on the proposed ITO synaptic transistor. When applying pre-synaptic and post-synaptic spikes on gate electrode and drain electrode respectively, spiking timing dependent plasticity function is mimicked on the synaptic transistor...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686427/a-mobile-endocytic-network-connects-clathrin-independent-receptor-endocytosis-to-recycling-and-promotes-t-cell-activation
#12
Ewoud B Compeer, Felix Kraus, Manuela Ecker, Gregory Redpath, Mayan Amiezer, Nils Rother, Philip R Nicovich, Natasha Kapoor-Kaushik, Qiji Deng, Guerric P B Samson, Zhengmin Yang, Jieqiong Lou, Michael Carnell, Haig Vartoukian, Katharina Gaus, Jérémie Rossy
Endocytosis of surface receptors and their polarized recycling back to the plasma membrane are central to many cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, basolateral polarity of epithelial cells and T cell activation. Little is known about the mechanisms that control the organization of recycling endosomes and how they connect to receptor endocytosis. Here, we follow the endocytic journey of the T cell receptor (TCR), from internalization at the plasma membrane to recycling back to the immunological synapse...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686261/synaptic-nanomodules-underlie-the-organization-and-plasticity-of-spine-synapses
#13
Martin Hruska, Nathan Henderson, Sylvain J Le Marchand, Haani Jafri, Matthew B Dalva
Experience results in long-lasting changes in dendritic spine size, yet how the molecular architecture of the synapse responds to plasticity remains poorly understood. Here a combined approach of multicolor stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) and confocal imaging in rat and mouse demonstrates that structural plasticity is linked to the addition of unitary synaptic nanomodules to spines. Spine synapses in vivo and in vitro contain discrete and aligned subdiffraction modules of pre- and postsynaptic proteins whose number scales linearly with spine size...
April 23, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686062/synaptic-adhesion-protein-elfn1-is-a-selective-allosteric-modulator-of-group-iii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-trans
#14
Henry A Dunn, Dipak N Patil, Yan Cao, Cesare Orlandi, Kirill A Martemyanov
Functional characterization of the GPCR interactome has been focused predominantly on intracellular interactions, yet GPCRs are increasingly found in complex with extracellular proteins. Extracellular leucine-rich repeat fibronectin type III domain containing 1 (ELFN1) was recently reported to physically anchor mGluR6 and mGluR7 across retinal and hippocampal synapses, respectively; however, the consequence of transsynaptic interactions on properties and pharmacology of these receptors are unknown. In the current study, we explore the effects of ELFN1 on mGluR signaling and pharmacology...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685133/integrative-bioinformatics-analysis-characterizing-the-role-of-edc3-in-mrna-decay-and-its-association-to-intellectual-disability
#15
Ute Scheller, Kathrin Pfisterer, Steffen Uebe, Arif B Ekici, André Reis, Rami Jamra, Fulvia Ferrazzi
BACKGROUND: Decapping of mRNA is an important step in the regulation of mRNA turnover and therefore of gene expression, which is a key process controlling development and homeostasis of all organisms. It has been shown that EDC3 plays a role in mRNA decapping, however its function is not well understood. Previously, we have associated a homozygous variant in EDC3 with autosomal recessive intellectual disability. Here, we investigate the functional role of EDC3. METHODS: We performed transcriptome analyses in patients' samples...
April 23, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684336/pka-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-mediates-propofol-induced-long-term-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-hippocampus-of-rats
#16
Yu Zhong, Jing Chen, Li Li, Yi Qin, Yi Wei, Shining Pan, Yage Jiang, Jialin Chen, Yubo Xie
Studies have found that propofol can induce widespread neuroapoptosis in developing brains, which leads to cause long-term learning and memory abnormalities. However, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying propofol-induced neuroapoptosis remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in propofol-induced long-term learning and memory impairment during brain development. Seven-day-old rats were randomly assigned to control, intralipid and three treatment groups (n = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683438/visualizing-the-actin-and-microtubule-cytoskeletons-at-the-b-cell-immune-synapse-using-stimulated-emission-depletion-sted-microscopy
#17
Jia C Wang, Madison Bolger-Munro, Michael R Gold
B cells that bind to membrane-bound antigens (e.g., on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell) form an immune synapse, a specialized cellular structure that optimizes B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and BCR-mediated antigen acquisition. Both the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the reorientation of the microtubule network towards the antigen contact site are essential for immune synapse formation. Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton into a dense peripheral ring of F-actin is accompanied by polarization of the microtubule-organizing center towards the immune synapse...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683423/optical-detection-of-three-modes-of-endocytosis-at-hippocampal-synapses
#18
Natali L Chanaday, Ege T Kavalali
Coupling of synaptic vesicle fusion and retrieval constitutes a core mechanism ensuring maintenance of presynaptic function. Recent studies using fast-freeze electron microscopy and capacitance measurements reported an ultrafast mode of endocytosis operating at physiological temperatures. Here, using rat hippocampal neurons, we optically monitored single synaptic vesicle endocytosis with high time resolution using the vesicular glutamate transporter, synaptophysin and the V0a1 subunit of the vacuolar ATPase as probes...
April 23, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681902/imaging-polarized-secretory-traffic-at-the-immune-synapse-in-living-t-lymphocytes
#19
REVIEW
Víctor Calvo, Manuel Izquierdo
Immune synapse (IS) formation by T lymphocytes constitutes a crucial event involved in antigen-specific, cellular and humoral immune responses. After IS formation by T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, the convergence of secretory vesicles toward the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and MTOC polarization to the IS are involved in polarized secretion at the synaptic cleft. This specialized mechanism appears to specifically provide the immune system with a fine strategy to increase the efficiency of crucial secretory effector functions of T lymphocytes, while minimizing non-specific, cytokine-mediated stimulation of bystander cells, target cell killing and activation-induced cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681796/surface-expression-function-and-pharmacology-of-disease-associated-mutations-in-the-membrane-domain-of-the-human-glun2b-subunit
#20
Vojtech Vyklicky, Barbora Krausova, Jiri Cerny, Marek Ladislav, Tereza Smejkalova, Bohdan Kysilov, Miloslav Korinek, Sarka Danacikova, Martin Horak, Hana Chodounska, Eva Kudova, Ladislav Vyklicky
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), glutamate-gated ion channels, mediate signaling at the majority of excitatory synapses in the nervous system. Recent sequencing data for neurological and psychiatric patients have indicated numerous mutations in genes encoding for NMDAR subunits. Here, we present surface expression, functional, and pharmacological analysis of 11 de novo missense mutations of the human hGluN2B subunit (P553L; V558I; W607C; N615I; V618G; S628F; E657G; G820E; G820A; M824R; L825V) located in the pre-M1, M1, M2, M3, and M4 membrane regions...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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